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Full text of "A dictionary of the English language, for the use of schools, and for general reference .."

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Class, rulio 18 
Book <u3 



DICTIONARY 

L 



OF THE ^ V 6*^- 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE, j 

FOR THE 

USE OF SCHOOLS, AND FOR GENERAL REFERENCE ; 

WITH THE PRINCIPLES OF 

PRONUNCIATION, OETHOGEAPHY, AND ETYMOLOGY, 

• FULLY EXPLAINED, AND PRACTICALLY ILLUSTRATED : 

TO WHICH ARE ADDED, 

A VOCABULARY OE SCRIPTURE PROPER NAMES. 

ACCENTED AND DIVIDED FOR PRONUNCIATION ; 

AND 

A CONCISE CLASSICAL DICTIONARY. 

WITH APPENDIX OF ADDITIONAL WORDS. 



ROBERT N SULLIVAN, LL.D., T.C.D., 




DUBLIN: 



ALEXANDER THOM $ SONS, PRINTERS AND PUBLISHERS, 
87, ABBEY-STREET. 

SOLD BY LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS, LONDON; 
FRASER & CO., EDINBURGH; AND ALL BOOKSELLERS. 



1854. 



P E E F A C E. 






The great object which the compiler of this work had iu view was, 
to enable the publisher to supply the teachers and pupils of the 
National Schools in Ireland with a complete dictionary of the 
English language, at a price commensurate with their humble means. 
In order to effect this, he saw that it would be necessary to bring the 
work within the smallest possible dimensions, consistent with its com- 
pleteness as a dictionary. And this, he conceives, he has effected; 
for, notwithstanding the smallness of its size, it will be found to 
contain all the authorized words given in the largest and most recent 
works on the subject. In fact, it contains between two and three 
thousand words more than Walees's, which has been so long re- 
garded as one of the standard dictionaries of the English language ; 
and though the meanings or explanations of the words have been 
necessarily abridged and condensed, yet they will be found quite as 
full as in the standard work just mentioned. 

The small, but clear and distinct type, with which the work has 
been printed, has contributed much to the attainment of the object 
which the compiler had in view. It is, however, chiefly owing to the 
simple, but novel plan, on which it has been drawn up, that he ha? 
been enabled to combine, in the same dictionary, those very desirable, 
but difficult, and apparently incompatible qualities, conciseness and 
completeness. Instead of giving the pronunciation, and what is called 
the etymology, of every word, as is usual in our larger dictionaries, 
he has, by omitting both in the body of the work, economized space 
to an almost incredible extent. These omissions, which at first view 
must seem great defects, he has fully supplied in another part of the 
work, in which will be found, arranged in alphabetical order, all the 
difficult and irregular words in the language, with rules for their 
pronunciation ; and also, almost every thing that is practically useful 
in etymology, under the head of Derivation. 

As at least nine out of every ten words in the English language are 
regular in their pronunciation, that is, are pronounced according to 
the usual sounds of the letters in the alphabet, it is surely unnecessary 
to write down the pronunciation of each, as is done in Walker's 
and Sheridan's dictionaries. It is quite sufficient, one would think, 

a2 



fco draw the attention of the learner to the difficult and irregular 
words, and to supply him with practical rules for their pronunciation. 
This has been done in the present work ; and if the learner makes 
himself acquainted with the pronunciation of these words, which are 
comparatively few in number, he will be able to pronounce all the 
other words in the language without difficulty. In fact, he will only 
have to attend to the position of the accent, and the usual sound of 
the letters. 

And what can be more unsatisfactory than the etymological 
information given in our English dictionaries ?* Even in the 
voluminous and celebrated work of Dr. Johnson, the amount of 
information on this important and interesting branch of lexicography, 
scarcely ever exceeds a Latin or French word, par parenihese. JSTow, 
of what use is the mere indication of the root ? To those who know 
any thing of the learned languages, such information is unnecessary ; 
and to those who do not, it is useless, — unless, indeed, the primary 
meaning, and secondary applications of the term referred to, be fully 
and clearly explained. On this subject Horne Tooke has truly 
said — " It is a trifling etymology that barely refers us to some word 
m another language, either the same or similar, unless the meaning 
of the word, and cause of its imposition, can be discovered by such a 
reference." 

Instead, therefore, of following the usual plan of merely indicating 
the root of the w r ords, which would have occupied much space to 
little purpose, the compiler has, as he said before, given almost 
every thing that is practically useful in etymology, under the head of 
derivation. Many of the " English etymologies" will be found 
novel, and, it is hoped, interesting ; and the Latin and Greek roots 
which he has selected and illustrated, are those by which the English 
language has been most enriched. 



* With the exception of Dr. Richardson's, which is the only one in the language 
that deserves the title of an English Etymological Dictionary. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

The Alphabet — Saxon, Old English, Roman, &c, i 

The Sounds or Powers of the Letters : — • 

Vowels, ........... ii 

Diphthongs and Triphthongs, vi 

Consonants, ........... xi 

Orthoepy, or the correct Pronunciation of Words, . * . . . xv 
A Collection of all the Difficult and Irregular Words in the Language, 

with Practical Rules for their Pronunciation, xxv 

Orthography, xxxvii 

Practical Rules for Spelling, xxxviii 

A Collection of Words of Unsettled Orthography, .... xl 
Words Spelled in Two or more Ways by different and even the same 

Writers ; with an attempt to settle their Orthography, . . . xlii 

Words similar in Sound, but differing in Spelling and Signification, . xlvi 
Derivation : — 

Prefixes and Affixes, xlviii 

English Etymologies, Ii 

Latin and Greek Roots, ........ lxiv 

Latin and Greek Words and Phrases Explained, ..... lxxxvi 

French, Italian, and other Foreign Words and Phrases in Common Use, 

Pronounced and Explained, lxxxix 

The Dictionary, 1 

Pronunciation of Scripture Names, 351 

Classical Dictionary, 358 



SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS EXPLAINED. 



This sign — denotes a long sound or syllable. 

This sign ~ denotes a short sound or syllable. 

This mark ', which is called the acute accent, denotes the syllable on which the 
principal accent or stress is to be laid. This mark over a vowel denotes that 
it has its long sound ; but when placed immediately after a consonant, it indi- 
cates that the preceding vowel has its shut or short sound. See page ii. 

When a vowel has a secondary accent, this mark " denotes the principal one. See 
page xx. When there is no other accent marked in the same word, this sign 
denotes that the consonant before which it is placed, coalesces in the pronunci- 
ation with the vowel following it ; as in a"gitate and addi"tion, which are pro- 
nounced aj'itate and addish'on. 



a. stands f 


or adjective. 


ad. stands for adverb. 


s. „ 


substantive. 


conj. 


jj 


conjunction. 


«. „ 


verb. 


int. 


» 


interjection. 


P- » 


participle. 


Lat. 


„ 


Latin. 


pr. „ 


pronoun. 


Gr. 


w 


Greek. 


prep. „ 


preposition. 


It. 


» 


Italian, 



PRINCIPLES OP PRONUNCIATION. 



THE ENGLISH ALPHABET.* 



Saxon. 


Old English. 


Roman. 


Italic. 


Writing. 


Name. 


Cap. Small. 


Cap. Small. 


Cap. 


SmalL 


Cap. 


SmalL 


Cap. Small. 




X a 


a a 


A 


a 


A 


a 


<%/ a 


at. 


B b 


93 ft 


B 


b 


B 


b 


& <f 


bee. 


n c 


<E c 


C 


c 


C 


c 


& c 


see. 


D * 


33 * 


D 


d 


D 


d 


m r/ 


dee. 


e e 


IS e 


E 


e 


E 


e 


$ e 


ee. 


E F 


tf t 


F 


f 


F 


f 


*V 


ef- 


n 5 
P h 




G 
H 


g 
h 


G 

H 


9 
h 




j'ee. 

aitch. 


I i 


* t 


I 


i 


I 


i 


J? 4 


i or eye. 


* * 


3 J 
U ft 


J 
K 


i 

k 


J 
K 


J 
k 




hay. 


L 1 


& X 


L 


1 


L 


I 


& / 


el. 


CD m 


jm m 


M 


m 


M 


m 


isfS m 


em. 


N n 


NT n 


N 


n 


N 


n 


Jf n 


en. 


o 


© 








O 





<r 


0. 


P p 

• • 

R p. 


2£ x 


P 
Q 

R 


P 
1 
r 


P 

Q 

R 


P 

q 

r 




pee. 
cue. 
ar. 


s r 


S »• 


S 


s 


S 


s 


6? 4 


ess. 


T t 


€ t 


T 


t 


T 


t 


<r 4 


tee. 


U u 


® u 


U 


u 


U 


u 


U <t 


u or you. 


* * 


V b 


V 


V 


V 


V 


W V 


vee. 


Ul p 


TO to 


W 


w 


w 


w 


T «> 


double u. 


X x 


£ X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


& & 


eks. 


Y y 
Z z 


* 8 


Y 
Z 


7 
z 


Y 

z 


y 

z 




toy. 
zed 



* Tho term Alphabet is derived from Alpha, Beta, the first two letters of the Greek 
alphabet; just as we say the "A. B. C." for all the letters; and Abecedarian, for a 
teacher of the Alphabet. 

The order of the letters in the Alphabet appears to have been a matter of chance ; nor 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 



THE SOUNDS OR POWERS OF THE LETTERS. 



VOWELS. 

The sounds of the vowels may he reduced to their long or open 
sounds ; their short or shut sounds ; their obscure or unaccented sounds; 
and their incidental or irregular sounds. 

1. A vowel has its long sound when under the accent; as a in 
fatal, e in legal, % in title, 6 in notice, and u in duty. A vowel has also its 
long sound in monosyllables ending in e mute preceded by a single * 
consonant ; as 5 in. fate, e in mete, i in pine, o in note, and u in tube. The 
only exceptions seem to be, have, are, gape, bade, where (whare), there 
(thare), ere (air), were, give, live, gone, shone ; and words like love, dove, 
&c, in which o has the sound of short u. 

2. A vowel has its short sound when it is followed by a consonant 
which shuts or abruptly terminates its sound ; as a in fat, e in met, i in 
]>i?i, o in not, and u in tub. This is always the case in monosyllables 
ending in a single consonant, as in the examples just given. A vowel has 
also its shut or short sound when it is followed by an accented con- 
sonant in the same syllable ; as a in balance, e in felon, i in military, o 
in nov'el, and u in pun/ish. It has, also, its short sound, when it is fol- 
lowed by two or more consonants ; as in canvass, membrane, timbrel, 
mortal, and pungent.^ 

3. When a vowel has neither its long or open sound, nor its short J. 
or shut sound, as in the foregoing cases, it has an obscure or indistinct 
sound, particularly when it follows an accented syllable ; as the 
second a in cab'bage and ab'bacy ; e in open and battery ; i in ruin and 
ability ; o in actor and felony ; and u in Arth'ur and sulph'ury. 

It is evident that in such examples as the preceding, the unaccented vowel has a sound 
so obscure that its place might be supplied by any of the other vowels without producing 
any very perceptible change in the pronunciation of the word. For example, the a in 
cab'bage and the u in Arth'ur might be changed into any of the other vowels without 
causing any material change in the pronunciation of the syllable (as in cab'bfge, cabbige, 
cab'boge, cab'buge; Arth'ar, Arth'er, Arth'ir, Arth'or). Hence the inutility of marking 
the sounds of the vowels in such positions. — See No. 75. 

4. As no general rule can be given with regard to the incidental or 
irregular sounds of the vowels, we shall briefly notice them under 
each letter in order. 

is it of much consequence how they are arranged. Some writers, however, have urged a 
new and philosophical arrangement. The vowels, they insist, should take precedence of 
the consonants, and be marshalled with regard to each other, according to the aperture 
which each demands of the mouth to give it due utterance ; while the consonants should 
be arranged with reference to the organs which are chiefly employed in giving them 
utterance ; as the lips, the teeth, the throat, &c. 

This would certainly be a more rational arrangement of the letters ; but it is now too 
late to make such alterations. 

It is remarkable that the letter A holds the first place in every alphabet ; perhaps be- 
cause the open sound, as in the word father, is the simplest and easiest of all sounds. It 
is the first articulate sound which children make, as in the words papa, mamma ; arid in 
almost every language, except the English, this is the only sound of a. 

* In change, mange, range, strange; chaste, haste, paste, and a few similar words, the 
a is long, though two consonants follow. 

+ In ancient, angel, chamber, cambric, and Cambridge, the a has its long sound, though 
followed by two consonants. 

% The obscure sounds of the vowels are also short, and more or less so according to theii 
position; but they differ from the shut sounds in being less distinct. 






SOUNDS OR POWERS OF THE VOWELS. M 

A. 

5. A has in addition to its long slender English * sound, as in fate 
andp^per, and its short Italian sound, as in fat and mttr'ry, two other 
sounds, namely, its long Italian sound, as in^r and father, and its broad 
German sound, as in full and water. 

a. A has its long Italian sound before r in monosyllables, as in far, bard, starve; and 
also, before Im, If, or Iv, when the I is silent, as in calm, alms, calf, half, calve, halve. 

b. When a is followed by II, Id, Ik, or It, it has the broad German sound, as in call, 
bald, walk, salt. The only exceptions seem to be shall, mall, and Pall-mall (a street in 
London) which is pronounced Pell-mell'. It has also the broad German sound in appal, 
palsy, false (and its compounds) ; also in enthral, f thraldom, albeit, almost, also, although, 
altogether, and always. A has also the broad German sound between wand r, as in ivarm, 
swarm; and generally after w, as in swab, swan, wan, want, was, what, watch. Also, 
when it is preceded by a letter sounded like w, as u in quantity and quality. 

c. By substituting 6 for a in any of the preceding examples, as in swab and swan (swob, 
swan,) it will be evident that the broad German sound of a is almost the same as short o. 
Compare also the sound of the diphthong au, as in laurel and daughter. 

d. In the unaccented terminations acb, age, as in furnace and cabbage, a has its 
obscure sound, and consequently differs very little from the obscure or unaccented sound 
of any of the other vowels. This is the effect of the accent on the preceding syllable. The 
a in the unaccented termination ate is similarly affected, as in climate. — Seo No. 75. 

e. In the words any, many,t Pall-mall, Thames, the a is pronounced like short e, as in 
viet. In are, it is pronounced as in far; and in bade, gape, and have, it has the short 
bound as in fat. 



6. E, as has been stated in the general rule about rowels, has a long 
sound, as in mete and legal ; and a short sound, as in met and mellow. 

a. Before d, I, or n, in a final unaccented syllable, as in loved, revel, fallen, the short 
sound of e becomes so obscure that in some cases it is scarcely perceptible. Hence, in the 
past tense and past participle of verbs ending in ed, the e is scarcely ever pronounced, ex- 
cept in solemn and formal speaking. It must also of necessity be pronounced when it is 
preceded by d or I, as in the words afforded and hated. § In such words as fallen and 
stolen, therefore, the e is scarcely audible, and in mown, sown, thrown, seen, and several 
others, it has been entirely omitted. 

b. Tho preceding observations apply to the termination le,\\ as in handle and bottle, in 

* The a slender is the proper English a, called by Erpenius in his Arabic Grammar, 
a Anglicum cum e mistum, as having a middle sound between the open a and e. — 
Dr. Johnson. 

t Enthral. In this, and the following words, al is pronounced all, as formerly written. 

% We would rather pronounce these words an'ny and man'ny. En'ny and men'ny sa- 
vour of affectation. 

§ Formerly it was the practice to omit the e in writing, and to mark its absence by an 
apostrophe, as in the vtOTdfollow'd ; but this is no longer dene except by persons of " the 
old school." 

II The termination le has sadly puzzled the lexicographers. Walker calls it "a monster 
in grammar, a syllable without a vowel 1" But the error is in the orthography, and not in 
the pronunciation. The original and proper position of the e was before the I, and it is still 
pronounced as if it were in that position, for the sound of I is le, and not el. Ask a person 
ignorant of the proper orthography of the word model, for instance, to spell it, and he will 
be as likely to make it end in le (moddle), as in el (model). In fact, the mistake is so 
natural a one that even good spoilers sometimes fall into it. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that our old writers should have made so many similar mistakes ; particularly when wo 
recollect that they were so careless and incorrect in their orthography that they frequently 
spelled tho same word in different ways, even in the same page. The same observation's 
apply to re in an unaccented final syllable. It was originally written er, and it is still so 
pronounced. The following couplet from Chaucer exemplifies the old method of spelling 
such words : 

" But all be that he was a philosopJire, 
Yet hadde he but litel gold In cojfre." 

In such words as acre and massacre the transposition was necessary to preserve c hard 
Massacre is sometimes pronounced by the common people as it is written [massacree). 

a 3 



It 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 



which e and I have hy a careless orthography — or hy what grammarians call metathesis—' 
changed places. The same may be said of the termination re ; as in centre, sabre, and 
metre, in which r and e have evidently changed places. 

c. In the words clerk, sergeant, Derby, Berkeley, and a few other proper names, e is 
pronounced like a in far. Sheridan has given a similar pronunciation to the e in merchant, 
hut it would now be considered affected or vulgar. Compare the vulgar pronunciation of 
the words se?-ve (sarv), service, servant, vermin, &c. 

d. E is mute at the end of a word, except in monosyllables that have no other vowel, as 
in me, he, be, we; and in words adopted without alteration from the learned languages, as 
epitome, simile, finale. But though e at the end of English words does not constitute an 
additional syllable, yet it modifies or lengthens the preceding vowel ; as in fat, fate ; met, 
mete; pin, pine ; not, note; tub, tube. 



I. 

7. /, as has been already observed, has two sounds ; namely, its long 
diphthongal sound as in pine and title; and its short simple sound, as in 
pin and tit'tle. 

a. In a few words, i before r has the sound of short ii; as in bird, dirt, first, sir, stir, 
third, thirty, thirst; and in a few others it is sounded like short e, as in birth, mirth, fir, 
girl, virtue. But in these, and in all similar words, it would be better to give i its own 
short unaccented sound, which indeed differs little from short e; and such is the present 
tendency. In birch, dirk, flirt, squirt, spirt, for instance, i has recovered its proper sound, 
though these words are pronounced in Walker, burch, durk,flurt, sqwurt, spurt. 

b. In the following words which are derived chiefly from the French language, the French 
or foreign sound of i has been retained. This sound of i coincides with the long sound of 
e in English, as in the word me ; 

Antique. 

Bom basin. 

Brazil. 

Caprice. 

Capuchin. 

Chagrin. 

c. In certain situations i takes the sound of initial y ; as in the words pin' ion, min'ion, 
auxiliary, incend'iary, which are pronounced pin'-yon, min'-yon, auxil'-yary, incend'-yary. 
This is produced by the influence of the preceding accent, which, leaves the i to take its in- 
itial or y sound in the syllable that follows. — See No. 75. 

d. In the unaccented terminations ice, ile, ine, ise, and ite, as in no'tice, fertile, 
gen'uine,fran'chise, and res'pite, the i is usually short ; and in the unaccented termina- 
tion ive, as in motive, it is always so. This is the effect of the accent on the preceding 
syllable. — See No. 79. 



Chemise. 


Oblique. 


Profile. 


Ravine. 


Critique. 


Palanquin. 


Quarantine. 


Recitative. 


Fatigue. 


Pelisse. 


Machine. 


Routine. 


Glacis. 


Pique. 


Marine. 


Tambourine. 


Intrigue. 


Piquant. 


Magazine. 


Tontine. 


Invalid. 


Police. 


Mandarin. 


Unique. 



0. 

8. O, as has been stated in the general rule about vowels, has two 
sounds; namely, its long sound, as in note and noble; and its short sound, 
as in not and ob'ject. 

a. In the following words, and perhaps a few others, short o has acquired the sound of 
short ii, {above being pronounced abiiv ; affront, affriint, &c.) : 



Above. 


Compass. 


Dost. 


Month. 


Somerset. 


Affront. 


Comrade. 


Dove. 


Mother. 


Son. 


Among. 


Combat. 


Dozen. 


None. 


Sovereign. 


Amongst. 


Comfrey. 


Dromedary. 


Nothing. 


Sponge. 


Attorney. 


Conduit. 


Front. 


One. 


Stomach. 


Bomb. 


Coney. 


Glove. 


Onion. 


Thorough. 


Bombard. 


Conjure. 


Govern. 


Other. 


Ton. 


Borough. 


Constable. 


Honey. 


Oven. 


Tongue. 


Brother. 


Covenant. 


Hover. 


Plover. 


Word. 


Cochineal. 


Cover. 


Love. 


Pomegranate. 


Work. 


Colander. 


Covert. 


Lover. 


Pommel. 


Wonder, 


Color. 


Covet. 


Monday. 


Rhomb. 


World. 


Come. 


Covey. 


Money. 


Shove. 


Worry. 


Comely. 


Cozen. 


Monger. 


Shovel. 


Worse. 


Comfit. 


Discomfit. 


Mongrel. 


Sloven. 


Worship. 


Comfort. 


Done. 


Monk. 


Smother. 


Wort. 


Company. 


Doth. 


Monkey. 


Some. 


Worth. 



SOUNDS OR POWERS OF THE VOWELS. V 

b. In a few words, o has the sound of oo (the French ou), as in move, prove (and their 
compounds), behove, lose, do, ado, who, whom, tomb. This sound of o is shortened in the 
words bosom, wolf, woman, Wolsey, Wolverhampton, and Worcester. 

c. Short o is lengthened before r when terminating monosyllables, or when followed by 
another consonant ; as in for and former .* This sound of o is equivalent to the broad Ger- 
man sound of a, and also to the diphthong au. Compare, for example, the words Poll, 
pall, and Paul.— See No. 5, c. 

u. 

9. U, as has been stated in the general rule, f has two sounds ; namely, 
its long diphthongal sound, as in tube, use, and duty ; and its short 
simple sound, as in tub, us, and concussion. 

a. In the following words u has the short sound of oo, as in good. This has been called 
the third or middle sound of u. It is equivalent to the sound of o in bosom, wolf, &c. 
Refer to note b under O. 



Bulnnch.i 


Bulwark. 


Cuckoo. 


Pull. 


Push. 


Bull. 


Bush, 


Cushion. 


Pullet. 


Puss. 


Bullet. 


Bushel. 


Full. 


Pulley. 


Put, v. 


Bullion. 


Butcher. 


Pudding. 


Pulpit. 


Sugar. 



6. When u is preceded by r in the same syllable, it has a sound somewhat longer than 
its third or middle sound too), as in brute, intrude, prudent, rude, ruby, true. 

c. In the words busy and business, u has the sound of short I; and in bury, burial, and 
in the termination bury (from borough, as in Canterbury,) it has the sound of short e (berry). 



10. Y is another form of i, and has the same sounds. Thus in the 
words type and tyrant, we have the long sound of I; and in typical and 
tyranny, its short one. In the beginning of a word, as in yard and 
yesterday, y is pronounced with an aspirate or breathing, which has led 
the generality of grammarians to regard it, in this position, as a different 
letter from i, and to class it as a consonant. But if we substitute i 
for y in such a position, and pronounce it with an aspirate, as in the 
terminations ion and iary, in such words as pin'zora, auxiliary and in- 
cen&'iary, it will be evident that y in the beginning, as well as in the 
middle, and end of a word, is merely another form of i. Compare also 
the sound of i in adieu with the sound of y in you. 

a. In Greek and foreign words, as in type, tyrant, myrrh, and alchymy, § y is not the 
representative of i, but of a different letter. The sound is, however, the same. 

b. Y unaccented at the end of a word, as in glory, has the short sound of if but if 
accented, as in ally, it has, of course, the long sound of i. 

w. 

1 1 . Formerly the letter u was expressed by v, as we may still see by 
looking into any old author. Hence the letter w derives both its form 
iyv) and its name {double u). Like y, w is usually regarded as a con- 
sonant when it begins a word, and as a vowel when it ends a word o? 
syllable. In the latter case, it is merely another form of u, and conse- 
quently a vowel, as in new, flew, vieio, prow, and tow-el ; and in the 
former, it either represents v, as in wine and wool, or is merely u or oo 
aspirated, as in whole and work. Compare the pronunciation of the 
word one, in which w is audibly present. 



* Short a is lengthened before r in a similar way, as in far and farmer. 

t Page ii. 

$. Tbis sound of w is retained in the derivatives of these words, as bullock, fulness, 
peaceful, fulfil, &c. ; and it is also found in some words which seem to be derived from 
them, though of a different origin, as full (to cleanse cloth from oil and grease), fuller, 
fulling- ni'ili, Fulham, &c. 

§ In such words y represents the Greek letter upsh.on or slender u. 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 



DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS. 






12. According to Walker, there are twenty-six diphthongs and 
six triphthongs in the English language: 



as 


in Caesar. 


ei 


as in ceiling. 


oa 


as in coat. 


ui 


as in languid. 


, 


aim. 


eo 


,, peopie. 


ce 


„ ceeonomy. 


uy 


„ buy. 


„ 


gan!. 


eu 


„ feud. 


oi 


,, voice. 


aye 


„ (tor ever). 


„ 


taught. 


ew 


„ jewel. 


oo 


,, moon. 


eau 


„ beauty. 


■j j 


law. 


ey 


„ they. 


ou 


„ found. 


eou 


„ plenteous. 


„ 


say. 


ia 


,, poniard. 


ow 


„ now. 


ieu 


„ adieu. 


„ 


clean. 


ie 


,, friend. 


oy 


ji k°y- 


iew 


„ view. 


, 


reed. 


io 


,, passion. 


ue 


„ mansuetude. 


ceu 


„ manoeuvre 



But they maybe reduced to twenty diphthongs, and three triphthongs, 
namely, ai, au, ea, ee, ei, eo, eu, ie, oa, oo, ui, ay, cy, uy, oi, oy, ou, aw, 
ew, ow ; eau, ieu, iew. And if y be regarded as merely another form of 
i, and w of u, it is evident that they may be reduced still further. 

Of the diphthongs enumerated, seventeen have a sound purely 
monophthongal. and hence they have been called improper diphthongs. 
Sheridan calls such combinations digraphs, that is, double written. 
The only proper diphthongs in our language, in which both vowels are 
distinctly heard forming together one syllable, are eu, oi, and on, as 
in the words feud, voice, and found. 

The triphthongs occur only in a few Avords adopted from the 
French language ; as eau in beau, bureau, flambeau, portmanteau ; ieu 
in adieu, lieu, purlieu, and iew in view. Eau has always the sound of 
long o, except in beauty and its compounds, in which it has the sound 
of long u ; and the other two triphthongs, ceu and iew have the diph- 
thongal sound of eu, as in feud and few. Lieutenant and lieutenancy are 
the only exceptions, (in which ieu is pronounced ev.) 



SOUNDS OF THE DIPHTHONGS, 



PROPER AND IMPROPER. 



1 3. The diphthong ce does not properly belong to the English language,* 
and is found only in a few classical words not completely naturalized ; 
as inJEsop, Ccesar, pcean. minutioe, &c. It has the sound of long i; as in 
me ; and it is now usuall}' written without the a,* as in ether, equator, 
and even the proper name Eneas. 

AI. AY. 

14. The diphthong ai has exactly the same sound as the long slender a, 
as in fate. Hence pail, a vessel, is pronounced exactly like pale, a color. 
The diphthong ay is another form of ai, and is pronounced exactly like 
it, as in lay, laid. 

a. In the words again, against, said, and saiih, ai has the sound of short e, as in met; in 
plaid and raillery, it has the sound of short a, as in ?nad and sal' ary ; and in aisle, it is 
pronounced like long i, as in isle- In the word quay, ay is usually pronounced like long e. 

b. In final unaccented syllables, as in mount' ain, ai has the sound of short £. The 
same observation applies to ay in a final unaccented syllable, as in Sunday, Monday, &c. 

AO. 

15. The diphthong ao occurs only in the word gaol, in which it has 



* Dr. Johnson says"^ is no English diphthong, and is more properly expressed by single 
e, as in Cesar, Eneas." But notwithstanding his authority, the a has been retained in 
several words, particularly proper names and technical terms. 



SOUNDS OF THE DIPHTHONGS. 



Vii 



the sound of ax. 
nounced, jail. 



This word is now more properly written as it is pro- 



AU. AW. 

16. The diphthong au has the sound of the broad German a, as in 
fall. Hence haul, to pull or drag, and hall, a large room, are pronounced 
exactly alike. The diphthong aw is another form of au, and is pro- 
nounced exactly like it. 

a. The diphthong au hefore n and another consonant, as in aunt and jaunt, has the long 
Italian sound of a, as in far and father. In some words of this class, however, it is pro- 
nounced, particularly by persons who are ambitious of being thought to speak better than 
their neighbours, like the broad German a, as in the general rule. A vaunt and vaunt are 
perhaps the only words of this class which should be considered as exceptions. The fol- 
lowing list contains nearly ail the words of this class : 

Aunt.* Daunt. Haunch. Laundress. Saunders. 

Askaunt. Haunt. Jaundice. Laundry. Saunter. 

Askaunce. Gaunt. Jaunt. Maund. Saunterer. 

Cfaunch. Gauntlet. Launch. Paunch. Taunt. 

Custom, however, seems still in favor of pronouncing taunt, saunter, and perhaps 
some of the others, as if written tawnt, sawnter, &c. 

b. In the words laugh, draught, and draughts, au has also the sound of a as in far. 

c. In French words, as hautboy and hautgout, au has the sound of long 6; and in 
cauliflower, laurel, and laudanum, it sounds like short 6. 



as in me, except in the 



Bread. 


Feather. 


Breadth. 


Head. 


Breakfast. 


Health. 


Breath. 


Heard. 


Cleanse. 


Hearse. 


Dead. 


Heather. 


Deaf. 


Heaven. 


Dearth. 


Heavy. 


Dreamt. 


Instead. 


Earl. 


Jealous. 


Earn. 


Jealousy. 


Earnest. 


Lead ia metal). 


Endeavour. 


Leant. 



Ready. 


Threaten. 


Realm. 


Treachery. 


Rehearse. 


Tread. 


Seamstress. 


Treadle. 


Search. 


Treasure. 


Spread. 


Treasury. 


Stead. 


Wealth. 


Steady. 


Wealthy. 


Stealth. 


Weapon. 


Stealthy. 


Weather. 


Sweat. 


Yearn. 


Thread. 


Zealot. 


.Threat. 


Zealous. 



EA. 

17. The diphthong en, has the sound of Ion 
following words, and their compounds : 

Learn. 

Leather. 

Leaven. 

Meadow. 

Meant. 

Measure. 

M easurer. 

Pearl. 

Peasant. 

Pheasant. 

Pleasant. 

Pleasure. 

Read \past tense). Threat. 

In the foregoing words, ea has the sound of short c, as in met; but in 
the following words, it has the long slender sound of a, as in fate : 

Bear. Forbear. Greater. Steak. Tear {to rend). 

Bearer. Forswear. Greatest. Swear. Wear. 

Break. Great. Pear. Swearer. Wearer. 

And in the words which follow, ea has the sound of a, as in far : 

Heart. Hearten. Hearth. Hearken. Hearkener. 

It may now be inferred as a general rule, that in all other words 
ea has the sound of long e, as in me. 

EE. 

18. The diphthong ee is, also, pronounced like long e, as in me, except 
in the contracted words eer and neer, and the low word breeches, (winch 
are pronounced air, nair, and britches, f) 



• The u in such words (for it does not really belong to them) must have crept in to re- 
present the drawling and affected pronunciation of a before n, as in can't, shan't, demand, 
&c, which we sometimes hear pronounced cavvn't, shavvn't, demawnd, &c. Staunch, 
the old spelling of stanch, is an additional illustration of this. 

t Shortened from the simple word breech, as in the examples given under No. 74. 



Neighbour. 


Rein-deer. 


Vein. 


Obeisance. 


Skein. 


Weigh. 


Reign. 


Their. 


Weight. 


Rein. 


Veil. 


Weighty. 



Vlll PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 

EI. 

19. The diphthong ei, also, is usually pronounced like the long e in 
me, except in the following words, in which it has the sound of long 
slender a, as in fate : 

Deign. Heinous. 

Eight. Heir. 

Feign. Heiress. 

Freight. Neigh. 

a. In height and sleight, ei has the sound of long i ; and in heifer and non-pareil, of 
short e, (pronounced, hite, slite, hefer, non-par-el'.) 

b. When following an unaccented syllable, as in forfeit, ei has the sound of short », 
as in pin. — See No. 75. 

EO. 

20. The diphthong eo has the sound of long e in people ; of short e, in 
leopard, jeopardy, feoff and its compounds ; of long u, in feod, and its 
compounds ; of long o in yeoman and yeomanry ; and of short 6 in George 
and Georgic. In galleon, a Spanish ship, it formerly had the sound of 
oo, as in moon ; but now the word is usually pronounced in three sylla- 
bles (gal'-le-on). 

a. When following an accented syllable, as in sur'geon, eo has the sound of short m, 
as in tub. — See No. 75. 

EU. EW. 

21. In etc both of the vowels are sounded, as in the word feud, and 
hence this is one of the proper diphthongs. EW is another form of 
eu, and has precisely the same sound. 

a. In sew, sewer, and the proper name Shrewsbury, ew has the sound of Jong o; also, 
in shew, but this word is now more properly written show. And sewer, a drain, is com- 
monly pronounced, and sometimes written, shore. Strew is now regularly pronounced, 
stroo, and is scarcely ever written strow. 

EY. 

22. The diphthong ey has the same sound as ai and ay, that is, of long 
slender a, as in. fate. 

a. When following an accented syllable, as in valley, ey is pronounced quickly and 
obscurely, like as' and ay in a similar position. — See No. 14, b\ and No. 75. 

b. In the words key and ley, which seem to be the only exceptions, ey has the sound of 
long e, as in me. 

IA. 

23. For the sound of the combination ia after an accented syllable, 
as in poniard, see No. 76. 

IE. 

24. The diphthong ie has usually the long sound of e, as in the words 
Held, fiend, grieve. The diphthongs ea, ee, ei, and ie, are, therefore, ge- 
nerally speaking, pronounced alike. 

a. In friend and its compounds, ie has the sound of short e ; and there is a strong dis- 
position to give it a similar sound in fierce, pierce, and tierce. In kerchief and handker- 
chief, it has the sound of short i. 

OA. 

25. The diphthong oa has the sound of long d, as in the words boat, 
coat, loaf. The only exceptions seem to be, groat, broad, and abroad, 
in winch oa sounds Like aw. 



SOUNDS OF THE DIPHTHONGS. ix 

CE. 

26. The diphthong ce is pronounced like ce, and the same observa- 
tions are applicable to it — to which refer. 

a. In the words canoe and shoe, oe is pronounced like oo ; and in does (from the verb 
do) it has the sound of short u. 

01. OY. 

27. In oi both of the vowels are sounded, as in the word boil ; and 
hence this is one of the proper diphthongs. Oy is another form of oi, 
and has the same sound. 

00. 

28. The regular sound of the diphthong oo is heard in the words 
moon, soon, fool, food, &c. 

a. The regular sound of oo is shortened in several words ; as in the following : 
Wool. Good. Foot. Book. Look. 
Wood. Hood. Stood. Cook. Took. 

This sound of oo is equivalent to the third sound of u, as in bull. — See No. 9, a. 

b. In blood and flood, oo has the sound of short u, as in mud; and iu door, floor, of 
long 6, as in more. 

ou. ow. 

29. When both of the vowels are sounded, as in sour, ou is a proper 
diphthong ; but when only one of them is heard, as in source, it is a 
digraph or improper diphthong. The proper or diphthongal sound 
of ou is heard in the words noun, found, pound, &c. 

a. In several words ou has the sound of long 6 ; as in the following : 



Although. 


Courtier. 


Fourteen. 


Mourn. 


Shoulder. 


Borough. 


Concourse. 


Furlough. 


Poultice. 


Smoulder. 


Bourn. 


Discourse. 


Intercourse. 


Poultry. 


Soul. 


Coulter. 


Dough. 


Mould. 


Poulterer. 


Source. 


Course. 


Doughy. 


Mouldy. 


Pour. 


Thorough. 


Court. 


Four. 


Moult. 


Resource. 


Though. 


b. In the following words, and perhaps a few others 


i, ou has the : 


sound of short u: 


Adjourn. 


Courteous. 


Journal. 


Roughness. 


Toughness. 


Bourgeon. 


Cousin. 


Jouvney. 


Scourge. 


Touch. 


Chough. 


Enough. 


Journeyman. 


Slough* 


Touchy. 


Country. 


Flourish. 


Joust. 


Southern. 


Young. 


Couple. 


Gournet. 


Nourish. 


Southerly. 


Youngster. 


Courage. 


Housewife. 


Rough. 


Tough. 


Younker. 


c. In the following words, ou 


has what may be called its French sound, which, as we 


have seen before, 


is equivalent to oo in coo, or single o in move. 




Accoutre. 


Contour. 


Ragout. 


Sou, sous. 


Tourmaline. 


Amour. 


Could. 


Rendezvous. 


Surtout, 


Uncouth. 


Bouquet. 


Croup. 


Rouge. 


Through. 


You. 


Bouse. 


Croupier. 


Route. 


Toupee. "> 
Toupet. ) 


Your. 


Bousy. 


Gout (goo). 


Routine. 


Youth. 


Capouch. 


Group. 


Should. 


Tour. 


Would. 


Cartouch. 


Paramour. 


Soup. 


Tourist. 


Wound. 



This sound of ou is shortened in the words could, should, and would. Compare with 
this sound, the short sound of oo, as in wool, and the third sound of u, as in bull. 

d. In the following words ou has the sound of au, which, as we have seen before, is 
equivalent to the broad German a, as in fall. 

Besought. Brought. Methought. Ought. Thought. 

Bought. Fought. Nought. Sought. Wrought. 

e. In the words cough and trough (which rhyme with off and scoff,) ou has the sound of 
short o ; also, in lough and shough (which are pronounced lock and shock). 

OW. 

30. Ow is another form of ou, and like it, when both of the vowels 
are sounded, as in now, it is a proper diphthong ; but when only one 

* Slough ; that is, when it means the cast skin of a serpent. 



X PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 

of them is heard, as in blow, it is a digraph or improper diphthong. 
Its diphthongal or proper sound is the same as ou, and is heard in the 
following words, now, brow, town, gown, shower, bower, vowel, &c. 
a. Like ou, ow has in several words the sound of long o, as in : 

Below. Glow. Low. Owner. Sown. 

Bestow. Grow. Lower. Row. Snow. 

Blow. Grower. Lowest. Rower. Stow. 

Bow. Grown. Mow. Show. Throw. 

Crow. Growth, Mower. Slow. Thrown. 

Flow. Know. Owe. Sow. Thrower 

Flown. Known. Own. Sower. Trow. 

Six of the preceding words have also the regular or diphthongal sound, but in that case 
they have different meanings, and are, in fact, with the exception of the word bow, differ- 
ent words. Refer to the " Words similarly spelled, but differently pronounced," for the 
meaning of Bow, Low, Lower, Mow, Row, and Sow. 

OY. 

31. This diphthong is another form of oi, and is similarly pronounced. 

UA. 

32. When the a in this combination is pronounced, the u has the 
sound of w, which unites both into one syllable, as in the words assuage, 
equal, language, &c, (pronounced asswa'ge, e'qwal, lang'gwage.) 

a. In a few words, u before a is silent ; as in guard, guardian,* guarantee, and piquant. 
Also, in the words victuals, victualling , and victualler (pronounced vit'tdls, &oJ In the 
word mantuamaker,\ the a is commonly omitted in tho pronunciation, but in the proper 
oaiue Mantua, both vowels are distinctly pronounced. 

UE. 

33. When the e in this combination is pronounced, the u, as in ua, 
has the sound of w, as in question, quench, and desuetude, (pronounced 
qwest'ijun, qwench, des'swetude.) 

a. In a few words the u is silent before e, as in guess, guest, and guerdon. In such 
A-ords, the u has been inserted to preserve the hard sound of g. If it were omitted, the 
pronunciation would be jess, jest, &c. In the word conquer also, and its compounds, the 
u is usually omitted in the pronunciation ; but conquest follows the general rule. 

b. When ue ends a word, as in due, the e is of course mute, and the u has its long sound; 
except in words where r precedes u, as in true, iu which case it is pronounced like oo. 
• — See note d, No. 6. 

c. In the termination gue, as in brogue, plague, league, intrigue, both the vowels are 
silent, but they are not without use, for the u keeps theg' hard, and the e, generally, gives 
the long sound to the preceding vowel. The same observations apply to the termination 

ue, as in opaque and antique. But in the termination ogue in words derived from the 
k, the o has the short sound, as in dialogue, pedagogue, &c. 



c 



TJI. UY. 

34. When both vowels of this diphthong are pronounced, the u has 
the sound of w, as in anguish, languid, linguist, penguin.^ Compare the 
sound of u before a or e in the same syllable. 

a. In a few words tho u before i is silent, as in guide, guild, guilt, guinea, guise. In 
such words, the u has been inserted to preserve the^ hard ; and in biscuit and circuit, § 
the u serves a similar purpose. But in such words as build and conduit,§ the u, according 
to their present pronunciation, is superfluous. 

b. When ui is preceded by r, as in bruise, fruit, and recruit, the i is silent and the u is 
pronounced like oo. Juice, sluice, suit, and pursuit are similarly pronounced. 

* Pronounced gard, gard'yan, garantee, and pee'kant. 

+ Mantuamaker. This word is not connected with tho proper name Mantua, 

% Pronounced ang'gwish, lang'gwid, lin'gwist, pen'gwin. 

§ Pronounced bis'kit, cir'kit, cun'dit. 



SOUNDS OR POWERS OF THE CONSONANTS. 21 

UO. 

35. In this combination, u has the sound of w, as in the words : 

Quondam. Quota. Quotation. Quotidian. Siliquous. 

Quorum. Quote. Quoth. Quotient. Siliquose. 

a. The words quoif and quoit are similarly pronounced ; but they are now usually 
written coif and coit, and pronounced as they aro spelled. 

UY. 

36. This is another form of the diphthong ui, and is similarly pro- 
nounced. When the u is pronounced, it has the sound of w, as in 
obloquy ; and the y has always the sound of i long, if under the accent, 
as in buy'er ; and short, if unaccented, as in plaguy. 

UOY. 

37. This diphthong occurs only in the word buoy, which should he 
pronounced btuoy, the u in this position having the sound of w. 



CONSONANTS. 

38. The sounds or powers of the consonants are exemplified in the 
following Table. 



Letters. 


Sounds. 


Letters. 


Sounds. 


B 

C hard 


Ban, ben, bin, bond, bun. 
Cat, cot, cut. 


M 

N 


Man, men, middle, model, 
muddle. 

Nab, neb, nib, not, nut. 


C soft 


Cell, cit, cypress. 


P 


Pan, pen, pin, pond, pun. 


D 

F 


Dan, den, din, dome, dun. 
Fan, fen, fin, fond, fund. 


Q 
B, 


Quarter, question, quick, 
quondam. 

Rat, red, rid, rod, rut. 


G hard 


Gad, got, gun. 


s 


Sat, set, sit, sot, sutler. 


G soft 


Gem, gm, gipsy. 


T 


Tan, ten, tin, tome, tun. 


H 


Hat, hen, hit, hot, hut. 


V 


Vast, vest, vista, volume, 
vulgar. 


J 


Jam, join, jet, jig, jog, jug. 


x=/« 


Tax (tacks), box (bocks). 


K 


Khan, ken, kill, koran. 


X~* 


Xanthus, Xenophon, xebec. 


L 


Land, lend, lint, long, lung. 


z 


Zany, zenith, zinc, zone, 
zumia. 



39. B has one unvaried sound, such as it has in other languages. It is allied to p in 
sound, and is, in fact, the fiat or soft articulation of it. Compare their sounds as given in 
the preceding Table. 

B is mute when followed by t in the same syllable, as in debt, debtor { or, when it ia 
preceded by an m, as in lamb and dumb, except in rhomb and succumb. 



40. C is a redundant letter, having in every case the sound of either k or s. The former 
is called its hard, and the latter its soft sound. Before the vowels a, o, or u, c has the 
sound of k, as in cat, cut, cut; and before e, t, or y, it has the sound of s, as in cell, cit, 
cypress. 



Xll PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 

In sceptic and its compounds, c, though before e, has the sound of k ; and in the words 
indict, victuals, and their compounds, it is silent. 

When c following an accent, combines with ea, ia, to, eous, or ious, it has the sound of 
sh ; as in o'cean, so'cial, ceta'ceous, gra'cious. See No. 75. 

CH. 

41. This combination has the sound of tsh rapidly pronounced ; as in chance, chat, chin. 
In some French words, not completely naturalized, ch sounds like sh ; as in champaign, 
chaise, machine. It has also the sound of sh in English words ending in Ich or nch ; as 
in bilch, bench, &c. In words derived from the learned languages, ch has usually the sound 
of k, as in chaos, conch, school, stomach. In Scripture names it is also pronounced like k, 
as in Enoch. The Greek prefix, arch, is pronounced artch before a consonant, as in arch- 
bishop ; but before a vowel it is pronounced hard (ark), as in archangel. In words of 
our own composition, it is sometimes pronounced artch before a vowel, as in arch-enemy. 
It is mute in the words, drachm, schedule, schism, yacht. 

D. 

42. D has one uniform sound, as in the examples given in the preceding table. It is 
allied to t in sound, and has been often substituted for it, as in most of the irregular verbs, 
and other contracted words. 

X), like its cognate letter t, is often mispronounced by the uneducated Irish. Thus, 
though they sound the d correctly in the positive degree of such words as proud, loud, 
broad, yet in the comparative, they thicken it by an aspiration, and pronounce it as if writ- 
ten dh (proudher, loudher, broadher.) The same observation applies to t in such cases, as 
in Jitter [fitther), hotter {hotther), and all words similarly formed, as water, butter, 
&c. This is a very vulgar pronunciation, and should be avoided. And it is easy to do so ; 
for as they pronounce the d or t properly in loud, broad, Jit, and hot, they have only to pro- 
nounce the first syllable distinctly, and then add without an aspiration the termination er. 
The affected pronunciation of these letters, d and t, in such words as education and actual, 
Bhould bo equally avoided. — See page xvii. 

F. 

43. -Fhas one uniform sound, as in the examples in the preceding table. It is allied 
to v in sound, and in the preposition of, it is pronounced exactly like v (ov). But in com- 
position, as in whereof, the f has its own sound. 

G. 

44. G has two sounds, the one hard, as in gad, got, gun ; and the other soft, as in gem, 
gin, gipsy. Like c it is hard before a, o, or u, and soft before e, i, or y, except in a few 
words of Saxon origin, in which it has its hard sound, though before e or i, as : 



Anger. 


Geek. 


Gig. 


Girdle. 


Meager. 


Conger. 


Geese. 


Giggle. 


Girl. 


Monger. 


Eager. 


Get. 


Gild. 


Girth. 


Stronger. 


Finger. 


Gibber. 


Gill (of a fish). 


Gizzard. 


Strongest. 


Forget. 


Gibberish. 


Gimlet. 


Give. 


Target. 


Forgot. 


Gibcat. 


Gimp. 


Linger. 


Together. 


Forgive. 


Giddy. ■ 


Gingham. 


Longer. 


Younger. 


Gear. 


Gift. 


Gird. 


Longest. 


Youngest. 



a. G is mute before n in the same syllable, as in gnaw, gnat, sign, impugn, which are 
pronounced, naw, nat, sine, impune. But though g is silent, it gives the preceding vowel 
its long sound, as in the examples just given. — See No. 33. c. G is also mute before m in 
the same syllable, as in phlegm, diaphragm, paradigm. But if the n or m after g is carried 
to the next syllable, the g is pronounced, as as-sig-na-tion, phleg-?naf-ic. 

b. Gh, in tho beginning of a word, has the sound of hard g, as in ghost, gherkin; but at 
the end of a word it is usually silent, as in high, though, bought. In some words it has 
the sound of/, as in laugh, tough, draught, &c. In shough, hough, and lough, it has the 
sound of k, and in burgh, burgher, and burghership, the g oDly is heard. 

H. 
45. This letter does not represent an articulate sound, but is merely a mark or sign of 
aspiration, denoting that the vowel following it should be pronounced with a strong emis- 
sion of breath, as in hand, horse, hat. At the beginning of a word it should always be 
sounded, except in the following : 

Heir, Heiress. Honesty. Honorary. Hour. Humour 

Herb. Honor. Hospital. Humble. Humorous. 

Honest. Honorable. Hostler. Humbleness. Humorsome. 

H is always silent after r, as in rhapsody, rhetoric, rheumatism, rhubarb, rhyme. 

By the English, particularly by the natives of London, h after w is usually sunk in the 
pronunciation, as in the words when, what, whig, while, whim, &o. This is an affected 
pronunciation, and should be avoided. 



Alms. 


Calve. 


Auln. 


Chaldron. 


Balk. 


Chalk. 


Balm. 


Could. 


Calf. 


Falcon. 



Palm. 


Should. 


Psalm. 


Stalk. 


Qualm. 


Talk. 


Salmon. 


Walk. 


Salve. 


Would. 


Shalm. 


Yolk. 



SOUNDS OB POWERS OF THE CONSONANTS. Xlll 

J. 

46. J is always pronounced like soft g, except in the word hallelujah, in which it has 
the sound of initial y.* 

K. 

47. K has the hard sound of c, and is used before e and i, where, according to English 
analogy, c would be soft, as in kept, king, skirt. Before n in the same syllable, k is always 
silent, as in knee, know. 

L. 

48. L has the same liquid sound as in other languages. It is silent in the following words : 

Almond. Calm. Folk. 

Fusil. 

Half. 

Halser. 

Halve. 

Malmsey. 

But though I is mute in psalm and alms, it should be pronounced in psalmist, psalmody, 
and almoner, because the m is detached from it, and in a different syllable. 

Le at the end of words, is pronounced as originally written, el. See note |], page iii. 

M. 

49. M has one uniform sound, as in the examples given in the preceding Table. It is 
never silent, except in accomptant and comptroller, which are now written accountant 
and controller. 

N. 

50. .IVhas one uniform sound, as in the examples given in the preceding Table. 

It is mute after m in the same syllable, as column, condemn, hymn, limn. If the n, 
however, is detached from the m, and carried to the next syllable, it is pronounced, as in 
condem 'nation, solem'nize. But as participles should have the same sound as their verbs, 
with the addition of the termination ing or ed, it is contrary to analogy to say hym-ning, 
hym-ned, condem-ning, condem-ned, &c. 

P. 

51. P has one uniform sound, as in the examples in the preceding Table. Compare the 
sound of b, with which it is closely allied. 

P is mute before s or t in the beginning of words, as in psalm, pseudo, ptisan, Ptolemy. 
It is also mute between m and t in the middle or end of words, as in empty, \ sumptuous, 
tempt, exempt. It is also silent in receipt and corps (core.) 

PH. 

52. Ph has the sound of f, and is found only in words derived from the Greek, as in 
Philip, philosopher, and phantom. In nephew and Stephen, it has the sound of v ; in 
diphthong, triphthong, and naphtha, the p only is heard; while in apophthegm, phthisis, 
and phthisical, both letters are silent, (pronounced ap'-o-them, ti'-cis, tiz'-zi-cal.) In sap- 
phire, the first p is dropped in the pronunciation. 

Q. 

53. Q has the power of k, and is always, as in other languages, followed by u. pronounced 
like w, as in quake, quest, quill, quote, (pronounced kwake, kwest, &c.) But in a few 
words derived from the French, the u after q is silent, as in coquet, etiquette, harlequin, 
masquerade, quadrille, and quatercousin. Also, in liquor, and in conquer and its com- 
pounds, qu has the sound of k. 

B,. 

54. " R (says Dr. Johnson) has the same rough, snarling sound, as in other tongues." 
Hence it has been called the canine, or " dogs' letter." Its sound is exemplified in the 
preceding Table. 

Re in a final unaccented syllable, is pronounced like weak or unaccented er,% as in the 
following words. 

Massacre. Nitre. Sepulchre. 

Metre. Ochre. Spectre. 

Mitre. Sabre. Theatre. 

* In this word } Is really y, for it represents i, as in Troja for Troia. Com pare jot and iota. 

j Empty. This is rather a colloquial pronunciation of these words : on all grave or solemn occasions 
It would he better to give the p its full sound. 

i In all languages the letter r is subject to metathesis, or transposition ; and hence, In the unaccented 
termination re, it has changed places with e. It is, however, still pronounced as if it were after the e. See 
note U. page iii. 



Accoutre. 


Fibre. 


Acre. 


Lucre. 


Centre. 


Lustre. 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 



55. S has a hissing sound, as in the examples given in the preceding Table. Hence it 
has been called " the hissing letter." 

S single at the end of a word, has a grosser sound like that of z, as in has and was, ex- 
cept in gas, this, thus, us, and the termination ous, as in pious. And in all words ending 
in sion, preceded by a vowel, as in occasion, cohesion, incision, explosion, and confusion, 
s has the sound of z ; but if a consonant precede sion, s is pronounced like sh, as in expan- 
sion, extension, &c. It has also the sound of z in all words ending in ier, as crosier and 
hosier ; also in the words measure, pleasure, and treasure. It is mute in aisle, isle, 
island, demesne, puisne, and viscount. In sure and sugar it has the sound of sh. 

T. 

56. T.is allied to d in sound, and has in several words been substituted for it.* Com- 
pare their sounds in the examples given in the preceding Table. 

T has the sound of sh in all terminations in Hon, as in nation and notion, except when 
t or x precedes, as in bastion, question, mixtion, &e. The same rule applies to termina- 
tions in tied, as martial and nuptial, except when s precedes, as in bestial and celestial. 

TH. 

57. The combination th has two sounds, the one soft or flat, as in thus ; and the othei 
hard or sharp, as in think. In some words, as in Thomas, thyme, and asthma, it is pro- 
nounced like simple t. 

V. 

58. V is allied to/in sound. Compare their sounds as given in the examples in the pre- 
ceding Table. V is never silent, except in the colloquial pronunciation of twelvemonth. 

W. 

59. See this letter under the vowels, page v. 

In some words w is silent, as in answer. It is always silent before r, as in wrong, 
wrap, wrist, &c. 

X. 

60. X begins no English word. It is compounded of ks, and has the same sound, as in 
tax, fox, sex, (which are pronounced as if written taks, foks, seks.) At the beginning of 
a word it has the sound of z, as in Xenophon. 

Y. 

61 . See this letter under the vowels, page vi. 



62. This letter begins no word originally English. Dr. Johnson says that it has the 
sound, as its name izzard or 5 hard expresses, of an s uttered with closer compression of the 
palate by the tongue, as freeze, puze ; but Walker affirms, that if this bo the meaning of 
izzard, it is a great misnomer, for the z is not the hard but the soft *. It is the flat s, and 
bears the same relation to it as b docs to p, d to t, hard g toj, and v to/. It is now called 
by it3 French name zed. 

Z, like s, goes into an aspiration (zh) before a diphthong or diphthongal vowel after the 
accent, as in glazier, azure, &c. 

* As in many of the irregular verbs, and other contracted words. 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. ST 



ORTHOEPY, 



CORRECT PRONUNCIATION OF WORDS. 



63. The difficulties of pronunciation arise from the nature of lan- 
guage; the imperfections of alphabets;* and the ignorance, carelessness, 
or affectation of the generality of speakers. 

These difficulties are so numerous, that it would be impossible to 
notice them all, even in the most cursory manner, in the space which we 
have prescribed to ourselves. 

We shall, however, give a few general principles which will be found 
to embrace almost all that is useful in practice. 

64. The analogies of the language, the authority of lexicograph- 
ers, and above all, the custom of the most correct and elegant speakers, 
are the guides to which we must refer in all cases of difficulty. Nor can 
these difficulties, in every case, be resolved by such references ; for we 
shall often find analogy opposed to analogy, authority to authority, and 
custom divided, even among the most elegant speakers. The following 
oassage from " Boswell's Life of Johnson" will serve as an illustration : 

"BoswEi.t,. — 'It may be of use. Sir, to have a dictionary to ascertain the pronunciation.' 

"Johnson. — 'Why, Sir, my dictionary shows you the accents of words, if you can but 
remember them.' 

" Bosavell. — 'But, Sir, we want marks to ascertain the pronunciation of the vowels, 
Sheridan, I believe, has finished such a work.' 

"Johnson. — 'Why, Sir, consider how much easier it is to learn a language by the ear, 
than by any marks. Sheridan's dictionary may do very well ; but you cannot always carry 
it about with you : and when you want the word, you have not the dictionary. It is like a 
man who has a sword that will not draw. It is an admirable sword to be sure : but while 
your enemy is cutting your throat, you are unable to use it. Besides, Sir, what entitles 
Sheridan to fix the pronunciation of English ? 1 He has, in the first place, the disadvantage 
of being an Irishman ; and if he says he will fix it after the example of the best company, 
why, they differ among themselves. I remember an instance : when I published the plan 

* A perfect alphabet would imply that the different sounds of the human voice had been 
carefully analyzed, and accurately ascertained; and that to each of these sounds, so ascer- 
tained, a sign or character was attached which should represent that sound and no other. 
But this is not the case in our, nor indeed in any alphabet. In some cases, we have dis- 
tinct sounds without proper or peculiar signs to represent them, and in others, we have 
two or more different signs or characters for the same sound. Our alphabet is, therefore, 
both defective and redundant. The very first letter of the alphabet, for instance, repre- 
sents, without alteration or external change, four different and distinct sounds ; and with 
regard to all the other vowels, and several of the consonants, similar observations might be 
made. Hence the difficulties and inconsistencies in pronunciation and spelling. 

t Sheridan's Dictionary was acknowledged, however, even by Walker, " to be generally 
.superior to every thing that preceded it, and his method of conveying the sound of words 
by spelling them as they are pronounced, highly rational and useful." And Webster, the 
American lexicographer, thus speaks of his work : " His analysis of the English vowels is 
very critical, and in this respect, there has been little improvement by later writers, though 
I think none of them are perfectly correct. But in the application of his principles, he 
failed of his object. In general, however, it may be asserted that his notation does'not 
•warrant a tenth part as many deviations from the present respectable usage in England as 
Walker's/' 



XVi PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 

for my dictionary, Lord Chesterfield told me the word great should he pronounced so as to 
rhyme to state ; and Sir William Yonge sent me word that it should be pronounced so as 
to rhyme to seat, and that none but an Irishman would pronounce it grait. Now, here 
were two men of the highest rank, the one the best speaker in the House of Lords, and 
the other the best speaker in the House of Commons, differing entirely.' "* 

In this case, the pronunciation of Lord Chesterfield prevailed, f though 
opposed to analogy, because he was considered the most polite speaker 
of his day ; and in all similar cases, the analogies of the language, and 
the opinions of lexicographers must give way to what is considered the 
usage of the best and most polite speakers. 

65. In cases in which custom or authority is divided, we should give 
the preference to the pronunciation which is most in accordance with 
analogy. The word Borne for instance, should be pronounced Rome 
rather than Room; and this is beginning to be the case, though the latter 
pronunciation was once thought " irrevocably fixed in the language. "J 

66. The three great and prevailing errors in pronunciation are, 
vulgarity, pedantby, and affectation. Against each of these 
faults we should be constantly on our guard ; but most of all against 
affectation ; for it is by far the most odious. 

67. The following excellent observations from Dr. Johnson deserve 
particular attention. 

" For pronunciation, the best general rule is to consider those of the most elegant 
speakers who deviate least from the written words. Of English, as of all living tongues, 
there is a double pronunciation, one cursory and colloquial, the other regular and solemn. 
The cursory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain, being made different in different 
mouths by negligence, unskilfulness, and affectation. The solemn pronunciation, though 
by no means immutable and permanent, is always less remote from the orthography, and 
less liable to capricious innovation. They [lexicographers] have, however, generally 
formed their tables according to the cursory speech of those with whom they happen to 
converse ; and, concluding that the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one man- 
ner, have often established the jargon of the lower people as the model of speech." 

Walker, though he had this caution before his eyes, has not always 
profited by it; for, in numerous instances, he has given the colloquial, 
and even vulgar pronunciation as " the model of speech." For in- 
stance, he gives avrun as the pronunciation of Apron ; turn of Iron, and 
a-pos-sl of Apostle'. He also, in large classes of words, favors affected 
pronunciation; as in the word ed-ju-ca~shun, which he calls "an elegant 

* And on the same subject, the great Doctor observes of himself—" Sir, when people 
watch me narrowly, and I do not watch myself, they will find me out to be of a particular 
county. In the same manner. Dunning may be found out to be a Dovonshire man. So 
most Scotchmen may be found out." 

t Through the same influence the i in the word oblige lost its foreign or French sound. 
For till the publication of his "Letters," in which tins pronunciation is proscribed, oblige 
was usually pronounced obleege ; as by Pope in the following well-known lines : 

•* Dreadin? ev'n fools, by flatterers besieged, 
And so obliging that he ne'er obliged" {obleeged.) 

$ See Walker on this word. The pun which he quotes from Shakspeare, as a proof of 
the pronunciation of the word Rome in his time — 

" Now it i3 Rome indeed, and room enough, 
Since its wide walls encompass but one man"— 

may bo answered by another from the same author in favor of the other pronunciation. 
In the first part of Henry VI. A. 3, S. 1, the Bishop of Winchester exclaims, "Rome 
shall remedy this;" to which Warwick retorts " Roam thither then." In Pope, too, au- 
thority for both pronunciations may be found, as in the following couplets : 

" From the same foes at last both felt their doom; 
And the same age saw learning fail and Rome." 

"Thus when we view some well-proportioned dome, 
The world's just wonder, and even thine O Rome." 

If a rule such as 13 suggested above were followed, these, and all similar anomalies, would 
soon disappear. 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 



pronunciation of Education."* The following are a few of the numerous 
examples that occur in his Dictionary. (His pronunciation is given after 
each word.) 



Actual, actshual. 
Actuate, actshuate. 
Advonture, adventshure. 
Agriculture, agriculshure. 
Aperture, apertshure. 
Architecture, architectshure. 
Cincture, cinctsbure. 
Congratulate, cougratshulate. 
Constituent, constitshuent. 
Conventual, conventshual. 
Courteous, courtsheus. 
Creature, creatshure. 
Culture, cultshure. 
Debenture, debentshure. 
Departure, departshure. 
Effectual, effectshual. 
Estuary, estshuary. 
Eventual, eventsliual. 
Expostulate, expostshulate. 
Feature, featshure. 
Fistula, fistshula. 
Flatulence, fiatshulence. 
Fluctuate, fluctshuate. 
Fortune, fortshune. 
Fracture, fraetshure. 
Furniture, fumitshure. 
Future, futshure. 
Garniture, garnitshure. 
Gesture, gestshure. 
Guttural, guttsliural. 
Habitual, habitshual. 
Horticulture, hortieultshure. 
Illnature, illnatshure. 
Impetuous, impetshuus. 
Importunate, importshunate. 
Importune, importshune. 
Imposture, impostshure. 
Indenture, indentshure. 
Infatuate, infatshuate. 
Intellectual, intellectsliual. 
Jointure, jointsburo. 
Juncture, juuetshure. 
Lecture, lectsbure. 
Legislature, logislatsbure. 
Mantua, uutntshua. 
Manufacture, manufactshure. 
Misfortune, misfortshune. 



Mixture, mixtshure. 

Moisture, moistshure. 
Mutual, inutskual. 
Nature, natshure. 
Natural, natshural. 
Nurture, nurtsbure. 
Overture, overtshure. 
Pasture, pastshure. 
Perpetual, perpetshual. 
Picture, pictshure. 
Piteous, pitcheus. 
Plenteous, plentshus. 
Posture, postshure. 
Postulate, postshulate. 
Presumptuous, presumptshuus. 
Punctual, punctshual. 
Puncture, puuetshure. 
Pustule, pustshule. 
Rapture, raptshure. 
Ritual, ritsh.ual. 
Rupture, ruptshure. 
Sanctuary, sanctshuary. 
Saturate, satsh urate. 
Scripture, scriptshure. 
Sculpture, sculptshure. 
Sep tu agin t, septsbuagint. 
Situate, sitsbuate. 
Spiritual, spiritshual. 
Statuary, statsbuary. 
Statue, statshue. 
Stricture, strictshure. 
Structure, structsbure. 
Sumptuous, sumptshuua. 
Suture, sutshure. 
Tempestuous, tempestshuus. 
Texture, textshure. 
Tincture, tinctshure. 
Titular, titshular. 
Torture, tortshure. 
Tumultuous, tumultsbuus. 
Unctuous, uugktshuus. 
Vesture, vestsbure. 
Venture, ventsbure. 
Virtue, virtshue. 
Voluptuous, voluptshuus. 
Vulture, vultshure. 
Wafture, waftshure. 



Nor is Walker consistent in his pronunciation of such words, In 
the following words, for example, the tu is assigned its plain or unaf- 
fected sound, and not tshu, as in others. 



Investiture. 
Judicature. 



Ligature. 
Literature. 



Miniature. 
Quadrature. 



Signature. 
Temperature. 



And in the following words, the learner is left to take his choice be- 
tween what we think should be called the affected and unaffected pro- 



nunciations : 

Commodious. 

Dividual. 

Duteous. 



Fastidious. 

Frontier. 

Gradient. 



Gradual. 

Guardian. 

Hideous. 



Immediacy. 
Incendiary. 
Incredulous. 



• He also calls ke-ard, he-art, ghe-ard, and re-ghe-ard, polite pronunciations of tbe 
words card, cart, guard, and regard. 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 



Individual. 


Meteor. 


Obdurate. 


Radient. 


Insidious. 


Melodious. 


Odium. 


Radius. 


Intermedial. 


Meridian. 


Odious. 


Sardius. 


Invidious. 


Modulate. 


Ordeal. 


Sedulous- 


Mediocrity. 


Noctidial. 


Predial. 


Studious. 


Medium. 


Obduracy. 


Radiate. 


Tedious. 



Again, in Obedience and Obedient, be changes the d into j, while in 
Disobedience and Disobedient the sound of d is retained. Compare also 
his pronunciation of Medium and Mediate, Radiate and Irradiate, In- 
sidious and Assiduous.* 

It should be observed, however, that Sheridan was the first to intro- 
duce this affected mode of pronunciation by the change of tu into chu 
or tshu; as in Tune, which he pronounces tshoon; Tutor, tshooter; Tu- 
mult, tshoomult ; Nature, natshur ; Virtue, virtshu, &c. His change, 
too, of s into sh, as in siiooperb (Superb), shooperfluity (Superfluity), 
shoodorific, (Sudorific), &c, is, and always was, a vulgar pronunciation. 

68. Every word of twof or more syllables has in pronunciation a cer- 
tain accent, that is, a peculiar stress or force laid upon a particular 
syllable. 

If the accent in any word is misplaced, the pronunciation is injured 
or destroyed. Compare, for instance, the different pronunciations of 
Refuse, Desert, and Minute, according as the accent is placed on the 
first or second syllable. 

a. Some words, in addition to the principal, have a secondary, J or 
weaker accent ; as in, 

Ad'verti"se. Ab'sente"e. Ac'eiden"tal. Com'plaisan"t. 

Ar"tisau'. Ben"efac'tor. Ag"ricul'ture. Con'versa"tion. 

69. The general tendency of our language is to accent the root, and not 
the termination of a word. Hence the natural position of the accent 
in English words is in the first syllable. As a general rule, therefore, 
English or "Saxon words should have the accent on the first syllable. 

This general rule is exemplified not only by the usual position of the 
accent in English or Saxon words, particularly in dissyllables and 
trisyllables, but also by the tendency which we observe in our lan- 
guage to bring words of foreign origin under the English or radical 
accent. The words Mem'oir, Bou'quet, and Res'ervoir, for instance, 
have been brought under the English accent ; and Complaisant, Balcony, 
Revenue, Cravat, Saline, Glacis, and many others, are on the way. 
Ifence, also, the popular pronunciation of the word Police (namely 
po'-lis) ; and the colloquial, but now recognised pronunciation of Boat- 
swain, {bo'sn), Cockswain (cock'sn) Cupboard (cub'burd), &c. Many 
foreign words, however, particularly French, have struggled successfully 
against the English tendency, as : 



Antique. 


Critique. 


Palanquin. 


Ravine. 


Brazil. 


Fascine. 


Profile. 


Recitative. 


Borubasin. 


Fatigue. 


Quarantine. 


Repartee. 


Caprice. 


Grimace. 


Machine. 


Routine. 


Capuchin.. 


Invalid. 


Marine. 


Tambourine. 


Chagrin. 


Pelisse. 


Magazine. 


Tontine. 


Chemise. 


Police. 


Mandarin. 


Unique. 



* In cne of the words a choice is left; in the other, not. These observations are not 
made in depreciation of the great merits of Walker's Dictionary, but merely to put tha 
learner on his guard. 

t Monosyllables may have emphasis, but, as they consist of but one syllable, they can- 
not have accent. 

± In the case of a polysyllabic word, a secondaiij accent is often necessary for its full 
enunciation ; and when it occurs in words of three syllables, it seems generally to be the 
result of a struggle for ascendancy between the foreign and English tendency- 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. xix 

10. With regard to words of Greek or Latin origin, it may be laid down 
as a general rule, that when they are adopted whole or without change, 
the accent or quantity of the original word is usually preserved, as in 

Anath'gma. Dilem'ma. Diplo'ma. Hori'zon. Aphe'lion. 

Aou'men. Bitu'men. Deco'rum. Specta'tor. Media'tor. 

In many such words, however, the English tendency has prevailed, 
as in 

Pleth'Ora. Aud'Itor. Min'Ister. O/fitor. Sen'atoi. 

71. This tendency is, however, counteracted to a certain extent by 
another natural tendency in the language. In words used as verbs, 
the tendency of the accent is to the termination, and not to the root.* 
Hence, in verbs of two syllables, the accent is generally on the last, and 
in verbs of three syllables, on the last, or last but one. Hence the un- 
settled position of the accent in such words as 

Com'pensate or compen'sate. Con'fiscate or confis'cate. Con'template or contem'plate. 
Dem'onstrate or denion'strate. En'ervate or cner'vate. Ex'tirpate or extir'pate. 

Some authorities following the general tendency, place the accent on 
the first syllable, as com'pensate ; while others hold that, as verbs, it is 
better to accent the second, as compen'sate. 

72. The radical accent is also counteracted by the tendency in com- 
pound or derivative words to follow the accent of their primaries, as in 

Admi'rer from admi're. Assail'able from assail'. Commen'cement from commen'ce. 

Abet'tor „ abet'. Poli'teness „ poli'te. Commit'tal „ commit'. 

Profess'or „ profess'. Begin'ning „ begin'. Coquet'ry „ coquet'te. 

a. In many cases, however, the radical or general tendency of the 
accent has prevailed ; as in 

Ad'mlrable from admi're. Advertisement from adverti'se. 

Com'parable „ compa're. Chas'tlsement „ chasti'se. 

Lam'entable „ lament'. Dis'putant „ dispute. 

b. In several words the contest is, as yet, undecided ; as in 

Ac'cgptable or acceptable. Dis'p Citable or disputable. 

Com'mfindable orcomniend'able. Con'fessor or confess'or. 

73. The tendency in compound or derivative words to preserve the ac- 
cent of their primaries, is crossed by another natural tendency, namely, 
the disposition in compound or derivative words to shorten the long 
sounds or syllables of their primaries ; as in the following words : 

Depravity from deprave. Granary from gram. Gosling from goose. 

Severity „ severe. Desperate „ despaer. Throttle „ throat. 

Divinity „ divine. Maintenance ,, maintain. Pronunciation „ pronownce. 

Cons6latory ,, console. Shepherd „ sheepherd. Southerly (u) „ south. 

74. Accent, from its very nature, must affect not only the syllable 
under it, but also the syllable next it ; for in proportion as the one is 
dwelt upon, the other is passed quickly over. This is exemplified by 
the usual pronunciation of the unaccented syllable in the following 
words : 



Cab'bage. 


Pal'ace. 


Cli'mate. 


Cap'tain. 


Sur'fgit. 


Fa'vOur. 


Cour'age. 


Sol'ace. 


Pri'mate. 


Moun'tain. 


For'feit. 


Fa'mftus. 


Vil'lage. 


Fur'nace. 


Pri'vate. 


Cur'tain. 


For'eign. 


Pi'ous. 



In the preceding words the unaccented syllable is pronounced quickly 
and indistinctly ; and in the case of a diphthong, one of the vowels is 
omitted altogether in the pronunciation. Compare, for example, the 

* See the class of words, page xxii / 



XX PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 

different sounds of the termination age in the words cab'bage and enga'ge, 
pres'age and presage. Compare, also, the different pronunciations of 
the accented and unaccented syllables in the following words : 

Contain' (a). Cap'tain (*).. Alia/ (a). Kal'ly (i). Deceit' (ee). Sur'fert (i). 
Retain' (a), Foun'tam (i). Ally' (*). Sal'ly (i). Conceit' (ee). For'tWt (z)'. 
Remain' (a). Villain ($). Survey' (a). Sur'vey (i). Perceive' (ee). For'ei'gn (t,. 

75. Hence it is that such combinations as ea, ia, ie, eo, to, eous, ieus, 
following an accented syllable, are, in pronunciation, usually drawn mto 
one sound or syllable, though composed of more than one rowel, as in 

O'cean (o'shun). Con'science (con'shense). Pen'sion (pen'shun). Gor'geous (gor'jus). 
V&t'tial (par'skal) .* Surgeon (sur'jun). Men'tion (men' shun). Gra'cious (gra'shus). 

a. And when c, s, or t precedes any of these combinations, it has, 
by the quickness of the enunciation, and the consequent blending of its 
sound with the vowel, the force of sh, as in the examples just given. 

b. Hence the inutility (and worse than inutility, for it often leads to 
errors in pronunciation) of noting the sounds of vowels or syllables not 
under the accent, as has been done by Sheridan, Walker, and others. f 
The following judicious observations on the subject are from Webster : 

" In this particular [the notation of unaccented syllables], there is error and discrepancy 
in the schemes of the orthoepists, which shows the utter impossibility of carrying them 
into effect. The final y unaccented, Walker makes to be long ; while Sheridan, Jones, 
and Perry, make it equivalent to short i, or at least, give it a short sound, according to 
universal practice. Walker pronounces the last vowel in natural and national as a short; 
Sheridan, a3 e short ; and Jones, as u short. In the adjective, deliberate, Walker and 
Jones give a in the last syllable its proper long sound ; and Sheridan, the sound of e short, 
deliberet. Dignitary is pronounced by Sheridan dignitery, and Walker and Jones give 
to a its short sound, as in at. The terminating syllable ness is pronounced by Walker and 
Jones nes, and by Sheridan nis, as blessednes, blessednis . The same difference exists in 
(heir notation of less, as blameles, blamelis. These differences, and many others, run 
through their works, and appear in a large portion of all the words in the language. Now 
it is probable that all these gentlemen pronounced their words alike, or go nearly alike, 
that no difference would be noticed by a by-stander. The mischief of these notations is, 
that attempts are made to express minute distinctions or shades of sounds, so to speak, which 
cannot be represented to the eye by characters. A great part of the notations must, neces- 
sarily, be inaccurate, and for this reason, the notation of the vowel3 in unaccented syllables 
should not be attempted. From a careful attention to this subject, I am persuaded that 
all such notations are useless, and many of them mischievous, as they lead to a wrong pro- 
nunciation. In no case can the true pronunciation of words in a language be accurately 
and completely expressed on paper ; it can only be taught by the ear and by practice. No 
attempt has ever been made to mark the pronunciation of all the vowels, in any other 
language ; and in our language it is worse than useless. 

" In truth, as Dr. Ash remarks in the dissertation prefixed to his dictionary, the sounds 
of the five vowels, in unaccented, short, and insignificant syllables, are nearly coincident ; 
and it must be a nice ear that can distinguish the difference of sound in the concluding syl- 
lable of altar, alter, manor, murmur, satyr. It is for this reason that the notation of 
such vowels at all savors of hypercritical fastidiousness, and by aiming at too much nicety 
and exactness, tends only to generate doubts, and multiply differences of opinion. If the 
accent is laid on the proper syllable, and the vowel of that syllable correctly pronounced, 
the true pronunciation of the word will follow of course ; at least the pronunciation is more 
likely to be right than wrong, and no mistake will occur, which shall be an objeet of 
notice. 

" Nor can I approve the practice of writing all words in different characters, to express 

* Though in -primitive words containing such combinations this rule generally holds, yet 
it is usually departed from in the derivatives. Thus Partial and Christian are pronounced 
a3 dissyllables, while their derivatives Partiality and Christianity are pronounced in 
five syllables, though only two are added. 

f If Walker's notation of the unaccented vowels were attended to in practice, thousands 
of words would bo pronounced as the following. Abileetee (ability), rapideetee (rapidity), 
arteecle (article), deerect (direct), deegest (digest), deebate (debate), beegin (begin), ree- 
move (remove). Over the unaccented i or e in these, and in all similar words, he has 
placed the figure 1 above e, which indicates the sound of ee or of e in the word me. 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 



XXI 



their .pronunciation, as if their proper letters were so many hieroglyphics, requiring expla.- 
»iaticm. A great part of Fnglish words have an orthography sufficiently regular, and so 
well adapted to express the true pronunciation, that a few general rules only are wanted aa 
a guide to the learner." 

76. The seat of the accent will generally serve as a guide in the pro- 
nunciation of final syllables in ice, ile, ine, ise, and ite. When the 



and when unaccented it is usually short ; as in 



i is accented, it is long, 

the following words : 

Advice. Notice. Revile. Servile. Premise. Prorn'Ise. 

Suffice. Office. Combine. Doct'rlne. Requite. Res'pite. 

Av'arlce. Adaman'tlne. Eg'lantlne. Jac'oblne. Pal'atlne. Hyp'ocrlf.e. 

Ben'eflce. Al'lcallne. Feminine. Jes'samlne. Ap'poslte. Indefinite. 

Cow'ardlce. A'quillne. Gen'ulne. Lib'ertlne. Composite. InHnlte. 

Ju'venlle. Clandes'tlne. Her'olne. Mas'cullne. Definite. Op'poslte. 

Mercantile. Cor'alllne. Hy'allne. Medicine. Ex'quislte. Per'quislte. 

Pu'erlle. Discipline. Ima"glne. Nec'tarlne. Fa'vorlte. Req'uislte. 

77. In such terminations the i is sometimes long, though not under 
the accent,* as in the folio wing words : 



Cock'atrlce. As'inlne. 

Sac'riflce. Brig'antlne. 

Cham'omllo. Cal'amlne. 

Reo'oncile. Col'umbmo. 

In'fantlle. Crys'talllne. 



Gel'atlne. PorCupIne. U'terlne. Car'mellte. 

Incar'nadlne. Sac'charlne. Ac'onite. Ex'pedlte. 

Leg'atlne. Sat'urnlne. Anc'horlte. Er'emlte. 

Le'onme. Ser'pentine. Ap'petlte. Par'aslte. 

Mus'cadlne. Tur'pentlne. Bedlamite. Sat'eillte. 



It should be observed, however, that in each of the preceding words, 
the i is evidently under a secondary accent, and therefore inclined to be 
long See No. 68, a. 

78. As we have already observed, a proper accentuation of words is 
essential to their just pronunciation ; and a proper accentuation can 
only be acquired by attending to the most correct speakers, and by con- 
sulting the most approved dictionaries ; for words are under so many 
influences with regard to their accentuation, that it is scarcely possible 
to lay down a rule on the subject to which numerous exceptions may 
not be found. The following rules, however, (in addition to the Gener al 
Principles which we have already explained,) will be found useful to 
the learner. 

79. Words ending in cial, sial, tial, cian, tian, cient, dent, ceoas, cious, 
iious, sion, Hon, date, have the accent on the preceding syllable, as — 

Provincial. Physf'cian. Pa'tient. Confu'sion. 

Controversial Chris'tian. Gra'cious. Muta'tion. 

Substantial. A'noient. Senten'tious. Ingra'tiate. 

80. Words ending in ety, ity, or teal, have also the accent on the pre- 
ceding syllable, as — 

Propri'ety. Insensibility. Astronom'ical. Emphat'ical. 

Sati'ety. Spontaneity. Categorical. Polemical. 

a. When the termination ical is abbreviated into ic, the accent of the 
original word remains, as — 

Astronomic. Emphatic. Harmonic. Polemic. 

Angelic. Fanatic. Mechanic. Specific 

81. In English, as has been observed, the favorite accent in polysyl- 
lables is on the antepenult, or last syllable but two ; but in many cases 
the accent has been transferred to that position from the radical part ui 
the word, for the greater harmony and ease of pronunciation, as in — 

An'gel, Angel'ical. Rhet'oric, Rhetorical. Sa'tire, Satirical. 

Harmony, Harmo'nious. Sa'tan, Satanlcal. Vic'tory, Victo'rious. 



* That is, the principal accent. 



under No. 68, a. 



b2 



xxii 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 



82. In uniting simple words into a compound, there is a tendency to 
simplify the compound as much as possible, by throwing the accent on 
that syllable in which the simple words unite. Hence, words with the 
following terminations have the accent on the antepenult, or last syl- 
lable but two : 



•cracy, as democ'racy. 
-ferous, as somniferous. 
-fluent, as circum'fluent. 
-fluous, as super'fluous. 
-gamy, as polyg'amy. 
•gonal, as diag'onal. 
•graphy, as geog'raphy. 



-logy, as philol'ogy. 
-loquy, as ventril'oquy. 
-machy, as logom'achy. 
-maihy, as polym'athy. 
-meter, as barom'eter. 
-nomy, as econ'omy. 
-parous, as ovip'arous. 



-pathy, as antip'athy. 
-phony, as eu'phony. 
-scopt/, as aeros'copy. 
-strophe, as catas'trophe. 
-tomy, as anat'omy. 
-vomous, as igniv'omous. 
-vorous, as omniv'orous. 



83. The terminations cial, sial, and tial, are pronounced like shul, as 
in commercial, controversial, and martial — See No. 75. 

84. The terminations ceous, clous, and tious, are pronounced like shus, 
as in farinaceous, c&nacious, and contentious — No. 75. 

85. The terminations geous and gious are pronounced like jus, as in 
courageous and religious — No. 75. 

86. The terminations sion and tion are pronounced like shun, as in 
mission and invention; but the termination sion, preceded by a vowel, 
is pronounced like zhun, as in explosion and confusion See No. 55. 

87. The following words are differently accented, according as they 
are used as nouns or verbs. 



Nouns. 
Ab'-sent, a. 
Ab'-stract, 
Ac'-cent, 
Af-fix, 
At'-tri-bute, 
Aug'-ment, 
Cem'-ent, 
Col'-lect, 
Com'-pound, 
Con'-cert, 
Con'-cord, 
Con'-duct, 
Con '-fine, 
Con'-flict, 
Con'-serve, 
Con'-sort, 
Con'-test, 
Con'-tract, 
Con'-trast, 
Oon'-verse, 
Con'-vert, 
Con'-vict, 
Con'-voy, 
Coun'-ter-raand, 
Des'-cant, 
Di'-gest, 
Dis'-count, 
Es'-cort, 
Es'-say, 
Ex'-ile, 
Ex'-port, 



Verbs. 
Ab-sent'. 
Ab-stract'. 
Ac-cent'. 
Af-fix'. 
At-trib'ute. 
Aug-ment'. 
Cem-ent'. 
Col-lect'. 
Com-pound'. 
Con-cert'. 
Con-cord'. 
Con-duct'. 
Con-fi'ne. 
Con-flict'. 
Con-serve'. 
Con-sort'. 
Con-test'. 
Con-tract'. 
Con-trast'. 
Con-ver'se. 
Con-vert'. 
Con-vict'. 
Con-voy / . 
Coun-ter-niand', 
Des-eant'. 
Di-gest'. 
Dis-counf. 
Es-cort'. 
Es-say'. 
'Ex-He. 
Ex-port'. 



Nouns. 
Ex'-tract, 
Fer'-ment, 
Fre'-quent, a. 
Im'-port, 
In'-cense, 
In'-crease, 
ln'-iav, 
In'-su'lt, 
In'-ter-change, 
In'-ter-dict, 
In'-timate, 
Mis-con '-duct, 
O'-ver-charge, 
O'ver-throw, 
Per'-mit, 
Pre'-fix, 
Prel'-ude, 
Pres'-age, 
Pres'-ent, 
Prod'-uce, 
Proj'-ect, 
Prot'-est, 
Reb'-el, 
Rec'-ord, 
Ref-use, 
Rep'-ri-mand, 
Sub'-ject, 
Sur'-vey, 
Tor'-ment, 
Trans'-fer, 
Trans'-port, 



This change of accent in the same word is produced, 
observes, by an instinctive effort in the language to 



Verbs. 
Ex-tract'. 
Fer-ment'. 
Fre-quent'. 
Im-port'. 
In-cen'se. 
In-cre'ase. 
In-lay'. 
I n -suit'. 
In-ter-cha'^ge. 
In-tcr-dict'. 
In'-timate.* 
Mis-con-duct'. 
O-ver-char'ge. 
O-ver-thro'-w. 
Per-mit'. 
Pre-fix'. 
Pre-lu'de. 
Pre-sa'ge. 
Pre-sent'. 
Pro-du'ce. 
Pro-ject'. 
Pro-test'. 
Re-bel'. 
Re-cord'. 
Re-fu'se. 
Re-pri-mand'. 
Sub-ject'. 
Sur-vey'. 
Tor-ment'. 
Trans-fer'. 
Trans-port'. 

as Walker well 
compensate, in 



* Intimate. — Though this word, both verb ana noun, is accented on the first syllable, 
yet, when used as a verb, the last syllable is longer dwelt upon. Compare the pronun- 
ciations of moderate, verb and noun ; also of separate, verb and adjective. 



PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 



some degree, for the want of different terminations for these different 
parts of speech. 

88. The following words exemplify the same tendency, but in a dif- 
ferent manner:* 



Nouns. 


Verbs. 


Nouns. 


Verbs. 


Abuse, abuce, 


Abuse, abuze. 


Mouse, mouce, 


Mouse, mouze. 


Close, a. cloce, 


Close, cloze. 


Use, uce, 


Use, uze. 


Diffuse, a. diffuce, 


Diffuse, diffuze. 


Grease, greace, 


Grease, greaze 


Excuse, excuce, 


Excuse, excuze. 


House, houce, 


House, houze. 


Grass, 


Graze. 


Brass, 


Braze. 


Glass, 


Glaze. 


Price, 


Prize, t 


Advice, 


Advise. 


Practice, 


Practise. 


Device, 


Devise. 


Prophecy, 


Prophesy. 


Behoof, 


Behoove. 


Bath, 


Bathe. 


Proof, 


Prove. 


Breath, 


Breathe. 


Reproof, 


Reprove. 


Cloth, 


Clothe. 


Belief, 


Believe. 


Loath, 


Loathe. 


Grief, 


Grieve. 


Mouth, 


Mouthe. 


Thief, 


Thieve. 


Sheath, 


Sheathe. 


Life, 


Live. 


Smooth,:}: 


Smoothe. 


Wife, 


Wive. 


Wreath, 


Wreathe. 



89. Of foreign words admitted into our language, particularly French, 
there is usually a threefold pronunciation, namely, the original or for- 
eign, the English, and a pronunciation, which is neither English nor 
foreign, hut between the two. In this case the middle course is not the 
best °but it is perhaps right to encourage it as a step in advance towards 
an honest English pronunciation. 

In another part of this work, will be found a collection of French and 
foreign words which have been introduced into our language without 
change. § 

90. Some Greek and Latin words retain the pronunciation of e final, 
though in such a position in English || it is always silent : 



Ac'mS. 
Apos'trophS. 



Anem'onS. 
Catas'trophS. 



Epit'omg. 
Hyper'bolg. 



Re"cipg. 
Sim'ile. 



Fina'lg. 
Rationa'lg. 



91. The uneducated, and sometimes the educated Irish, err in the 
pronunciation of the following sounds and letters : ea, ei, ey, oo, ou, a, e, 
i, o, u; d, t, I, and r ; as in the following words: 



Lave for leave. 


Shuk for shook. 


Sinsare for 


sincere. 


Ptill for 


pull (oo) 


Tay „ tea. 


Tuk „ took. 


Schame ,, 


scheme. 


Loudher ,, 


louder. 


Nate ,, neat. 


Fut „ foot. 


Plinty ,, 


plenty. 


Broadhcr,, 


broader. 


Plase ,, please. 


Stud ,, stood. 


Twinty „ 


twenty. 


Watther ,, 


water. 


Desate ,, deceit. 


Coorse ,, course. 


Cowld „ 


cold. 


Betther „ 


better. 


Resate ,, receipt. 


Coorso ,, coarse. 


Bowld ,, 


hold. 


Hcl-um ,, 


helm. 


Resave ,, receive. 


Soorce ,, source. 


Bush „ 


bush (oo) 


Real-um ,. 


realm. 


Conveo ,, convey. 


Gether^I , gather. 


Push „ 


push (oo) 


Ar-um „ 


arm. 


Obee ,, obey. 


Ketch „ catch. 


Cushion ,, 


cushion (oo) 


Har-um „ 


harm. 



* Either by a change in the pronunciation of the same letter, (as Abuse is pronounced 
abuce as a noun, and abuze as a verb,) or by a change or addition of letters, (as Glass, Glaze } 
Bath, Bathe.; 

t Prize, to set a price upon ; to valuo or esteem highly. 

% The adjective smooth is pronounced like the verb smoothe. 

§ To employ a foreign word, when thero is one in our owu language to express the samf 
idea, is a mark of silly affectation, and petty pedantry. 

II That is, it does not constitute an additional syllable, but it usually modifies the soune 
of the preceding vowel ; as in fat, fate ; met, mete ; pin, pine ; not, note ; tub, tube. 

^f Gather. — This error (giving a the short sound of e) belongs to the north of Irelane 
and Scotland. 



XXlV PRINCIPLES OF PRONUNCIATION. 

92. The learner should collect all the words in which such errors are 
likely to occur, and habituate himself to a correct pronunciation of 
them. Also, all such vulgarisms as 'jommetrr,' ' joggraphy,' 
'hoighth,' 'lenth,' 'oust,' 'strenth,' 'breth' (breadth), 'flnre' (floor), 

' readin,' ' writin,' for the purpose of guarding against them. 

93. The principal vulgarisms of the uneducated English, particu- 
larly of the Cockneys or natives of London, consist — 

a. In the use of w for v and v for uj; as " Fine, weal, and vinegar, are li'ery good 
Kettles, I wow." 

b. In sounding h -where it should not, and in omitting it where it ought to be heard ; as 
" Give my orse some hoats."* 

c. In introducing the sound of r into some words in which it has no place, and in ex- 
eluding it from others to which it belongs ; as in ' idea; - ,' ' winder', ' Mariar,' ' feller.* 
'arter' for after, ' darter' for daughter, ' sarspan' for saucepan; ' bam' for barm, ' laud' 
for lord, ' fust' tor first, ' kiver' for cover, &c. 

94. In England the following words are frequently confounded by 
uneducated or careless speakers. The explanation of each will be found 
in the Dictionary 



Ail 
Hail. 


Air 
Hair. 


Ale 
Hail. 


All 
Hall. 


Altar 

Halter 


Alter 
Halter. 


Am 

Ham. 


Anchor 
Hanker. 


And 
Hand. 


Arbour 
Harbour. 


Ardour 
Harder. 


Ark 
Hark. 


Arm 
Harm. 


Arras 
Harass. 


Arrow 
Harrow. 


As 
Has. 


Ash 
Hash. 


Asp 

Hasp. 


At 
Hat. 


Ate 
Hate. 


Aunt 
Haunt. 


Awl 
Hall. 


Ear 

Hear. 


Ear 
Here. 


Eat 
Heat- 


Eaves 
Heaves. 


Edge 
Hedge. 


Eel 
Heal. 


Eel 
Heel. 


Eisht 
Hate. 


Elm 
Helm. 


Erring 
Herring. 


Ill 
Hill. 


Ire 
Hire. 


Is 
His. 


Island 
Highland. 


It 
Hit. 


Old 
Hold. 


Osier 
Hosier. 


Otter 
Hotter. 


Our 
Hour. 


Owl 
Howl. 



* "It was quite impossible to witness unmoved the impressive solemnity with which he 
poured forth his soul in ' My 'art's in the 'ighlands,' or ' The brave old Hoak.' " — Dickens, 



A COLLECTION 

OF ALL THE DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS IN 
THE LANGUAGE.* 



[Many of the words in this list -will appear very easy to the reader, hut that is because they are familiriT 
to him." To persons unacquainted with them, such as children and foreigners, the irregular or unusual 
sounds of the letters occasion great difficulty. Besides, even the easiest of them will serve to recall tro 
reader's attention to the preceding Principles of Pronunciation.] 



Aborigines, ab'-o-rid"-jin-es, 71. t 
Above, a-buv 7 , 8, a. 
Abroad, a-brawd', 25. 
Acacia, a-ka-she-a. 
Accept'able, or Acceptable, 73, b. 
Accessary, ack'-ses-sar-y. 
Accessory, ack'-ses-sor-y. 
Accomplice, ac-com'-pliss, 76. 
Accompt, ac-coimt', 49. 
Accomptant, ac-count'ant. 
Accoutre, ao-coo'tur, 29, c- 
Accoutrement, ac-coo'-tre-ment. 
Accrue, ac-croo', 9, b. 
Acetous, a-ce'tti3. 
Ache, ake, 41. 
Achieve, a-cheev', 24. 
Acme, ack'-mey, 90. 
Acolyte, ac'-o-lite, 77. 
Aconite, ac'-o-nlte, 77. 
Acoustics, a-cow'-sticks. 
Acquiesce, ac-kwe-ess', 53. 
Acre, a'-ktir, 6, b. 
Adamantcan, ad'-a-man-te"-an. 
Adamantine, ad'-a-mau"-tin, 76. 
Adept, a-dept', 69. 
Ado, a-doo', 8, b. 
Adulator, ad"-u-la'-tor. 
Adulatory, ad"-u-la'-tor-y. 
Adult, a-'dult'. 
Adust, a-dust'. 
Advertise, ad"-ver-ti'se. 
Advertisement, ad-ver'-tlse-ment. 
Advertiser, ad"-ver-tl'-ser. 
AfFront, af-frunt', 8, a. 
Again, a-gen {ghard,. 
Against, a-genst (g hard). 
Aghast, a-gast'. 
Agile, ad'gil, 76. 
Agone, a-gOn'. 
Ague, a'-gu, 33, b. 
Aisle, lie, 14, a. 
Albeit, all-bc'-it, 5, b. 
Alchymy, al'-k6-my, 41. 
Alcohol, al'-cS-hol. 
Alguazil, al"-ga-zeel', 7, b. 
Alien, ale'-ven, 7, c. 
Alkaline, al'-ka-lm, 76. 
Allegro, al-le-gro. 
AHeluiah, al'-16-loo"-yah, 46. 
Almond, am'-6nd, 48. 
Alms, ams, 48. 



Almoner, al'-mou-er, 48. 
Aloes, al'-oze. 
Altar, awl'-tar, 5, b. 
Alter, awl'-tSr, 5, b. 
Altercate, al'-tSr-cate. 
Alternate, al-ter'-nate. 
Alumine, al'-u-mm, 76. 
Alvine, al'-vm, 76. 
Amaranthine, ani'-a-ran"-thin, 76. 
Ambages, am-ba'-ges, 70. 
Ambergris, am'-ber-grees, 7, b. 
Ambush, am'-boosh, 9, a. 
Amethystine, am'-e-thist"-ln, 76. 
Amiable, a'-mfi-a-bl. 
Amice, am'-Is, 76. 
Among, a-mung / , 8, a. 
Amongst, a-mungst'. 
Amortise, a-mor'-tlz, 76. 
Amour, a-moor', 29, c. 
Amphibious, am-fib'-g-tis, 52. 
Amphisbaena, am-fls-be'-na, 52, 13. 
Anachronism, an-ack'-ro-nism, 41. 
Anathema, a-nath'-e-ma, 70. 
Anchoret, ar.g'-kd-ret. 
Anchorite, ang'-ko-rite, 77. 
Anchovy, an-cho'-vy, 69. 
Ancient, ain'-shSnt, 2, f. 
Ancillary, an'-cil-lar-y. 
Angel, ain'-gel, 2, f . 
Angelic, an-gel'-ic, 80, a. 
Anger, ang'-ger {g hard), 44. 
Angle, ang'-gl, 6, b. 
Anguish, ang'-gwish, 34. 
Anile, an'-Ile, 76. 
Anility, a-nil'-i-ty, 73. 
Anise, an'-ls, 76. 
Anodyne, an"-o-dIne. 
Anonymous, a-non'-e-mtis. 
Answer, an'-sSr, 59. 
Antalgic, ant-al'-jTck. 
Ante-chamber, an"-te-chaim'-ber. 
Anthracite, an'-thra-cite, 77. 
Antipodes, an'-tip'-o-dfis, 70. 
Antiquary, an"ti-kwa-ry, 32. 
Antique, an-teek,' 7, b. 
Antiquity, an'-tick'-wS-ty, 53. 
Antre, an'-tgr, 6, 5. 
Anxiety, ang-zi'-6-ty. 
Anxious, angk'-shtis, 75. 
Any, en'-n6y, 5, e. 
Aphaeresis, a-f eY-rg-sis, 13. 



* The explanation of these words win be found in the subjoined Dictionary. 

+ The numbers after the words refer to the preceding Principles of Pronunciation. This marts w , de 
notes a short, and this -, a long syllable. 



XXVI 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



Apocrypha, a-pock'-re-fa. 
.Apophthegm, ap'-6-them. 
Apostle, a-pos'-tSl, 66. 
Applicability, ap'-pli-ca-bil"-i-ty. 
Apposite, ap'-p6s-ztt, 76. 
Apprentice, ap-pren'-tis, 76. 
ApproTal, ap-proov'-al, 8, b. 
Approve, ap-proov 7 , 8, b. 
Approver, ap-proov'-er, 8, b. 
Apricot, a'-pre-cot. 
Apron, a'-pron, 66. 
Aquatic, a-qwat'-ic, 32. 
Aqueduct, ack'-qwe-duct, 33. 
Aqueous, a'-kwe-us, 33. 
Aquiline, ack'-we-Hn, 76. 
Arabesque, ar'-a-besk. 
Arachnoid, a-rack'-noid, 41. 
Archaic, ar-ka-ic, 41. 
Archaiology, ar'-kai-or'-o-gy, 41. 
Archangel, ark-ain'-gel, 41. 
Archetype, ar'-ke-tipe, 41. 
Ar'-chi-e-pis"-co-pa-cy (ar-ki-), 41. 
Ar'-chi-e-pis"-co-pal (ar-ki-), 41. 
Ar / -chi-pel"-a-go (ar-ki-), 41. 
Architect, ar'-ki-tect, 41. 
Architrave, ar'-ki-trave, 41. 
Archives, ar'klves, 41. 
Area, a'-re-a. 
Argil, ar'-jil. 

Argillaceous, ar'-jil-! a"-shtis. 
Argive, ar'-give ig hard). 
Arian, air / -6-an. 
Armistice, ar'-ml-stfss, 76. 
Arquebuse, ar'-ke-boos, 9, a. 
Artifice, ar'-ti-ilss, 7G. 
Artificial, ax-ti-fish'-yal, 7, c. 
Asafcetida, as'-=a-fet"-i-da. 
Asbestine, as-bes'-tin, 76. 
Asinine, as'-i-nine, 77. 
Askaunce, as-kan'ce, 16, a. 
Askaunt, as-kant', 16, a. 
Assign, as-sine', 44, a. 
Assignation, as'-sig-na"-shun, 44, a. 
Assignee, as'-se-nee, 44, a. 
Assuage, as-swage', 32. 
Asthma, ast'-ma, 57. 
Asthmatic, ast-mat'-ic. 
Atrocious, a-tro'-shas. 
Atrocity, a-tross'-i-ty, 73. 
Auln, awn, 48. 
Auspice, aw'-splss, 76. 
Autumn, avr'-tum, 50. 
Autumnal, aw-tum'-nal, 50. 
Auxiliary, awg-zll'-yar-y, 7, c. 
Avalanche, av"-a-longsh', 89. 
Avoirdupois, av'-er-du-poize, 89. 
Avouch, a-vowtch, 29. 

Bade, bad, 1. 
Bagnio, ban'-yo, 44, a. 
Bal'cony, or Balc-o'-ny, 69. 
Balsam, bawl' -sum, 5, b. 
Balsamic, bal-sam'-ic, 73. 
Bandana, ban-dan'-a. 
Banian, ban'yan, 7, c. 
Banquet, bang'-kwet, 33. 
Barouche, ba-roosh', 89. 
Bass {in music), base. 
Battalion, bat-tal'-yon, 7, C. 
Bayonet, bay'-6net. 
Beard, beerd, 17. 



Becafico, bec'-a-fee"-co, 7, b. 
Behoove or Behove, behoov, 8, b 
Benign, be-nlne', 44, a. 
Benignity, be-nig'-ni-ty, 44, a. 
Bequeath, be-kweeth', 53. 
Bird, bird, 7, a. 
Biscuit, bis'-kit, 34, a. 
Bison, bi'-sn. 

Bissextile, bis-secks'-tll, 76. 
Bitumen, be-tu'-men, 70. 
Bivouac, biv'-oo-ack, 89. 
Blaspheme, bias-feme'. 
Blasphemous, bl as'-f6-mus, 73. 
Blood, blud, 28, b. 
Boatswain, bo'-sn, 69. 
Bomb, bum, 8, a. 
Bombard, v. bum-bard', 8, a, 
Bombardier, bum-ba-deer'. 
Bombasin, bum-ba-zeen', 7, b. 
Borough, bur'o, 29, a. 
Bosom, booz'tim, 8, b. 
Boudoir, boo-dwor', 89. 
Bouilli, bool'-ye, 89. 
Bouillon, bool'-yong, 89. 
Bouquet, boo'-k'ay, 69. 
Bourgeon, bur'-jun, 29, b, and 75 
Bow, bo, 30, a. 
Bow, bou, 30. 
Bowl, bole, 30, a. 
Bowline, bo'-lln, 76. 
Bowsprit, bo'-sprit, 30. 
Brazier, bra'zher, 62. 
Brazil, bra-zeel', 7, b. 
Break, brake, 17. 
Breakfast, brek'-fast, 73. 
Brevet, bre-vet', 69. 
Brevier, bre-veer', 69. 
Brigand, brig'-and, 69. 
Brigantine, brig'-an-tine, 77. 
Britska, bris'-ka. 
Broad, brawd, 25. 
Brooch, broatch, 28. 
Brother, bruth'-er, 8, a. 
Bruise, brooz, 34, b. 
Brunette, broo-net', 9, b. 
Brusque, broosk, 89. 
Bull, book 

Bulletin, bool'-e-teen, 89. 
Bullion, bool'-yun, 7, c. 
Buoy, bwoy, 37. 
Buoyant, bwoy'-ant, 37. 
Bureau, bu-ro', 89. 
Burial, ber'-e-al, 9, c. 
Burlesque, bur-lesk', 89. 
Bury, ber'-ry, 9, c. 
Business, biz'-ness, 9, C. 
Busy, biz'-ey, 9, c. 

Cabal, ca-bal'. 
Cabaret, cab'-a-ray, 89. 
Caboose, ca-booce'. 
Cabriolet, cab'-re-o-lay", 89. 
Cajeput, cad'-je-put. 
Calamine, cal'-a-mln, 76. 
Calcareous, cal-kay'-re-us. 
Caldron, cawl'-dron. 
Calk, cawk, 48. 
Cambric, kaim'-bTic, 2, f- 
Camelopard, cam"-el-o-pard'. 
/ Campaign, cam-pain', 44, a. 
Canaille, ka-na'-il, 89. 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



xxvi? 



Canine, ka-nine', 76. 
Canoe, ka-noo', 26, a. 
Canorous, ca-no'-rus, 69. 
Capillary, cap'-ll-lar-y. 
Caprice, ca-preece', 7, b. 
Captain, kap'-tin, 14, b. 
Capuchin, cap'-u-sheen", 7, b. 
Carabine, car'-bine, 76. 
Caries, care'-e^es. 
Carriage, car'-rldge, 75. 
Casque, cask, 53. 
Cassia, cash'-ya, 7, c. 
Cassino, eas-se'-no, 7, b. 
Catachresis, cat'-a-kre"-sis, 41. 
Catarrh, ca-tar 7 . 
Catastrophe, ca-tas'-trof-y, 90. 
Catechism, cat'-e-kizm, 41. 
Catechist, cat'-e-kist, 41. 
Catholicism, cath-thol'-I-cizri). 
Cavalier, cav'-a-leer", 24. 
Cavatina, eav'-a-te"na, 7, 6. 
Caviare, cav'-yare, 7, c. 
Cazique, ca-zeek', 7, b. 
Cenobite, ce'-no-bite, 77. 
Centre, cen'-ter, 6, b. 
Centrifugal, cen-trif'-u-gal. 
Centripetal, cen-trip'-e-tal. 
Cerulean, ce-roo'-le-an, 9, 6. 
Ceruse, ce'-rooce, 9, b. 
Chagrin, sha-green', 7, b. 
Chalice, tchal'-Iss, 76. 

Chalk, tchawk, 48. 

Chamber, tchaine'-ber, 2, i . 

Chameleon, ka-me'-le-on, 41. 

Chamois, sham'-wa, 89. 

Chamomile, kam'^o-mlle, 41. 

Champagne, sbam-pain', 44, a. 

Champaign, sham-pain', 41, a. 

Chaos, ka'-6s, 41. 

Chaperon, shap'-er-oang, 89. 

Charade, sha-raid'. 

Charlatan, shar'-la-tan, 89. 

Charlatanieal, shar'-la-tan"-i-cal, 81. 

Charlatanry, shar'-la-tan-ry. 

«Jhart, tchart. 

Chasm, kasm, 41. 

Chasten, cba'sn. 

Chastise, chas-ti'ze, 76. 

Chastisement, chas'-tiz-ment. 

Chat, tcbat, 41. 

Cheer, tcheere, 41. 

Cheerful, tcher-ful, 73. 

Chemise, shem-eez', 7, b. 

Chevalier, shev'-a-leer", 24. 

Chevaux-de-frise, shev-o'-de-freoze. 

Chicane, tshe-cain'. 

China, tshi'-na. 

Chivalry, shiv'-al-ry. 

Chlorine, klo'-rln, 76. 

Choir, kwire. 

Chorister, kor'-is-ter. 

Cliougb, chuff, 29, b. 

Christianity, kris'-ti-an"-ity, 75, *. 

Chrysalis, kris'-a-lis. 

Chrysolite, kris'-6-lite, 77. 

Chy'lc, klle. 

Chyme, klme. 

Cicatrice, cick'-a-trlss, 76. 

Ciliary, cil'-ya-ry, 7, c. 

Cinque, cingk, 89. 

Circuit, oir'-ket, 34, a. 



Clandestine, clan-des'-tln, 76. 
Clarion, clar'-yun, 7, C. 
Clerk, clark, 6, c. 
Clique, cleek, 7, b. 
Clough, cluf, 29, b. 
Cocagne, coc-cain', 44, a. 
Cochineal, cutch-e-neel'. 
Cockswain, cock'-sn, 69. 
Cocoa, co'-co, 25. 
Cognizance, con'-ne-zance, 89 
Coiffure, koif-foor, 89. 
Coigne, coin, 44, a. 

Colander, cul'-an-der, 8. a. 

Colloquy, col'-lo-kwey, 36. 

Colonel, cur'-nel, 8, a. 

Colonnade, col'-o-naid", 6S, a. 

Color, Colour, cul'-ur, 8, a. 

Column, col'-um, 50. 

Combat, cum'-bat, 8, a. 

Come, cum, 8, a. 

Comely, cum'-ly, 8, a. 

Comfit, cum'-fit, 8, a. 

Comfort, cum'-fort, 8, a. 

Comfrey, cum'-frey, 8, a. 

Commen'dable, or Com'-mendable, 72, b 

Commissariat, com'-mis-sa"-ri-at. 

Commissary, com'-mls-sar-y. 

Company, cum'-pan-y, 8, a. 

Compen'sate, or Com -pen-sate, 71. 

Complacent, com-pla'-cent. 

Com'plaisan // ce, or Com"-plaisan'ce, 69. 

Conch, congk, 41. 

Condemn, con-dem', 50. 

Condemnation, con'-dem-na"-tion, 50. 

Condemned, con-dem'd, 50- 

Condemning, con-dem'-ing, 50. 

Condign, con-dine', 44, a. 

Conduit, cun'-dit, 34, a. 

Confes'sor, or Con'-fessor, 72, b. 

Confidant, con'-fe-dant", mas., 89. 

Confidante, con'-fe-dante", fern., 89. 

Confident, con'-fi-dent. 

Confis'cate, or Con'-fis-cate, 71. 

Conge, con'-jay, 89. 

Conjure, con-joor'. 

Connoisseur, con'-nais-sur", 89. 

Conquer, cong'-ker, 33, a. 

Conquest, cong'-k\vest, 33, a 

Consolatory, con-sOl'-a-tor-y, 73. 

Consols, con-sols'. 

Constable, cun'-sta-bl, 8, a. 

Construe, con'-stroo, 9, b. 

Contagious, con-ta'-jus, 85. 

Contemn, con-tem', 50. 

Contemner, con-tem'-er, 50. 
| Contemning, con-tem'-ing, 50. 
j Contem'plate, or Con'-tem-plato, 71. 
I Contrary, con'-tra-ry, 69. 

Contrite, con'-trlte. 

Contumacious, con'-tu-ma"-shus, 84. 
j Contumelious, con'-tu-me"le-us. 
j Con'versant, or Con-ver'-sant, 71. 
: Conversazione, con-ver-sat'-ze-o"-ny, 89 
j Coppice, cop'-piss, 76. 
j Coquet, v. co-ket', 53. 

Coquetry, co-ket'-ry, 72. 

Coquette, s. co-ket', 53. 

Coriaceous, core-e-a'-shus, 84. 
! Cork-screw, cork'-skroo. 
I Cornice, cor'-niss, 76. 

Corollary, cor'-6l-lar-y. 

63 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



Corps, core, 89. 
Corsair, cor-sare', 69. 
Cortege, cor'-taizh, 89. 
Cough, c5ff, 29, e. 
Coulter, cole'-ter, 29, a. 
Counterfeit, coun'-ter-fit, 74. 
Country, cun'-try, 29, b. 
Couple, cup'-el, 29, b. 
Courage, cur'-age, 29, b. 
Courageous, cur-ra'-jus, 85. 
Courier, coor'-e-er, 29, c. 
Courteous, curt'-yus, 75. 
Courtesy, cur'-te-sy, 29, b. 
Courtesy, ctirt'-sy. 
Cousin, cuz'-zn, 29, 6. 
Covenant, cuv'-e-nant, 29, b. 
Cover, cuv'-er, 29, b. 
Covert, cuv'-ert, 29, b. 
Covet, cur'-et. 
Covetous, cuv'-e-tus. 
Cowardice, cow'-ard-iss, 76. 
Cozen, cuz'-zn, 29, b. 
Cravat, cra-vat', G9. 
Crease, creece, 17. 
Crevice, crev'-iss, 76. 
Critique, ere-teek', 7, b. 
Cromlech, crom'-leck. 
Crosier, cro'-zhur, 55. 
Cucumber, coo'-cum-ber. 
Cuerpo, kwer'-po. 
Cuirass, kwe'-rass, 89. 
Cuisse, kwiss, 89. 
Cushion, coosh'-un, 9, a. 

Dahlia, dale-ya, 7, c. 
Daunt, dant, 16, a. 
Dearth, derth, 17. 
Debt, det, 39. 
Debtor, det'-ur, 39. 
Decorous, de-co'-rus. 
Decorum, de-co'-rum, 70. 
Defalcation, de'-fal-ca"-shun, 79. 
Definite, def'-i-nit, 76. 
Deign, dain, 19 and 44, a. 
Deity, de'-e-ty, 80. 
Delicious, de-lish'-us, 75. 
Delight, de-llte, 44, b. 
Demagogue, dem'-a-gSg, 33, c. 
Demesne, Domain, de-ma'ne. 
Denier, de-neer', 89. 
dentifrice, den'-ti-friss, 76. 
Dernier, der'-ne-er, 89. 
Desuetude, des'-swe-tude, 33. 
Desultory, des'-sul-tdr-y. 
Detour, dc-toor', 89. 
Devastate, de-vas'-tate, 69. 
Devastation, dev'-as-ta"-shun, 86. 
Devoir, dev'-wor, 89. 
Diachylon, di-ack'-e-lon. 
Diaeresis, di-er'-e-cis. 
Dialogue, di-a-log, 33, c. 
Diamond, di-a-mund. 
Diapason, di-a-pa"-zon. 
Diaphragm, di-a-fram, 44, a. 
Diarrhoea, di'-ar-re"-a. 
Diastole, di-ass'-to-ly, 90. 
Dicotyledon, di-co-till"-e-don. 
Dilate, dl-la'te. 
Dilatory, dil'-a-tar-y, 73. 
Dimissory, dim'-is-sar-y. 
Diphthong, dip '-thong. 



Discipline, dis'-ci-plin, 76. 

Discomfit, dis-cum'-fit, 8, a. 

Discretion, dis-cresh'-un, 73, 86. 

Dis'embo"gue, dis'-em-bog", 33, e. 

Disfranchise, dis-fran'-chiz, 76. 

Dishabille, dis / -a-bill', 89. 

Dishevel, de-shev'-el, 89. 

Disputable, dis / -pu-ta-bl, 72, b. 

Disputant, dis'-pu-tant, 72, b. 

Dissolubility, dis'-sal-u-bil"-i-ty. 

Dissoluble, dis'-sa-lu-bl. 

Distich, dis'-stick, 41. 

Do, doo, 8, b. 

Docible, das'-se-bl. 

Docile, das'-sil. 

Doctrinal, doc'-tri-nal, 73. 

Doctrine, doc'-trln, 76. 

Does, duz, 26, a. 

Doge, doje (g soft), 89. 

Dog'ger (g hard). 

Domicile, dom'-i-cil, 76. 

Done, dfln, 8, a. 

Door, dore, 28, b. 

Dose, doce. 

Double, dub'-bl, 29, 6. 

Doublet, dub'-let, 29, b. 

Doubt, dowt, 39. 

Douceur, doo-sur', 89. 

Dough, doe, 29, a. 

Doughty, dow'-ty, 44, b. 

Dozen, duz'-zn, 29, b. 

Drachm, dram, 41. 

Drachma, drack'-ma, 41. 

Drama, dram'a. 

Draught, draft, 41, b. 

Drought, drowt, 29, 44, b. 

Ducat, duck'-at, 69. 

Ductile, duc'-til, 76. 

Dudgeon, dud'-jun, 75. 

Duenna, du-en'-na. 

Dungeon, dun'-jun, 75. 

Duresse, du'-ress, 69. 

Dynasty, dyn'-as-ty. 

Eclat, e-claw', 89. 

Eclogue, eck-log', 33, c. 

E'er, air. 

Egotism, eg'-o-tizm. 

Egotist, eg'-o-tist. 

Eider, 1-der. 

Eisht, ait, 19. 

Eighth, aith, 19. 

Either, ee'-ther. 

Eleemosynary, el'-ee-moz"-§-nar-y. 

Elicit, e-llss'-it. 

Elite, ai-leet', 89. 

Empiric, or Em'piric, 69, 80, a. 

Empty, em'-ty, 51. 

Empyrean, em'-py-re"-an. 

Enceinto, ong-saingt, 89. 

Encore, ong-core, 89. 

Endeavour, en-deV-ur, 17. 

Endive, en'-div, 7, d. 

E-ner'-vate, or En'-er-vate, 71. 

Enfeoff, en-feff. 

Enfilade, ong'-fe-lad", 89. 

Enfranchise, en-fran'-chiz, 76. 

Engine, en'-jin, 76. 

Ennui, an-wee', 89. 

Enough, e-nufF, 29, b. 

En passant, ong-pas'-song, 89. 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



XXlX 



Ensign, en'-sine, 44, a. 
Ensigncy, en'-sin-cy, 73. 
Entomb, en-toom', 39. 
Envel'op, v. en-vel'-op. 
Envelope, s. ongv'-lop, 89. 
Environ, v. en-vi'-ron. 
Environs, s. en-vi'-rons, 89. 
Epaulet, ep'-aw-let, 89. 
Epergne, ai-pairn', 89. 
Epilogue, ep'-Mdg, 33, c. 
Epitome, e-pit'-6-me, 90. 
Epoch, ep'-ock, 41. 
Equable, eck'-wa-bl, 53. 
Equal, ee'-kwiil, 53. 
Equator, ee'-kway'-tor, 53. 
Equatorial, eck'-wa-tore-e-al. 
Equerry, eck'-wer-ry, 53. 
Equinox, eck'-we-nocks, 53. 
Equipage, eck'-we-page, 53. 
Equivoke, eq'-we-voke. 
Equivoque, a'-ke-voke", 89. 
Eremite, er'-e-mite, 77. 
Ermine, er'-min, 76. 
Escalade, es'-ca,-laid", 89. 
Eschalot, esh'-a-lot". 
Eschar, es'-kar, 41. 
Eschew, es-choo', 21. 
Escritoire, es'-cre-twar", 89. 
Escutcheon, e-scut'-chon, 75. 
Espalier, es-pal'-yer, 7, c. 
Especial, e-spesh'-al. 
Espionage, es"-pe-o-nazh', 89. 
Estafet, es'-ta-fet", 69, 89. 
Ether, e'-ther. 
Etiquette, et"-e-ket', 89. 
Eucharist, u'-ka-rist. 
Ewe, ii. 
Ewer, iire. 

Exaggerate, egz-ad'-jer-ate. 
Exemplary, cx'-em-plar-y. 
Exequies, ecks'-e-kwiz. 
Exergue, egz-erg', 33, c. 
Exorcise, ecks'-or-cise. 
Explicit, ex-plls'-it. 
Expugn, ecks-pu'ne, 44, a. 
Exquisite, ecks'-kwe-zit, 76. 
Extinguish, ecks-ting'-gwish, 34. 
Extir'pate, or Ex'tirpate, 69, 71. 
Extraordinary, ecks-tror'-de-nar-y. 
Eyre, air. 
Eyry, ai'-ry. 

Fabric, fab'-ric. 
Facade, fass-ad', 89. 
Facile, fass'-il, 76. 
Facetiae, fa-cee'-she-e. 
Fac-simile, fac-sim'-i-le, 90. 
Factitious, fac-tish'-us, 75, 84. 
Falcated, fal'-ca-ted. 
Falchion, fawl'-shun. 
Falcon, faw'-kn, 48. 
Falconer, fawk'-ner. 
Falconet, ftil'-co-net. 
Falsetto, fal-set'-to. 
Familiar, fa-mil'-yar, 7, c. 
Famine, fam'-in, 76. 
Fanatic, fa-nat'-ie, 80, a. 
Farina, fa-ri'-na, 70. 
Farrago, far-ra'-go, 70. 



Fascine, fass-see'n, 7, b. 
Fatigue, fa-teeg 7 , 7, b. 
Fault, fawlt. 
Favorite, fa'-vur-it, 76. 
Fealtv, fe'-al-ty. 
Feather, feth'-er, 17. 
Febrile, feb'-ril, 76. 
Feign, fain, 19. 
Feint, faint, 19. 
Felloe, fel'-lo. 
Felluca, fe-luc'-ka. 
Feminine, fem'-i-nln, 76 
Feod, fude, 20. 
Feodal, fu'-dal, 20. 
Feoff, fef, 20. 
Feoffee, feffee, 20. 
Feoffer, fef-fer, 20. 
Ferocious, fe-ro'-shus, 75, 84. 
Ferocity, fe-rdss'-I-ty, 73. 
Fertile, fer'-til, 76. 
Fibre, fi'-bur, 6, b. 
Fief, feef, 24. 
Fierce, feerce, 24, a. 
Fiery, fi'-er-y. 
Filial, fil'-yal, 7, c. 
Finesse, f e-ness', 69. 
Fir, fer, 7, a. 
First, ferst, 7, a. 
Fissile, fis'-sil, 76. 
Flaccid, flack'-sid. 
Flageolet, fiadj'-o-let". 
Flambeau, flam'-bo, 12. 
Flaunt, flant, 16, a. 
Flavour, fla'-vur, 29, b, 74. 
Flood, flud, 28, b. 
Floor, flore. 

Flourish, fiur'-ish, 29, b. 
Focile, fo'-cil, 76. 
Foliage, fo'-le-age. 
Folk, foke, 48. 
foreign, foi y -in, 74. 
Foreigner, for'-in-er, 74. 
Forfeit, for'-fit, 74. 
Forfeiture, for'-fit-ure, 74. 
Four, fore, 29, a. 
Fracas, fra-ca', 89. 
Fragile, frad'-gil, 76. 
Franchise, fran'-chiz, 76. 
Frankincense, frank'-In-cense. 
Freight, frait, 19. 
Frequent. See No. 87. 
Fricasee, frick'-ass-ee", 89. 
Friend, frend, 24, a. 
Frigid, frid'-gid. 
Front, frunt, 8, a. 
Frontier, fron'-teer. 
Fulminate, ful'-min-ate. 
Fulsome, ful'-sum, 73. 
Funereal, fu-ne'-re-al. 
Furlough, furMo, 29, a. ; 44, b. 
Furnace, fuiZ-niss, 74. 
Fusee or Fusil, fu-zee', 48. 
Fusil, fu'-zil (a spindle) 
Fusilier, fu'-si-leer". 
Futile, fu'-tU, 76. 

Gabakdinii:, gab'-ar-deen", 7, 6. 
Gaelic, ga'-el-ic. 
Galiot, gal'-e-ot.* 



* Galiot is usually pronounced gaV-yot, 



XTCX 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



Galleon, gal'-e-on, 20.* 
Galliard, gal'-yard, 7, c. 
Galoche, ga-ldsh'. 
Galoches, pi. ga-losh'-ez. 
Gamboge, gam-boodge', 8, b. 
Gaol, jail. See No. 15. 
Gauge, gage. 
Gauger, gay '-j ex. 
Gaunt, gant, 16, a. 
Gauntlet, gant'-let, 16, a. 
Genuine, jen'-u-in, 76. 
Gewgaw, gu'-gaw, 44. 
Gherkin Ig hard), 44. 
Ghib'elline (ghard), 76. 
Gibber (g hard), 44. 
Gibberish (g hard), 44. 
Gibbet (g soft). 
Gibbous {g hard). 
Gills (g hard), 44. 
Gill ig soft). 
Gillyflower [g soft). 
Gimp (g hard), 44. 
Gin [g soft). 
Gingham \g hard), 44. 
Giraffe, zhe-raf . 
Give, glv (g hard), 44. 
Glacier, glass'-e-er, 89. 
Glacis, glass-ees', 89. 
Glove, gluv, 8, a. 
Goitre, goy'-tur, 89. 
Gorgeous, gor'-jus, 85. 
Gouge, goodge, 29, C. 
Goulard, goo-lard', 29, c. 
Gourd, gord, 29, a. 
Gout, goo, 89. 
Govern, guv'-ern, 8, a. 
Governante, go-ver-nant', 89. 
Gracile, grass'-il, 76. 
Great, grait, 17. 
Grenade, gren-aid'. 
Grisette, gre-zet', 89. 
Guaiacum, gwa'-ya-cum, 7, c. 
Guano, gwan'-o, 32. 
Guardian, gard-yan, 7, c. 
Guava, gwa'-va, 32. 
Guerdon, ger'-don (g hard). 
Guilt, gilt ig hard), 34, a. 
Guinea, gin'-ny ig hard). 
Guitar, gue-tar 7 . 
Gunwale, gun'-nel. 
Gymnasium, jim-naz'-e-um 
Gymnastic, jim-nas'-tic. 
Gypsum, jip'-surn, 44. 
Gyves, jives. 

Habergeon, hab'-er-je-6n. 
Halcvon, hal'-ce-on. 
Half, haf, 48. 
Halfpenny, ha'-pen-ny, 48. 
Hallelujah, hal'-le-loo"-yah, 4' 
Halliard, hal'-yard, 7, c. 
Halser, haw'-ser, 48. 
Halve, hav, 48. 
Halves, havz, 48. 
Handkerchief, hang'-ker-chlf. 
Harangue, ha-rang 7 . 
Harbour, har'-bur, 75. 
Harlequin, har'-le-kwin, 53. 
Harrier, har'-re-er, 73. 



Hauberk, haw'-berk. 

Haunt, hant, 16, a. 

Hautboy, ho' -boy, 89. 

Hauteur, ho-tur', 89. 

Haut-gout, ho-goo', 89. 

Health, helth, 17. 

Heard, herd, 17. 

Hearken, harMcen, 17. 

Hearse, herce, 17. 

Hearten, har'-tn, 17. 

Hearth, harth, 17. 

Hearty, hart'-ty, 17. 

Heaven, heV-vn, 17. 

Heavy, heV-vy, 17. 

Hecatomb, heck'-a-tom. 

Hegira, hed'-je-ra, or he-ji-ra, 69. 

Height, hite, 19, a. 

Heifer, hef'er, 19, a. 

Heinous, hay'-nus, 19, a. 

Heir, air, 19, a. 

Heiress, air'-ess. 

Hemistich, hem'-i-stick, 41. 

Hemorrhage, hem'-or-rage. 

Hereditament, her / -e-dit"-a-ment. 

Heroine, her / -o-in, 76. 

Heterogeneous, het'-er-6-jee"-ne-u8. 

Hideous, hid'-yus. 

Hippopotamus, hip'-po-pot"-a-mus. 

Historiographer, his'-to-ri-og"-ra-ph<?l. 

Hogshead, hogz'-hed. 

Holm, holm. 

Homogeneous, ho'-mo-jee"ne-us. 

Honey, hun'-ey, 8, a. 

Hosier, ho'-zher, 62. 

Hostile, hos'-til, 76. 

Hostler, os'-ler, 45. 

Hough, hock, 44, b. 

Housewife, huz'-wif, 73. 

Hover, huv'-er, 8, a. 

Huguenot, hu'-ghe-not. 

Humble, um'-bl, 45. 

Hyaline, hi'-a-lin, 76. 

Hyena, hi-e'-na. 

Hygeian, hl-jee'-an. 

Hymeneal, hy'-men-e"-al. 

Hymn, him, 50. 

Hymning, him-ing, 50 

Hyphen, hi'-fen, 52. 

Hypocrite, hip'-po-crite, 76. 

Hypotenuse, hip-ot'-e-nuce. 

Hyssop, his'-sop. 

Idea, I-de'-a. 

Idiot, id'-i-ot. 

Illicit, il-liss'-it. 

Imbecile, im-be-ceel', 7, b. ;orim'-be-ceel, «9. 

Import, v. im-port', 71. 

Important, im-p6r'-tant, 73. 

Impugn, im-pune', 44, a. 

Incendiary, in-cend'-yar-y, 7, C. 

Inchoate, ing'-co-ate. 

Inchoative, in"-co-a'-tive. 

Indecorous, in'-de-co"-rus. 

Indefinite, in-def-in-it, 76. 

Indict, in-dite', 40. 

Indictment, in-di'te-ment, 40. 

Indigenous, in-did'-ge-nus. 

Indisputable, in-dis'-pii-ta-bl. 

Indissoluble, in-dis'-s6-lu-bl. 



Galleon Is, in colloquial language, usually pronounced ga-Coon'. 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



Indocile, in-doss'-il, 76. 
Infantile, in'-fan-tile, 77. 
Infinite, in'-fin-it, 76. 
Inlmi'cal, or Inimical. 
Initial, in-ish'-al. 
Insignia, in-sig'-ne-a. 
Instead, in-sted', 17. 
Intaglio, in-tal'-yo, 7, C. 
Interlocutor, in'-ter-loc"-u-tor. 
Interstice, or In'terstice, 69. 
Intestine, in-test'-tin, 76. 
Intrigue, in-treeg', 7, b. 
Invalid, in-va-leed', 7, b. 
Inveigh, in-yay', 19. 
Inveigle, in-ve'-gl, 19. 
Inventory, in'-ven-tor-y. 
Iota, I-o'-ta. 

Ipecacuanha, ip-e-cack'-u-an"-a. 
Island, i'-land, 55. 
Isthmus, ist'-mus. 57. 

Jacowne, jao'-o-Din, 76. 
Jaguar, jag y -ti-ar. 
Jalap, jal'-up. 
Jaundice, jan'-diss, 76. 
Jaunt, jant, 16, a. 
Jeopardy, jep'-ar-dy. 
Jessamine, jess'-a-min, 76. 
Jet-d'eau, zhay-do', 89. 
Jocose, jo-coce'. 
Jonquille, jung'-kwil, 53. 
Journal, jur'-nal, 29, b. 
Joust, just, 29, b. 
Judaism, joo'-da-ism. 
Judiciary, joo-dish'-e-ar-y. 
Judicious, joo-dish'-us. 
Jugular, joo'-gu-lar. 
Justice, jus'-tiss, 76. 
Juvenile, ju-ven-U, 76. 

Kaleidoscope, ka-li'-d5s-oope. 

Kerchief, ker'-chif, 24, a. 

Khan, cawn. 

Kiln, kil, 48. 

Knack, nack, 47. 

Knave, nave, 47. 

Knead, need, 47. 

Kneading-trough, needing-fcrOff, 29, e. 

Know, no, 73. 

Knowledge, n61'-edge, 73. 

Laboratory, lab'-5-ra-t6r-y. 
Labour, la'-bur, 74. 
Lache, Laches, lash, lash'es. 
Laconic, la-con'-ic, 80, a. 
Lacquer, lac'-ker, 53. 
Laity, la'-i-ty. 
Lamb, lam, 39. 
Landau, lan'-daw, 89. 
Language, lang'-gwage, 31. 
Languid, lang'-gwid, 34. 
Laniard, lan'-yard, 7, c. 
Lansquenet, lan'ee-ke-net, 53. 
Lattice, lat'-tiss, 76. 
Laudanum, )od'-a-num, 16, c. 
Laugh, laf, 16, b. 
Laughable, laf-a-bl. 
Launch, lanch, 16, a. 
Laundress, lan'-dress, 16, a. 
Laundry, lau'-dry, 16, a.. 
Laurel. "ior'-el, 16. c. 



Lava, la'-va. 
League, leeg, 33, c. 
Leather, leth'-er, 17. 
Legend, led'-gend, or lee'-gend. 
Legendary, led'-gen-dar-y. 
Leisure, le'-zhure, 19. 
Leopard, lep'-ard, 20. 
Lethe, le'-the, 90. 
Lettuce, let'-tiss, 76. 
Leviathan, le-vi'-a-than. 
Libertine, lib'-er-tin, 76. 
Licentiate, liccn'-she-ate, 79. 
Licorice, lick'-or-iss, 76. 
Lichen, litch'-en. 
Lieu, loo, 12. 

Lieutenant, lev-ten'-ant, 12. 
Light, lite, 44, b. 
Lilao, li'-lack. 
Lime-kiln, li'me-kil. 
Limn, lim, 50. 
Limner, lim'-ner, 50. 
Lingual, ling'-gwal, 32. 
Liquid, lick'-wid, 53. 
Liquor, lick'-or, 53. 
Liquefy, lick'-we-fy, 53. 
Litigious, lc-tidge'-us. 
Live, Hv, 1. 
Live-long, Jiv'-long. 
Livelihood, li've-ii-hood. 
Longer, a. long'-guer. 
Longer, s. long'-er. 
Longevity, lon-jcv'-i-ty. 
Loquacious, lo-kwa'-shus, 53* 
Loquacity, lo-kwass'-i-ty, 73. 
Lose, looz, 53. 
Lough, lock or lough. 
Love, lilv, 8, a. 
Lower, lo'-er. 
Lucre, loo'-cur, 6, b. 
Luncheon, lunch'-un, 75. 
Lunette, loo-net', 69. 
Lutheran, loo'-ther-an. 

Macaroni, mac'-a-ro"-ny. 
Machiavelism, mack"-5-a-vel'-izm. 
Machiavelian, mack / i-ri-ve"-li-an. 
Machine, ma-sheen', 7, b. 
Machinist, ma-sheen'-ist, 7, b. 
Magazine, mag-a-zeen', 7, b. 
Mahomet, ma-hom'-et. 
Malecontent, mal'-con-tent. 
Malign, ma-li'ne, 44, a. 
Malignity, ma-lig'-ni-ty, 44, a. 
Malmsey, mam'-sy. 
Mammilary, mam'-mil-lar-y. 
Mandarin, man'- da-re en", 7, b. 
Manoeuvre, ma-noo'-vur, 12. 
Mantua, man'-tu, 32, a. 
Mantuamaker, man"-tu-ma'-ker, 32» a, 
Marauder, ma-rawd'-er, 5, b. 
Marchioness, mar'-shon-ess, 75. 
Marechal, mar'-esh-al. 
Marine, ma-reen", 7, b. 
Maritime, mar'-i-tim. 
Marline, marMin, 76. 
Ma rm or can, mar-mo'-re-an. 
Marque, mark. 
Marquee, mar-kee', 53. 
Marquess, mar'-kwess, 53. 
Marquetry, mar'-ket-ry, 53. 
Marriage, mar'-ridge, 75. 



xirxn 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



Masculine, mas'-cu-lin, 76. 

Masquerade, mas'-ker-aid", 53. 

Massacre, mas'-sa-cur, 6, b. 

Matrice, ma'-triss, 76. 

Matron, ma'-tron, 73. 

Matronal, mat'-ro-nal, 73. 

Maugre, maw'-gur, 16. 

Maund, mand, 16, a. 

Maundy, mand-y, 16, a. 

Mausoleum, ma\v'-so-lee"-um. 

Medicament, mcd'-I-ca-ment. 

Medicinal, me-diss'-i-nal. 

Medicine, med'-e-cin, 76. 

Mediocre, me"-de-o'-cur, 6, b. 

Megatherium , meg'-a-th9"-ri-um. 

Melange, may'-longzh, 89. 

Melee, mayMay, 89. 

Meliorate, meol'-yo-rate, 7, C. 

Memoir, mem'-wawr, 69. 

Menace, men'-ace, 74. 

Menagerie, men-azh'-er-ee, 89. 

Mercantile, mer'-can-til, 76. 

Messuage, mcs'-swage, 32. 

Metempsychosis, me-temp'-se-co"-cis. 

Meteor, me'-te-5r. 

Met"-o-nim'-y, or Met-on'-y-my. 

Mezzc, met'-zo, 89. 

Mezaotinto, met'-zo-tin"-to. 

Mignonette, min'-yon-et", 89. 

Milch, miltsh, 41. 

Militia, me-lish'-a. 

Million, mil'-yon, 7, c. 

Mineral, min'-e-ral, 73. 

Miniature, min'-e-ture, 74. 

Minion, min'-yon, 7, c. 

Minute, s. m in'- Cite, 74. 

Mirage, me-razh', 89. 

Miscellaneous, mis / -cel-la"-ne-0U8. 

Miscellany, mis'-cel-liin-y. 

Mischief, mis'-chif, 24, a. 

Mischievous, mis'-cMv-us, 73. 

Missile, mis'-il, 76. 

Mistletoe, miz'-zl-to. 

Mobile, mob'-Il, 76. 

Moccason, moc'-cii-son. 

Monday, mun'-dy, 8, a. 

Money, mun'-ny, 8, a. 

Mongrel, mung'-grel, 8, a. 

Monk, murigk, 8, a. 

Moresque, nio-resk', 33, C. 

Mortgage, mor'-gage. 

Mortise, mor'-tiz, 76. 

Mosque, mosk, 33, c. 

Mosquito, mos-kce'-to, 7, b. 

Mother, muth'-er, 8, a. 

Motive, mo'-tiv, 7, d. 

Mould, mold, 29, a. 

Moult, molt, 29, a. 

Mourn, morne, 29, a. 

Movable, moov'-a-bl, 8, b. 

Move, moov, 8, b. 

Mover, moov'-er, 8, b. 

Mullagatawny, mul'-Ia-ga-ta\v"-ny. 

Muscle, mus'-sl. 

Mustache, mus-tasli'. 

Myrrh, mer. 

Natad, nay'-ad. 
Naphtha, nap'-tha, 52. 
Nation, na'-shun, 75. 
National, nash'-un-al, 73. 



Natural, nat'-u-ral, 73. 
Nature, na'-ture. 
Naught, nawt. 
Nausea, naw'-slie-a. 
Nectarine, nec'-tar-in, 76. 
Ne'er, nair. 
Neigh, nay, 19. 
Neighbour, nay'-bur, 19. 
Neither, nee'-ther, 19. 
Nephew, nev'-u, 52. 
Nereid, neer'-e-id. 
Nicety, ni'-ce-ty. 
Niche, nitcb. 
Niece, neecc, 24. 
Nitre, ni'-tur, 6, 6. 
Nomenclature, no"-men-cla'-turo. 
Nonchalance, nong'-shal-ongse", I 
None, nun, 8, a. 
Nonpareil, non'-pa-rel", 89. 
Nothing, nuth'-ing, 8, a. 
Notice, no'-tiss, 76. 
Nourish, nur'-ish, 29, b. 
Nubile, nu'-bll, 76. 
Nuisance, nu'-sance, 34. 
Nymph, nlmf. 

Oasis, o'-a-sis. 
Ob'duracy, or ObdVracy. 
Ob'd urate, or Obdu'rate, 69. 
Obedient, o-beed'-yent, 7, c. 
Obeisance, o-bay'-sance, 19. 
Obey, o-bay'. 
Oblique, ob-leek', 7, b. 
Obloquy, ob'-lo-kwey, 53. 
Obsequies, ob'-se-quiz. 
Oesophagus, e-sof'a-gus. 
Of, ov, 43. 
Off, Off. 

Officiate, of-fish'-yate, 7, C. 
Olio, o'-le-o. 
O'-me-ga, or O-meg'-a. 
On'omatopce"ia, (-pee-ya). 
Once, -wunce, 8, a. 
One, wun, 8, a. 
Onion, un'-yun, 8, a. ; 7, c. 
Opaque, o-pake', 33. 
Opposite, op'-po-zit, 78. 
Orang-outang, o-rang'-oo-tang". 
Orchestre, or'-kes-tur, 6, b. 
Ordeal, or'-de-al. 
Ordinary, or'-di-nar-y. 
Orgies, or'-giz. 
Orifice, or'-o-fiss, 76. 
Orison, or'-i-zon, 69- 
Orthoepy, or-tho'-e-py. 
Osier, o'-zher, 62. 
Other, utl/-cr, 8, a. 
Oyer, o'-yer, 89. 
Oyes, o'-yes, 89. 

Pacha, pa-shaV. 

Pageant, pad'-jant. 

Palanquin, pal'-ang-keen", 7. 6. 

Palatine, pal'a-tln, 76. 

Palette, pal'-et. 

Palfrev, pal'-fry. 

Pali-Mall, pell'-mell", 5, €. 

Palm, pam, 45. 

Palmy, pam-y, 48. 

Palsy, pawl'-sy^ 5, b. 

Paltry, pawl'-try, 5, 6. 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



xxxiii 



Panacea, pan'-a-cee"-a. 

Panegyric, pan'-e-jer"-ic. 

Panegyrize, pan"-e-jer-ize. 

Parachute, par-a-shoot'. 

Paradigm, par'-a-dim, 44, a. 

Parliament, parl'-le-ment, 75. 

Paroquet, par'-o-ket, 53. 

Paroxysm, par'-ocks-izm. 

Parterre, par-tair', 89. 

Partial, par'-sbal, 75. 

Paschal, pas'-kal. 

Pasquinade, pas'-kwe-naid", 53. 

Pas'ty, or Pa'sty, 89. 

Pa'tent, or Pat'-ent. 

Patentee, pat'-en-tee". 

Patrol, pa-tro'le. 

Patron, pa'-tron. 

Patronage, pat'-ron-age, 73. 

Paunch, panch, 16, a. 

Pearl, perl, 17. 

Peasant, pcz'-ant, 17. 

Pedagogue, ped'-a-gog, 33, c. 

Pelisse, pe-lee'ce, 7, b. 

Penguin, pcn'-gwin, 34. 

Pensile, pen'-sil, 76. 

Pentateuch, pen'-ta-tuke, 41. 

People, pee'-ple, 20. 

Peony, pee'-O-ny. 

Perdue, pcr'-du, 69. 

Peregrine, pcr'-e-grin, 76. 

Peremptory, or Perem'ptory. 

Per'fume, or Perfu'me, s. 

Perfumo, f. perfu'me. 

Perquisite, per'-kwi-zit, 76. 

Perspicacious, per'-spi-ca"-shtts, 75. 

Perspicacity, per / -spi-cass"-i-ty, 73. 

Persuade, per-swa'de, 32. 

Peruke, per-ook', 89. 

Peruquier, per-roo'-ke-er, 89. 

Peruse, pcr-ooz'. 

Powtcr, pu'-ter. 

Phaston, fa'-e-ton. 

Phalanx, f al'-angks, or fay'-langks. 

Pharmaceutic, far'-ma-su"-tick. 

Pharmaceutical, far / -ma-su' / -ti-cal. 

Phlegm, flem, 44, a. 

Phoenix, fee'-nicks. 

Phosphoric, fos-for'-io, 81. 

Phosphorus, fOs'-for-us. 

Phrase, fraze. 

Phthisic, tiz'-zick. 

Phthisis, ti'-cis. 

Physic, fiz'-ick. 

Physician, fe-cish'-an, 79. 

Physiognomy, phys'-i-og // -nom-y. 

Pierce, peerce, 24, a. 

Piety, pi'-e-ty, 80. 

Pillau, pil-law'. 

Pillion, pil'-y6n, 7, C. 

Pinion, pin'-yfln, 7, c. 

Pinnace, pin'-nace, 74. 

Piano-forte, pian'o-for"-te, 90. 

Picturesque, pic-tu-resk'. 

Piebald, ])i'-liawld. 

Pigeon, pid'-jun, 75. 

Pioneer, pi'-o-nee"r, 68, a. 

Piquant, pee'-kiint, 53. 

Pique, peek, 7, h. 

Piquet, pee-ket', 69. 

Pirouette, pir'-oo-et", 89. 

Piteous, pit'-yus, 7, c. 



Pitiable, pit'-i-abl. 
Pituite, pit'-u-ite, 77.' 
Pituitous, pi-tu'-i-tus, 73. 
Plagiarism, pla'-ja-rizm. 
Plague, plaig, 33, c. 
Plaguy, plaig / -y. 
Plaid, plad, 14, a. 
Plaintiff, plain'-tiv. 
Plaister, plas'-ter. 
Plebeian, ple-bee'-yan, 7, C. 
Plethora, pleth'-o-ra, 70, a. 
Plethoric, ple-thor'-ic, 81. 
Pleuritic, p!eu-rit'-ic, 80, a. 
Plough, plou, 44, b. 
Plover, pluv'-er, 8, a. 
Plumb, plum, 39. 
Plumber, plum'-er, 39. 
Plural, ploo'-riil. 
Poignant, poy'-nant, 44, a. 
Polemic, po-lem'-ic, 80, a. 
Police, po-lce'ce, 7, 6. 
Polygon, pol'-y-gon. 
Polygonal, pol-yg'-6-nal, 81. 
Pomegranate, pome-gran'-ate, 5, d. 
Pommel, pum'-mel, 8, a. 
Poniard, pon'-yard, 7, c. 
Pontine, pon'-tin, 76. 
Ponton, pon-toon', 89. 
Porcelain, po're-slain. 
Porpoise, poZ-pus, 74. 
Portmanteau, port-man'-to, 89. 
Posse, poss / -y, 96. 
Posy, po'-zy. 
Poultice, po'le-tiss, 76. 
Pour, pore, or poor, 29. 
Precipice, press'-g-pls, 76. 
Prehensile, pre-hen'-sil. 
Prejudice, pred'-joo-diss, 76. 
Premier, pre'-me-er, or prem'-yer. 
Premise, v. pre-mi'ze, 71. 
Premise, s. prem'-lss, 76. 
Presage, v. pro-sa'ge, 71. 
Presage, s. press'-age, 74. 
Prescience, pre'-sheens, 79. 
Prestiges, pres'-te-gez, 89. 
Prestige, pres-teezh', 89. 
Presumption, pie-zum'-shun, 73. 
Prism, prizm. 
Prison, priz'-6n. 
Pristine, pris'-tin, 76. 
Private, pri'-vate, 74. 
Privy, priv / -y. 

Proceeds, pross'-eeds, or pro-cee'da. 
Proem, pro'-em. 
Profile, pro-feel', 7, b. 
Projectile, pro-jec'-til, 76. 
Prologue, prol'-og. 
Promenade, prom'-en-ad". 
Promise, s. prom'-is, 76. 
Prompt, promt, 51. 
Pronounce, pro-nownce'. 
Pronun ci ation , pro-n un"-ce-a'-shun, 
Prorogue, pro-ro'gue, 33, c. 
Proselyte, pross'-e-lite, 77. 
Prothonotary, pro-thon'-o-tar-y. 
Prove, proov, 8, b. 
Prow, prou, or pro, 29. 
Prowess, prou'-ess, or pro'-ess, 29, 
Prowl, proul, 29. 
Prurient, proor'-e-ent, 9, b. 
Prussian, prush'-yan, 7, b. 



xxxiv 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



Prussic, prus'-sick. 

Psalm, sam, 48, 51. 

Psalter, sal'-ter, or sawl'-ter, 51. 

Pseudo, su'-do, 51. 

Ptisan, tiz'-an, 69. 

Pudding, pood -ding. 

Puerile, pu'-er-il, 76. 

Puisne, pu'-ny, 55. 

Puissance, pwees'-ance, or pu'-iss-ance. 

Puissant, pwees'-ant, or pu'-iss-ant. 

Pulse, pulce, 9, a. 

Pumice, pum'-iss, or pu'-miss, 76. 

Pumpion, pump'-yon, 7, b. 

Puncheon, punch'-un, 75. 

Purlieu, purl'-u, 69. 

Pursuivant, pur'-swe-vant, 34. 

Pyrite, pir'-ite. 

Pyrites, pir-i'-tees, 89. 

Quadrille, ka-dril'. 
Qualify, kwol'-e-fi, 32. 
Quality, kw6l'-e-ty, 32. 
Quandary, kwon-da're-y. 
Quantity, kwon'-te-ty, 5, b. 
Quarantine, kwor'-an-teen, 32. 
Quarrel, kwor'-rel, 32. 
Quarry, kwor'-ry, 32. 
Quart, kwort, 32. 
Quartz, kworts, 32. 
Quash, kwosh, 32. 
Quaver, kwa'-ver, 32. 
Quay, kee, or kay, 14, a. 
Querulous, kweV-u-ltis, 32; 
Query, kweer'-y, 32. 
Question, kwest'-yun, 7, b. 
Quinine, kwe-mno', 76. 
Quoit, kwoit, 32. 
Quota, kwo'-ta, 32. 
Quote, kwote, 32. 
Quoth, kwuth, 35. 
Quotient, kwo'-shent, 75. 

Radius, ra'-de-us, 70. 

Ragout, ra-goo', 89. 

Raillery, ral'-ler-y, 1 4, a. 

Raisin, rai'-zn. 

Rancour, rang^-cur. 

Rapier, ra'-ps-er. 

Rapine, rap'-in, 76. 

Rase, raze. 

Raspberry, ras'-ber-ry. 

Rather, rath'-er, or ray'-ther. 

Ratio, ra'-she-o. 

Ration, ra'-shun, 75. 

Rational, rasli'-on-a.l, 73. 

Ravine, ra-veen', 7, b-. 

Ready, red'-dy, 17. 

Realm, rSlm. 

Reason, ree'-zn. 

Receipt, re-coet', 51. 

Reeeptacle, re-cep'-ta-cle. 

Recipe, ress'-I-pe, 90. 

Recitative, ress'-e-ta-teev", 7, b. 

Recondite, re-con'-dit, or ree'-on-dit. 

Reconnoitre, reck'-on-noy"-tur, 89. 

Recover, re-cuv'-er, 8, a. 

Recruit, re-croot', 34, b. 

Rec'-u-sant, or Re-cu'-sant, 69. 

E.edoubt, re-dowt', 39. 

Rehearse, re-h6rcc', 17. 

Reign, rain, 19 ; 44- ft. 



Rein, rain, 19. 
Relate, re-la'te. 
Relative, rel'-a-tiv, 73. 
Rendezvous, ren'-de-voo, 89. 
Repartee, rep'-ar-tee", 89. 
Repertory, rep'-er-tor-y. 
Replevin, re-plev'-in. 
Replevy, re-plev'-y. 
Reptile, rep'-til, 76. 
Requiem, rec'-kwe-em, 53. 
Requisite, reck'-we-zlt, 76. 
Rescue, res'-cu, 32, b. 
Reservoir, ress' / -erv-wa\vr', 69. 
Resign, re-zi'ne, 44, a. 
Resignation, rez'-ig-na"-shun, it. 
Resin, rez'-in. 
Respite, ress'-pit, 76. 
Retaliatory, re-tal'-i-a-tor-y. 
Retinue, ret'-e-nu, 69. 
Revenue, rer'-e-nu, 69. 
Reverie, rev'-er-ee", 69. 
Rhapsody, rap'-so-dy, 45. 
Rhetoric, ret'-6-ric, 45.- 
Rhetorical, re-tor'-i-cal, 81; 
Rheum, room, 45. 
Rhinoceros, rl-noss'-er-os. 
Rhomb, rornb, 45. 
Rhubarb, roo'-barb, 45. 
Rhyme, rime, 45. 
Righteous, rite'-yus, 7, b. 
Rigid, rid'-gid. 
Risible, riz'-e-bl. 
Rochet, rock'-et. 
Rogue, rog, 33, c. 
Rome, ronie, 65. 
Rondeau, ron'-do, 12. 
Roquelaure, rock'-e-lor", 69. 
Rosin, roz'-in. 
Roue, roo'-ay, 89. 
Rouge, roozh, 89. 
Rough, ruff, 29, b. 
Rouleau, roo-lo', 89. 
Rout, rowt, 29. 
Route, root, 29, c. 
Routine, roo-teen', 7, b. 
Row, ro, 29, a. 
Row, rou, 29. 
Rowel, ro'-el. 
Rowlock, rul'-l6ck, 73. 
Rudiment, roo'-de-ment, 9, b 
Ruffian, ruff'-yan, 7, b. 
Rugged, rug'-ged (g hard). 
Ruse, rooz, 9, b. 

Sabaoth, sa-ba'-6th. 
Sabre, sa'-ber, 6, b. 
Sacrament, sac'-ra-ment, 73, 
Sacred, sa'-cred. 
Sacrifice, s. sac'-ri-fice. 
Sacrifice, v. sac'-ri-flze. 
Sagacious, sa-ga'-shus, 84. 
Sagacity, sa-gass'-i-ty, 73. 
Said, sed, 14, a. 
Saith, seth, 14, a. 
Saline, sa-li'nc, or sal'-in, 69. 
Salique, sal'-ick, 69. 
Saliva, sa-li'-va, 70. 
Salmon, sam'-mon, 48. 
Saltpetre, sawlt-pe'-tcr, 6, 6* 
Salve, sav, 48. 
Salver, sal'-ver. 



DIFFICULT AND IRREGULAR WORDS. 



Sanguine, sang'-gwin, 34. 

Sapphire, saf-ir, 52. 

Sarcenet, sars'-net. 

Satellite, sat'-el-lite, 77. 

Satiety, sa-ti'-e-ty, 80. 

Satire, sat'-ir, or sa'-tir. 

Satirical, sa-tir'-i-cal, 80, a. 

Satirist, sat'-ir-ist. 

Satirize, sat'-ir-ize. 

Satyr, sat'-er. 

Saunter, san'-ter, 16, a. 

Sausage, saw'-sage. 

Scagliola, scar-e-o"-la, 89. 

Scallion, scal'-y6n, 7, b. 

Scallop, scol'-Op, 5, b. 

Scene, seen. 

Scenic, sen'-ic, 73. 

Scent, sent. 

Sceptic, skop'-tick, 40. 

Sceptre, sep'-tur, 6, b. 

Schedule, sed'-ule, or shed'-ule. 

Scheme, skeem, 1. 

Schemer, skce'-mer. 

Schism, sizm. 

Schismatic, s. siz-mat'-ik. 

Schismatic, a. siz-mat'-ick, 80, a. 

Scimitar, sim'-e-tar. 

Scirrhus, skir'-rus. 

Scissors, ciz'-zors. 

Sclsrotic, sklc-rot'-ick. 

Scourge, skurje. 

Screw, scroo, 9, b. 

Scutcheon. See Escutcheon. 

Scythe, sithe. 

Seamstress or Sempstress, sem'stres, 17. 

Secret, sce'-cret. 

Secretary, sec'-re-tar-y. 

Sectilc, seck'-til. 

Seignior, seen-yor'. 

Seneschal, sen'-esh-al, or sen'-es-kal. 

Sennight, sen'-nlt. 

Sepulchre, scp'-ul-cur, 6, b. 

Seraglio, se-ral'-yo, 7, b. 

Sergeant, sar'-jant. 

Servile, ser'-vil, 76. 

Sever, sev'-er. 

Severe, sc-veer'. 

Severity, se-v6V-i-ty, 73 

Sewer, shoro, or soo'-C', 

Sextile, secks'-til, 70. 

Shirt, short, 7, a. 

Shoe, shoo, 26, a. 

Shone, shtin, 1. 

Shough, shock, 44, b. 

Shove, shtiv, 8, a. 

Shovel, shuV-vl, 8, a. 

Shower, shou'-cr, 29. 

Siesta, se-ess'-ta. 

Sieve, siv, 24. 

Sigh, si, 44, b. 

Sign, sine, 4 4, a. 

Signify, sig'-m-fi, 73. 

Siliquous, sil'-i-kwus, 53. 

Sir, ser, 7, a. 

Sirup, sir'-Op. 

Skein, skain, 19. 

Slabber, slob'-bcr, 5, b. 

Slaughter, slaw'-ter. 

Sleight, slite, 19, a. 

Slough, sluff, 29, b. 

Sloven, sluv'-Cn, 8, a 



Sluice, slooce. 
Smother, smuth'-er, 8, ff. 
Smoulder, smo'le-dcr, 29, cu 
Soiree, swar'-e, 89. 
Sojourn, so'-jurn, 29, b. 
Solace, sol'-aec, 74. 
Solder, sol'-der, or saw'-der. 
Soldier, so'le-jer. 
Solemn, sol'-em, 50. 
Solemnize, sol'-em-nize, 50. 
Soliloquy, so-lil'-o-kwe, 53. 
Solstice, sol'-stiss, 76. 
Sombro, som'-ber, 6, b. 
Some, sum, 8, a. 
Somerset, sum'-er-set, 8, a. 
Son, sun, 8, a. 
Sonorous, so-no'-rus. 
Sorites, so-ri'-tcs, 70. 
Sortie, sor'-tce, 69. 
Souchong, soo-sh6ng / . 
Sous, sou, 29, c. 
Southerly, suth-er-ly, 73. 
Sovereign, sov'-er-m, 74. 
Spaniel, span'-yel, 7, c. 
Special, spesh'-al, 7, c. 
Species, spco'-shez. 
Specify, spess'-i-fi, 73. 
Specious, spec'-shus. 
Spectre, speck'-ter, 6, 5. 
Spinach, spin'-agc. 
Springe, sprinje. 
Springy, spring'-y. 
Squab, skw6b, 5, b. 
Squamous, skwa'-mus, 53. 
Stalactito, sta-lac'-tlte, 77. 
Stalagmite, sta-lag'-mito, 77. 
Steppe, step. 
Sterile, stcr'-il, 76. 
Stipend, sti'-pend. 
Stipendiary, sti-pen'-di-ar-y, 73. 
Stir, ster, 7, a. 
Stomach, stum'-ack, 8, a. 
Stomacher, stum'-a-cher, 8, a. 
Strew, stroo. 
Strophe, strof-e, 90. 
Sturgeon, sturj'-6n, 75. 
Suasive, swa'-sive, 32. 
Subaltern, sub'-al-tern. 
Subaqueous, sub-a'-kwe-us, 53. 
Sublunar, sub-Ju'-nar. 
Sublunary, sub'-lu-nar-y. 
Subtile, sub'-til, 76. 
Subtle, sut'-tl, G, b. 
Succedanoum, suc'-ce-da"-no-um. 
Successor, suc-coss'-or, 72. 
Sugar, shoog'-ar, 55. 
Suggest, sud-gest'. 
Suicide, su'-i-c-Ide. 
Suite, sweet, 89. 

Sumach, su'-mack, or shoo'-maok. 
Sumpter, sum'-tcr, 51. 
Sumptuous, sum'-tu-us, 51. 
Sure, shoor, 55. 
Surfeit, su^-fit, 74. 
Surgeon, sur'-jun, 75. 
Surplice, sur'-pliss, 76. 
Surtout, sur-toot', 89. 
Sword, sord, 59. 
Synagogue, sin'-a-gdg. 
Syncope, sing'-eo-py, 90. 
Synonyrae, sm'-o-nim. 



xxsn 



DIFFICULT AND IJR,REUULAR WORDS. 



Synonymous, sin-on'-i-mus. 
Systole, sis'-t&-le, 90. 

Tambour, tam'-bur. 

Tambourine, tam'-bur-een", 77. 

Tapestry, tap'-gs-try. 

Tapioca, tap'-e-o"-ca. 

Tapis, tap'-eo, 89. 

Target I g hard). 

Taunt, tant, or tawnt, 16, a. 

Tear (to rend), tare. 

Tenable, ten'-a-bl. 

Tenacious, te-na'-sbus, 84. 

Tenacity, tc-nass'-i-ty, 73. 

Tenor, ten'-or. 

Terrace, ter'-race, 76. 

Tetrarch, tet'-rark, 41. 

Textile, tex'-til, 76. 

Thames, tems, 5, e. 

Theatre, thee'-a-ter, 6, b. 

Their, tliare. 

Theologian, the'-o-lo"-gi-an, 68, a. 

Tbeologic, tbe / -o-log"-ic, 8, a. 

Theological, the'-o-log"-i-cal. 

Theology, the-6l'-S-gy, 82. 

There, thare. 

Third, therd, 7, a. 

Thorough, thur'-o, 29, a. 

Though, tho, 29, a. 

Thought, thawt, 29, d. 

Thread, thred, 17. 

Threepence, thrip'-ence. 

Thumb, thtim, 39. 

Thyme, time, 45. 

Tierce, teerce, 24, a. 

Tissue, tish'-oo. 

Toll, tole. 

Tomb, toom, 39. 

Tun, tun, 8, a. 

Tongue, tung, 8, a. 

Tontine, ton'-tecn, 7, b. 

Tortoise, tur'-tiz. 

Touch, tuch, 29, b. 

Tough, tuff, 29, b. 

Tourniquet, tur'-ne-ket, 53. 

Toward, to'-ard, 29.^ ^ 

Tragedian, tra-jeo'-di-an. 

Tragedy, trad'-je-dy. 

Trait, tray, 89. 

Traverse, trav'-erse. 

Travesty, traV-es-ty. 

Treillage, trel'-lage. 

Troubadour, troo'-ba-door". 

Trough, trof, 29, e. 

Tuesday, tuze'-day. 

Turkois, Turquoise, turkeez'. 

Twelvemonth, twel'-munth, 8, a; 58. 

Unguent, ung'-went, 53. 
Unique, u-neek', 7, b. 
Usquebaugh, us'-kwe-baw". 
Utensil, u-ten'-sil. 
Uterine, u'-ter-me, 77. 

Vactlate, vass'-il-late. 
Vaccine, vack'-clno, 76. 
Vague, vaig, 33, c. 



Valet, val'-et, or val'-ey, 89. 

Variegate, va'-ri-e-gate. 

Vase, vaze. 

Vau devil, vode-vil. 

Vault, vawlt. 

Vaunt, vant, 16, a. 

Vavasour, vav'-a-sur. 

Vehicle, ve'-he-kl. 

Veil, vail, 19. 

Vein, vain, 19. 

Venison, ven'-e-zn, or ven'-zn. 

Verdegris, ver'-de-greece, 7, b. 

Vermicelli, ver'-mi-chel"-ly, 89. 

Vermilion, ver-mil-yon, 7, c. 

Vertebras, ver'-te-bree. 

Vertebre, ver'-te-ber, 6, b. 

Vertigo, ver-te'-go. 

Victualler, vit'-ler, 40. 

Victuals, vit'-tals, 40. 

Vignette, vin'-yet. 

Violoncello, Ye'-o-lone-cnel"-lo, 89 t 

Virago, vir-a'-go, 70. 

Virile, vir'-il, 76. 

Virtu, ver-too', 89. 

Viscount, vi'-cownt, 55. 

Visor, viz'-or. 

Vituline, vit'-u-Hn, 76. 

Vizier, viz'-yer, 7, 6. 

Volatile, vol'-a-til, 76. 

Wacke, wack'-y. 
Wainscot, wen'-scot, 14, a. 
Weapon, wcp'-on, 17. 
Wear, ware, 17. 
Weigh, way, 19; 44, b. 
Weight, wait, 44, b. 
Were, wer, 17. 
Where, whare, 1. 
Wherefore, wher-fore, 73. 
Whistle, hwis'-sl. 
Widgeon, widj'-6n, 75. 
Wind, or Wind. 
Wolf, woolf, 8, b. 
Woman, woom'-an. 
Womb, woom, 8, b. 
Women, wim'-en. 
Wont, wunt, 8, a. 
Word, wurd, 8, a. 
Worth, wurth, 8, a. 
Wound, woond, 29, c. 
Wrath, rawth, 5, 6. 
Wry, ri, 59. 

Yacht, yot, 5, 6. 
Ycleped, e-clept. 
Yeoman, yo'-man, 20. 
Yes, yes. 

Yesterday, yes'-ter-day. 
Yolk, yoke. 
Young, yung. 
Younger (g hard). 
Youth, yooth. 
Yttria, it'-tri-a. 

Zenith, zen'-ith. 
Zoophyte, zo'-o-fite. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



Prior to the invention of the art of Printing, little attention was paid 
to the Orthography of English or Saxon words. In fact, the first 
writers, having no guide but the ear, followed each Ins OAvn judgment, 
or his fancy at the moment ; and hence a large number of Saxon words 
were written in two or more ways, by different, and even by the same 
authors. These irregularities were transferred to the first printed 
works, and many of them remain to the present day. The following 
observations on the subject are Dr. Johnson's : 

" There hare been many schemes offered for the emendation and settlement of our Ortho- 
graphy, which, like that of other nations, being formed by chance, or according to the 
fancy of the earliest writers in rude ages, was at first very various and uncertain, and is 
yet sufficiently irregular. Of these reformers, some have endeavoured to accommodate 
orthography better to the pronunciation, without considering that it is to measure by a 
shadow, to take that for a model or standard which is changing while they apply it. 
Others, less absurdly indeed, but with equal unlikelihood of success, have endeavoured to 
proportion the number of letters to that of sounds, that every sound may have its own 
character, and every character a single sound. Such would be the orthography of a new 
language, to be formed by a synod of grammarians upon principles of science. But who 
can hope to prevail on nations to change their practice, and make all their old books use- 
less? Or what advantage would a new orthography procure, equivalent to the confusion 
and perplexity of such an alteration t" 

He then, after mentioning and giving a short description of the 
several schemes proposed by Sir Thomas Smith, secretary of state to 
Queen Elizabeth, Dr. Gill, the celebrated master of St. Paul's school, 
London, Charles Butler, and Bishop Wilkins, in none of which he ex- 
presses his concurrence — concludes in these words : 

" We have since had no general reformers, but some ingenious men have endeavoured to 
deserve well of their country, by writing honor and labor, for honour and labour ; red for 
read, in the preter-tense ; sais for says : repete for repeat ; e.vplane for explain, or de- 
clame for declaim. Of these it may be said, that as they have done no good, they have 
done little harm; both because they have innovated little, and because few have followed 
them." 

It is much to be regretted, that Dr. Johnson, who possessed — and 
who deservedly possessed— an almost absolute authority in such matters, 
did not attempt to settle the orthography even of those words that 
are spelled in two or more different ways. On the contrary, he has 
confirmed many of these irregularities by his own example. For in- 
stance, notwithstanding what he has said against writing "honor for 
honour, and labor for labour," he has, in his own Dictionary, written 
several words of this class without the u, as — 

Actor. Censor. Languor. Pastor. Sculptor. Torpor. 

Author. Doctor. Liquor. Proctor. Sector. Tutor. 

Castor. Factor. Minor. Rector. Stupor. Victor. 

And though he makes the majority of the words of this class end, in 
his Dictionary, in our, yet he omits the u in almost all the words that 
are formed from them ; as from clamour, clamor-ous, &c. 

Clamour. Flavour. Humour. Odour. Tumour. "Vapour. 

Dolour. Honour. Labour. Rigour. Valour. Vigour. 

Clamorous. Flavorous. Humorous. Odorous. Tumorous. Vigorous. 

Dolorous. Honorary. Inferiority. Odoriferous. Valorous. Victorious. 

Doloriric. Humorist. Laborious. Rigorous. Vaporous. Evaporate. 

In the following words he retains the u, though he has rejected it in 
those we have just given : 

Favourable. Favourite. Favouritism. Favourer, Honourable. Labourer. 



SXXT1U ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Several of these words, notwithstanding the authority of Johnson's 
Dictionary, are now written without the u ; as— 

Emperor. Governor. Horror. Superior. Terror. Tumor. 

Error. Honor. Inferior. Tenor. Tremor. Warrior. 

And some of them are written sometimes with, and sometimes with- 
out the u ; as — 

Colour or Color. Favour or Favor. Splendour or Splendor. 

We venture to recommend the omission of u in all these words, and 
for the following reasons : — it is useless to the orthography, opposed to 
etymology, and, as we have just seen, rather contrary than otherwise 
to analogy.* 

Again, in Dr. Johnson's Dictionary we find blamable, blamably, ap- 
peasable, approvable, desirable, and ratable, without the final e of the 
original words, blame, appease, approve, desire, and rate ; while he re- 
tains the e in saleable, tameable, proveable, and moveable. And, stranger 
still, he omits the e in other words formed from prove and move ; as 
improvable, reprovable; immovable, removable. 

PRACTICAL RULES FOR SPELLING. 

1. As a general rule, ?/, when its place may be supplied by i, is not 
to be written except at the end of a word.t Hence, when y is advanced 
from that position, by the addition of a letter or syllable, it is changed 
into i. X This change is exemplified in the formation of the plural of 
nouns, the persons of verbs, past participles, verbal nouns, compara- 
tives and superlatives ; as a cry, the cries ; I cry, thou cn-est, he cri-es, 
cri-ed, cri-ev ; holy, hok'-er, hoK-est. Also, by the addition of lt, 
ness,§ ment, &c. ; as holy, hoh'-ly, hoh'-ness, hoh'-day; merry, merri- 
ment; envy, envz-ous; comply, comph'-ance; many, niam-fold, &c. 

Exceptions. — 1. In such cases y retains its form ichen it is part of a diphthong ; -which 
occurs in all words ending in ay, \\ ey, oy, or v.y ; as in betray, betrays, betrayer ; attorney, 
attorneys ; convey, conveys, conveyed, conveyance ; boy, boys, boyish ; destroy, destroys, 
destroyeth, destroyed, destroyer ; b?/y, bwys, bwyeth, bwyer. 

2. For an obvious reason, y retains its form when followed by the participial termination 
ing ; as in magnify-ing, carry-ing, accompany-ing. 

3. For the sake of distinction, y is properly used for i in such names as Taylor, Smyth, &c. 

II. Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, ending 
with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, double the final 
consonant, ^[ when they take an additional syllable beginning with a 
vowel ; as beg, beg-yed, beg-ying, beg-yar ; rob, rob-iest, rob-6ed, 
rob-oing, rob-Z>er, rob-6ery ; sin, sin-nest, sin-?ied, sin-ning, sin-ner ; 

* It should be added, however, that we seldom venture to follow our own recommenda- 
tion in this respect: 

In words, as fashions, the same rule will hold, 
Alike fantastic if too new or old. 
Be not the first by whom the new are tried, 
IJor yet the last to lay the old aside. — Pope. 

t Except in Greek and foreign words, as system, tyrant, myrrh, alchymy, &c. In 
these instances y is not the representative of i, but of a different letter. 

X In fact, y is another form of t. See No. 10, page v. 

§ The y is usually retained in the following words, dry, shv, sly, wben ly or ness is 
added ; as diy-ly, dry-ness ; ehy-ly, shy-ncss ; sly-ly, sly-ness. 

I Lay, pay, say, and their compounds, repay, unsay, &c, follow the general rule when 
ed or d is added ; as laid, paid, said, unpaid, unsaid, &c. But the exception prevails in 
layer, payer, payable, &c. 

If The duplication of the final consonant, in such cases, prevents the vowel of the primi- 
tive word from losing its shut or short sound. This change, therefore, preserves the pro- 
nunciation of the original word. If the 6 were not doubled in rob-bed, for instance, we 
would have not only a different pronunciation \ro-bed), but also a different word (namely, 
the past tense of the verb robe;. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. XX XIX 

rebel, rebelled, rebel/ing, rebel/ion, rebellious ; commit, committed, 
committing, committal, committee ; begin, begirming, beginner ; wit, 
witty, wittily ; rot, rotten ; thin, thinnish, &c. 

Exceptions. — In the following words, and others of the same class,* the final consonant 
is usually doubled in such instances as the above, though accented on the first syllable : 
TRAVEL.+ travelled, travelling, traveller; chisel, chiselZed, chiselling; cavil, cavilZed, 
lavilZing, cavilZer ; counsel, counselZed, counselling, counsellor; drivel, drivelZing, 
ArivelZer ; duel, duel Zing, duelZist ; gravel, gravelZed, gravclZing ; grovel, grovelZed, 
grovelZing ; level, levelled, levelling, level/er ; libel, libelZed, libelZing, libcl/cr, libel- 
Zous ; marvel, marvelZed, marvclZing, marvelZous ; model, modelled, modelling, model- 
ler ; pencil, pencilled, pencilling ; quarrel, quarrelZed, quarrelling, quarreler, quar- 
relZous ; revel, revclZed, rcvclZing, revelZer ; rival, rivalled, rivalZing, &c. 

III. Wben words ending with double I are compounded with others — 
or when the termination ness, less, ly, or ful, is affixed — one I should be 
omitted ; as already, aZ-beit, aZ-though, aZ-most, aZ-together, with-aZ, 
\in-til, chil- blain ; dul-ness, skil-less, ful-\y, ful-fil, wil-fm, &c. 

Exceptions. — 7ZZ-ncss, shrill-ness, small-ness, sZZZZ-ness, Zr/ZZ-ness. 

IV. When an affix or termination beginning with a vowel, is added to 
a word ending with e, the e should be omitted ; as cure, cur- able ; 
palate, palat-ABL~E ; sense, sens-iBLE ; reverse, revers-iBLE ; love, lo u-ing ; 
convince, convinc-l'SG ; slave, slav-iSJEL ; knave, knav-iSB. ; royue, royu-isn ; 
stone, stoji-r ; connive, conniv-AKCE ; arrive, cmy-AL, &c. 

Exceptions. — The e, if preceded by c or g soft, must (in order to preserve the pronunci- 
ation) be retained before the postfix ahle; as in peace, -peace-able; service, scrvice-aM», 
charge, eharge-aoZe ; change, change-a6Ze, &c.± Theeis also retained in dyeing 1 , from rive 

V. When an affix or termination, beginning with a consonant, is added 
to a word ending with e, the e is retained ; as in pale, pale-ness; sera.se, 
sense-Zess; close, close-ly ; peace, -peace-fid ; allure, aWwre-meiit. 

Exceptions. — Due, du-Zy ; true, tru-Zy ; awe, aw-/wZ / judge, ju&g-ment ; abridge, 
*a.WiAg-ment ; whole, whol-Zy; acknowledge, acknowledg-wewf ; argue, argu-?«e»Z.§ 

VI. Except in monosyllables, as 6Zoc/;, stock, &c, k final is now omit- 
ted; as in public[Ji], music[]i], critic[k~], &c.|| 

VII. In writing words commencing with the prefix dis or mis, mis- 
takes are sometimes made, either by the omission or insertion of an s. 
This may be easily avoided, by considering whether the word to which 
dis or mis is prefixed, begins with s. If so, of course, the s must be re- 
tained ; as in Dissolve, Dis-serer, Dissipate, Mis-spell, Mis-shapen, &c. 

* Words ending with Z preceded by a single vowel. 

t The " liquid" nature of the letter Z, and the orthography of the French words from 
which most of these terms are immediately derived, account for, and perhaps sanction, 
these anomalies ; but there is no such excuse for doubling the p in " gallopped," "gal- 
lopping," "worshipped," "worshipping," "worshipper," " gossipping," &c. 

In most of the American-printed books, it may bo observed that these exceptions are 
not admitted. The following are "Webster's observations on the subject : — " We observe 
in all authors, ballotting, bevelling, levelled, travelled, cancelled, revelling, rivalling, wor- 
shipped, worshipper, apparalJed, embowelled, libelling, and many others in which the last 
consonant is doubled, in opposition to one of the oldest and best established rules in the 
language. Nouns formed from such verbs should be written with a single consonant, as 
jeweler, traveler, worshiper. What should we say to a man who should write audittor, 
gardenner, laborrer, &c. ?" 

f Johnson and Walker retain the e in mow-able and move-nh\es, but there is no reason 
for this exception, particularly as the former excludes e from immov-uble. 

§ Johnson excludes e from chast~r\esa, but retains it in chaste-lj. Walker excludes e 
from both, writing chast-ncss, ckast-lj. Usage, as well as reason, is against these exceptions. 

In ransack, and generally in words ending in ock, as hillock, the k is retained. Al- 
manac is sometimes written with, and sometimes without the k. It must also bo restored 
in the past tense and participles of the verbs frolic, mimic, physic, traffic ; as, mimicked, 
mimicking, frolicked, frolicking. Even tho learning and authority of Johnson are unable 
to control custom. He has laid it down as a principle that no English word can end with 
the letter c. — In thi3 case custom is right ; for k in such a position is perfectly useless, 
either as regards the orthography or etymology. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



A COLLECTION OF WORDS OF UNSETTLED 
ORTHOGRAPHY.* 






Abetter. 
Abettor. 

Abridgment. 
Abridgement. 

Accountant. 
Accomptant. 
Acknowledgment. 
Acknowledgement. 

Adze. 
Adz. 

Mdile. 
Edile. 

Ambassador. 
Embassador. 

Amend. 
Emend. 

Ancient. 
Antient. 
Antechamber. 
Antichamber. 

Apostasy. 
Apostacy. 

Aposteme. 
Apostume. 

Apothegm. 
Apophthegm. 

Archasology. 
Archaiology. 
Arquebuse. 
Harquebuso. 

Arrack 
Arack. 

Auger. 
Augre. 

Balk. 
Baulk. 

Banister. 
Baluster. 

Bark. 
Barque. 



Bass (in music). 
Base. 



Bazaar. 
Bazar. 



Befall. 
Befal. 

Behoove. 
Behove. 



Biased. 
Biassed. 

Bilge. 
Bulge. 
Binnacle. 
Bittacle. 

Blamable. 
Blameable. 

Bouse, Bousy. 
Booze, Boozy. 

Bucaneer. 
Bucanier. 

Bumblo Bee. 
Humble Bee. 

Burden. 
Burthen. 
Burdensome. 
Burthensoma. 

Caliph. 

Calif. 

Kaliph. 

Calk. 

Caulk. 

Caltrop. 
Calthrop. 

Camlet. 
Camelot. 

Camphor. 
Camphire. 

Canvass. 
Canvas. 

Carabine. 
Carbine. 

Carat. 
Caract. 
Caravel. 
Carvel. 

Catchup. 
Catsup. 
Causey. 
Causeway. 

Cayman. 
Caiman. 

Cazique. 
Cacique. 

Centiped. 
Centipede. 

Cess. 



Cham. 
Khan. 



Chamois. 
Shamois. 

Chap, Chaps. 
Chop, Chops. 

Chastely. 
Chastly. 

Chasteness. 
Chastness. 

Check. 
Cheque. 

Chemist. 
Chymist. 

Choir. 
Quire. 

Choose. 
Chuse. 

Chorister. 
Quirister. 

Cipher. 
Cypher. 

Clew. 

Clue. 

Comfrey. 
Cumfrey. 

Connection. 
Connexion. 

Contemporary. 
Cotemporary. 

Control. 
Controul. 

Cony. 
Coney. 

Cordova. 
Cordwain. 

Cornelian. 
Carnelian. 

Corpse. 
Corse. 

Coulter. 
Culter. 

Cranch. 
Craunch. 

Crawfish. 
Crayfish. 

Cuisse. 
Cuish. 

Curbstone. 
Kerbstone. 

Cymar. 
Simar. 



Damson. 
Damascene. 

Dandriff. 
Dandruff. 

Daub. 
Dawb. 

Delf. 
Delft. 

Demesne. 
Domain. 

Despatch. 
Dispatch. 

Docket. 
Doquet. 

Dower. 
Dowry. 

Dryly. 
Drily. 

Dryness. 
Driness. 

Dyeing. 
Dying. 

Ecstasy. 
Ecstacy. 

Embezzle. 
Imbezzle. 

Empale. 
Impale. 

Empannel. 
Impannel. 

Enclose. 
Inclose. 

Encyclopedia 
Encyclopedia. 

Endorse. 
Indorse. 

Enigma. 
^Enigma. 

Enrol . 
Enroll. 

Entire. 
Intire. 

Equerry. 
E query. 
Equivoke. 
Equivoque. 

Eschalot. 
Shallot. 
Escrutoire. 
I Scrutoire. 



* In the Extract which follows (taken 
attempt to settle the orthography of many 



from the Author's Dictionary of Derivations) will be found 
of these words. The more usual spelling U placed first. 



WORDS OF UNSETTLED ORTHOGRAPHtT. 



xli 



Hawser 


Junket. 


Pacha. 


Halser. 


Juncate. 


Bashaw. 


Hiccough. 


Keg. 


Packet. 


Hickup. 


Cag. 


Pacquet. 


Hinderance. 


Lacker. 


Paillasse. 


Hindrance. 


Lacquer. 


Palliasse. 


Holiday. 


Licence. 


Stanch. 


Holyday. 


License. 


Staunch. 


Honeyed. 


Licorice. 


Strew. 


Honied. 


Liquorice. 


Strow. 


Hostler. 


Lief. 


Pansy. 


Ostler. 


Lieve. 


Pancy. 


Housewife. 


Lilac. 
Lilach. 


Parsnip. 


Huswife. 


Parsnep. 


Hypotenuse. 


Loath. 
Loth. 


Pedler. 


Hypothenuse. 




Peddler. 


Imbrue. 
Embrue. 


Lodgment. 
Lodgement. 


Pedlar. 
Phantasm, 




Lustring. 


Fantasm. 


Immovable. 
Immoveable. 


Lutestring. 


Phantom, 




Malcontent. 


Fantom. 


Indite. 
Endite. 


Malecontent. 


Phial. 




Mall. 


Vial. 


Indue. 


Maul. 




Endue. 




Philibeg. 




Marquess. 


Fillibeg. 


Inferable. 
Inferrible. 


Marquis. 
Marshall. 


Phlegm. 
Flegm. 


Inflection. 


Mareschal. 


Inflexion. 


Martin. 


Phthisic. 
Tisic. 


Ingraft. 


Marten. 


Pie. 
Pye. 


Ingraff. 


Mastio. 


Innuendo. 


Mastich. 


Inuendo. 


Milleped. 


Pigmy. 
Pygmy. 


Inquire. 
Enquire. 


Millepede. 

Molosses. 


Pimento. 
Pimenta. 


Inquiry. 


Molasses. 




Enquiry. 

Instructor. 
Instructer. 

Insure. 


Moneyed 
Monied. 
Mongrel. 
Mungrel. 


Pincers. 
Pinchers. 

Plaster. 
Plaister. 


Ensure. 


Mosquito. 


Plat. 
Plot. 

Pontoon. 


Inventor. 
Inventer. 


Mosqueto. 
Movable. 


Jailer. 


Moveable. 


Ponton. 


Gaoler. 


Multiped. 


Porpoise. 




Multipedo. 


Porpus. 


Janty. 
Jaunty. 


Murder. 
Murther. 


Pumpkin. 
Pompion. 


Jasmine. 
Jessamine. 


Muscle. 

Mussel (a shellfish). 


Purblind. 
Poreblind. 


Jelly. 
Gelly 


Negotiate. 


Quatercousin 


Negociate. 


Catercousin. 


Jole. 


Olio. 


Quintain. 


Jowl. 


Oglio. 


Quintin. 


Jostle. 


Orison. 


Rabbi. 


Justle. 


Oraison. 


Rabbin. 


Judgment. 


Oyez. 


Rase. 


Judgement. 


Oyes, 


Raze. 



xlii 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



Rear. 

Here. 

Rearmouse. 

Reremouse. 

Rearward. 
Rereward. 
Recognise. 
Roeognizo. 

Referable. 
Referrible. 
Reflection, 
Reflexion. 

Relic. 
Relique. 
Renard. 
Reynard. 

Rennot. 
Runnet. 



Rosin. 

Restiff. 



Reverie. 
Revery. 

Riband. 
Ribbon. 

Rotatory. 
Rotary. 

6alique. 
Salio. 
Savin. 
Sabine. 

Scallop. 
Scollop. 
Sceptic. 
Skeptio. 

Scholium. 
Scholion. 



Screen. 
Skreen, 
Sear. 
Sere. 


Solvable. 
Solvible. 
Somersault. 
Somerset. 


Sempstress. 
Seamstress. 
Sergeant. 
Serjeant. 


Spa. 

Spaw. 

Spinach. 

Spinage. 


Shard. 
Sherd. 


Spiritous. 
Spirituous. 


Sheer (pure). 
Shear. 

Show. 
Show. 
Shyly. 
Shily. 


Sponge. 
Spunge. 

Spright. 
Sprite. 
Surname. 
Sirname. 


Shyness. 
Shincss. 


Survivor. 
Survivor. 


Sillabub. 
Syllabub. 


Swale. 
Sweal. 


Silvan. 
Sylvan. 
Siphon. 
Syphon. 


Swap. 
Swop. 
Talc. 
Talck. 


Sirup. 
Syrup. 
Skate. 
Scate. 


Thresh. 
Thrash. 
Tidbit. 
Titbit. 


Skein. 
Skain. 


Ton. 
Tun. 


Skilful. 

Skillful. 


Tormentor. 
Tormentor. 


Skull. 

Scull. 


Trivet. 
Trevet. 


Slabber. 
Slobber. 


Trowsers. 
Trousers. 


Slyness. 
Slincss. 


Turkois. 
Turquoise. 


Solder. 
Soder. 


Unbiased. 
Unbiassed. 



Vails. 

Vales. 

Vantbraos. 
Vantbrass. 
Veil. 
Vail. 

Vendor. 
Vender. 

Villanous. 
Villainous. 

Villany. 
Villainy. 

Visiter. 
Visitor. 

Waggon. 
Wagon. 

Waif. 
Waift. 

Wale. 
Weal 

Wave. 
Waive. 

Wear (a dam)., 

Weir. 

Wier. 

Whisky. 
Whiskey. 

Windlace. 
Windlass. 

Woo. 
Wo. 

Woful. 
Woeful. 

Woollen. 
Woolen. 

Wreck. 
Wrack. 
Yest. 
Yeast. 



WORDS SPELLED IN TWO OR MORE WAYS: 

WITH AN ATTEMPT TO SETTLE THEIR ORTHOGRAPHY.* 

[FROM THE AUTHOR'S " DICTIONARY OF DERIVATIONS."] 

When the orthography of a word is doubtful, etymology and analogy 
should decide. Hence, complete, and not compleat, is the proper 
orthography, because derived from the Latin completus, or the French 
complet ; which is confirmed by the cognate word, replete. 

Abetter, Abettor. The latter orthogra- 



phy is allowable in law only, which affects 
Latin terminations ; as in Grantor, &c. Er 
is an English or Saxon affix, and Abet is of 
Saxon origin. 
Account, Accompt, Accountant, Ac- 



* The writer is not forgetful of the great maxim, 
U*u» norma loquencli." See note *. page xliv. 



comptant. Usage, pronunciation, and ana- 
logy, are in favor of Account and Account- 
ant, except when the words aro officially 
applied ; as " Clerk of tho Accompts," 
" Accomptant-GencrvLl." Custom has made 
a similar distinction between the words Con- 
troller and Comptroller, Register and 
Registrar. 

jEdile, Edile. See No. 13, page vi., and 
the note subjoined. 



WORDS SPELLED IN TWO OR MORJfi WA15. 



xliii 



Ambassador, Embassador. Custom is in 
favor of the former, though Embassage is 
seldom written with A, and Embassy, never. 
Another reason in favor of Embassador is 
its immediate derivation from the French 
Embassadewr. 

Amend, Emend. The former is from the 
French amender, and the latter, from the 
Latin emendo. Emend is almost obsolete, 
but its derivatives, emendation and emen- 
dator, are in use. 

Ancient, Antient. We derive this word 
from the French ancien, and not from the 
Latin antiquus. The first is therefore the 
preferable form. 

Antechameer, Antichamber. This word 
is derived from the Latin ante, before, and 
not from the Greek anti, against. It should 
therefore be written antechamber. 

Apostasy, Apostacy. This word is de- 
rived from the Greek apo, from, and stasis, 
a standing. The first is therefore the proper 
form. 

Aposteme, Apostume. We have adopt- 
ed both these words from the French. The 
original is the Greek apostema, which means 
a standing from. 

Apothegm, Apophthegm, The latter is 
the more correct form, but the former is 
generally employed. The original is the 
Greek apophthegma. 

Archeology, Archaiology. The first is 
ihe form generally in use, though the second 
is more in accordance with etymology, name- 
ly, from the Greek archaios, ancient, and 
logos, a word, discourse, doctrine, or science. 

Arquebuse, Harquebuse. The latter is 
a Cockney pronunciation of the original word 
arquebuse, which we have adopted from the 
French. The root of the first part of the 
word, is the Latin arcus, a bow. 

Balk, Baulk. The u has no more busi- 
ness in balk, than it has in calk, chalk, talk, 
or walk. The second form is, therefore, in- 
correct. 

Baluster, Banister. The second form, 
though a corruption of the first, is the one 
generally employed. The root is the Greek 
balaustion, the flower or blossom of the 
pomegranate. 

Basin, Bason. There is a disposition to 
write basin, when the word means a deep 
circular pond or dock, but bason, when the 
term is applied to a large deep bowl. There 
is no reason for this distinction. As well 
might a different orthography be sought for 
a sheet of water and a sheet of paper. Basin, 
a dock or pond, and basin, a bowl, are but 
different applications of the same word. The 
French is bassin, the Italian bacino. 

Calk, Caulk. The latter form is quito 
erroneous. See Balk. 

Camlet, Camelot. Usage and pronunci- 
ation are in favor of the former, though the 
latter, which we borrow from the French 
without change, is the proper form. 

Camomile, Chamomile. The 3econd form, 
though more in accordance with etymology, 
is seldom used. 

Camphor, Camphire. The first, which is 
the form generally used, h from the Latin 



camphora ; the second is from the French 
camphre. 

Canvass, Canvas. Some persons make a 
distinction between these words, applying 
canvass to the act of sifting or examining, 
and canvas to hempen cloth. But they are 
different applications of the same word, and 
should consequently be similarly spelled. 
The root is the Latin cannabis, hemp, also 
cloth made of hemp ; and as cloth made of 
hemp is, from the coarseness of its texture, 
used for straining or sifting, the term came 
to signify to search after and solicit rotes, aa 
at an election. 

Carabine, Carbine. The first, which has 
been transferred from the French to our 
language without change, is the proper form ; 
but the latter is beginning to be generally 
adopted. 

Chap, Chop. When applied to the hands, 
usage requires Chap, which is usually pro- 
nounced as if it were written Chop.* 

Checker, Chequer. There seems to be 
a disposition to return to the old ortho- 
graphy, but without reason. Those who 
write Chequer, should, to be consistent with 
themselves, write Paquet, Laqney, &o. We 
should also write CHECKER-work, and check, 
except when the word signifies an order for 
money (properly, the checking or correspond- 
ing cipher of a bank bill), which is now uni- 
versally written cheque. 

Chemist, Chymist, Chimist ; Chemistry, 
Chymistry, Chimistry. I have given these 
words the places which custom has assigned 
them ; but without doubt, the first should be 
last, and the last first. Even supposing the 
word to be of Greek origin, analogy requires 
it to be written with y. But as Chimistry is 
evidently formed from the French Chimie, 
by the addition of the termination istry, as 
in TALMistry, it should be written with i. 
In the Italian and Spanish languages, too, 
the syllable in dispute is similarly written, 
viz. Chimica, and Chimin,. To this mav be 
added the authority of Webster :— " The 
orthography of this word (Chimistry) has 
undergone changes through a mere ignorance 
of its origin, than which nothing can be more 
obvious. It is the Arabic Kimia, the occult 
art or science, from Kamai, to conceal. 
This was originally the art or science called 
Alchimy." 

Choir, Quire ; Chorister, Quirtster. 
Quire and Quirtster are antiquated, and 
contrary to etymology. 

Coif, Quoif. The old orthography, Quoif, 
should, perhaps, be used, when the terra is 
officially applied, viz., to the cap of a ser- 
geant-at-law. The French is colffe ; whence 
also, coiffure, a head-dress. 

Comptroller. See Account. 

Connexion, Connection. Etymology, au- 
thority, and usage, deolare for the former. 



* Chap, Chop, and Chip, are of the same family. 
The root is perhaps the Greek xoxtoi, to cut. The 
confusion between Chap and Chop is produced by the 
broad sound of a, which approaches to o; as in hall, 
all, wall, &c. Hence chap and chop slabbih and 

SLOBBER. 





xliv 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



Tb9 French is Connexion, and the Latin 
Connexio. Complexion is analogous in 
every respect, but no one writes it with ct.* 

Contre-Danse, Country-dance. The lat- 
ter orthography, which is nowf considered 
vulgar, arose from a misapprehension of the 
term contre, opposite, face to face. 

Control, Controul. Usage, pronuncia- 
tion, and etymology, decide for control, 
which is immediately from the French con- 
trdler. 

Cordovan, Cordwain. The first is the 
form most in use. It is derived from Cor- 
dova in Spain, the Corduba of the Romans. 

Cornelian, Carnelion. I prefer the first, 
because I am convinced the word is deriv- 
ed from the Cornelian or cornel cherry 
'" corna rubicunda"), and not from carna- 
lis, flesh {color). The French is Cornnline, 
the Italian Cornalina, and the Latin Cnr- 
neola onyx. 

Corpse, Corse. The latter orthography 
should never be used in prose. Corse is a 
poetic word. 

Cranch, Craunch. The first is the cor- 
rect form. Compare Stanch and its old 
form Staunch. 

Crawfish, Crayfish. A corruption of the 
French ecrevisse. the root of whi.-h is the 
Latin carabus, a crab. The first is the usual 
form. 

D4MASCENE, Damson. Custom is quite 
in favor of the latter, notwithstanding its 
incorrectness. We should at least write 
Damascene. The Latin is prunum Dama- 
scerLnm. 

Delft, Delf, Delph. Delft (ware), like 
China, owes its name to the place where it 
w^s originally made, namely, Delft, a town 
in the Netherlands. 

Demesne, Demain. These are quite dif- 
ferent words. The latter is a corruption of 
domain, which is through the French do- 
mainc, from the Latin dominium, a seigni- 
ory or lordship : whereas, demesne is deriv- 
ed from de mansio, and properly means that 
part of the estate attached to the mansion, 
or house, where the proprietor remains or 
resides. Demain uhould therefore be dis- 
carded from our vocabulary. 

Despatch, Dispatch. The latter ortho- 
graphy is generally used, notwithstanding its 
incorrectness. The etymology of the sylla- 
ble in dispute is at least certain, viz., the 
Latin de, as in decamp. In no other in- 
stance has dis or di the force given it in Dis- 
patch. 

Draught, Draft. Johnson rejects Draft, 
as a corruption ; but it is now proper! v ap- 
plied to a Draft for money, or to Draft 
troops, &c. 



* It may be said, the French of Ketlhction is Re- 
fiexion, aud why not follow the French orthography ? 
Mj answer is, Reflection was generally spelled with x, 
till Johnson declared for the present orthography, on 
the principle of the word being formed from refit ct. 
I; may be added, too, that there is no such word in 
latin 'as Reflexio. Had this been the case, Reflection 
would in ail probability have been written w th x, as 
its cognates are—flcxiUe, flexibility, flexure, &c. 

\ " Country-do nee" occurs frequently in theSpec- 
trjor S'ie Nos. 2 and 60. 



Ecstasy, Ecstaaj. The first is the more 
correct form. See Apostasy. 

Enclose, Inclo.-e. We derive this word 
from the French Enclos, not from the Latin 
Inclusus. We should therefore write En- 
close and Enclosure. 

Enigma, Mnigma. The first form is now 
generally employed. See jEdile. 

Entire, Intire. Both custom and ety- 
mology decide for Entire. It is derived 
directly from the French Entiere, not from 
the Latin Integer. 

Equery, Equerry. From the French 
ecuyer, a groom. 

Expense, Expence. Etymology, autho- 
rity, and analogy, declare fur Expense. The 
Latin is Expensa.* 

Gaol, Jail; Gaoler, Jailer. Etymology 
and authority are in favour of Gaol and 
Gaoler, which we derive from the French 
Gcole and Geolier.f 

Glaive, Glave. The first, which we have 
adopted from the French, is the form most 
used by our best writers. 

Gourmand, Go^nand, The first, which 
we have adopted from the French, is geno« 
rally preferred ; but we now always write 
gormandize and gonnandizer without the u. 

Graft, Graff. Graft is formed from 
the participle graffed ; as left from leaved, 
weft from weaved, cleft from cleaved, <fec. 
It is quite erroneous, therefore, to write 
Graft, when the word is used as a verb. As 
well might we say to cleft, to weft, &c. 
Graff is from the French Greffe.t 

Griffon, Griffin. We derive this word 
from the French griffon, and not from the 
Latin or Greek. The first form is therefore 
to be preferred. 

Gypsy, Gipsy. As this term is derived, 
though without reason, from the word Egyp- 
tian, the first form is the more correct. 

Halliards, Halyards. This word is de- 
rived from hawl, and the termination ard, 
as in dotard. The y, therefore, has no busi- 
ness in it. 

Harebrained, Hairbrained. The second, 
though quite erroneous, is generally used. 
Harebrained means as wild as a hare; or, 
as said, " harum scarum." Compare also 
the adage, " as mad as a March hare." 

Hostler, Ostler. Etymolugy (from Hos- 



* But it may be said, Offence Is from the Latin 
I offensa, and yet it is always written with c. To this 
j it may be answered, if the same could be said of Ex- 
: pi !nsb it would not appear here. Our business is only 
: with such words as are written in two or more ways. 
I Analogy, however, is strong for the s ; as in expens- 
ive, offensive, defensive, d'fensibie. 

f Gnoi.E. The origin of this word is disputed; but 
in all probabDity it is the Latin cavea, or rather it* 
diminutive cave-tin. Cavea was frequently used by 
the Romans to denote a cage, or pla ee of confioe- 
I ment generally; and in old French writers, (geole, 
I gaiole,) gayole occurs frequently in the sense of a 
cage. 

t The root of the French greffe is the Greek 

yq-y-Cicv, &pen (from the resemblance to the point)- 

In old French writers, greffe occurs in this sense; as. 

" Le pe'ehe' de Juda est escrit d'un greffe de fer. - 

; The same word is now used by the French to denot* 

• the rolls, registers, or public writings; whence gr^f 

\ fier, a registrar or secretary. 



■WORDS SPELLED IN TWO OR MORE WAYS. 



XlY 



tel, hostelrie) and analogy* decide in favor 
of the first. 

Indie, Endue. We derive this word 
from the Latin Induo, not from the French 
Enduire. Indue is therefore to be preferred. 

Inquire, Enquire. Etymology and ana- 
logy! decide in favor of Inquire. It is 
derived immediately from the Latin Inquiro, 
not from the French Evquerir. We should 
also write Inquiry ; and in all parliamentary 
and public documents the word is so written. 

Jelly, Gelly. Though etymology:): and 
analogy § are in favour of the latter, it is 
seldom used. 

Lavander, Lavender. Th is word is from 
Lavandula, low Latin, by the change of I 
into r, as in the analogies previously given. 
The first is therefore the proper orthography. 

Licence, License. The substantive,^ at 
least, should be written Licence. It has 
been transferred to our language from the 
French without change, and is formed from 
the Latin Licenli'a ; as science from Scien- 
tia; sentence from Senten/rVi, &c. It is 
true, Johnson's authority is in favor of Li- 
cense ; but eight of the nine examples which 
he gives of the noun, appear in the ortho- 
graphy here recommended. 

MANTLR-pieee, Mnntel-\i\ecG. As Mantle, 
a cloak, and Mantle of a chimney, are but 
different applications of the same word, there 
is no reason for making a distinction in the 
orthography. 

Negotiate, Negociate. The first is to he 
preferred, because it is derived immediately 
from the Latin Negotiaius, not from the 
French Negocier. Analogy, too, is in favor 
of Negotiate; as Negotiation, Negotiator, 
Negotiable. 

Olio, Oglio. The g is quite unnecessary, 
and alien to the etymology. 

Paillasse. This word, though constantly 
in our mouths, has not yet been admitted 
into our dictionaries. It is purely French, 
and should be spelled as such. 

Peddler, Pedler, Pedlar. I prefer the 
first, because I consider the word formed 
from Peddle; as Meddler from Meddle, 
Fiddler from Fiddle, &c. Johnson says 
Peddler is a contraction of petty dealer;^ 
but we might as well derive Fiddler from 
fiddle dealer. 

Pendant, .Pennon, Pennar>< As the 
first two are of different origin, either of them 
may be used with propriety. The latter, 
Pennant, is a corruption of Pendant, or 
perhaps the French Penon. 

Phial, Vial. Etymology and ttsage de- 
cide for Phial. The Latin and Greek is 
Phiala. 

Plaster, Plaister. The latter ortho- 
graphy is quite erroneous. 



* As Fnst, Fbspital, ffbspitality, &c. 

t As Inquisitive, inquisition, &c. 

t From the French gelee, the root of which is the 
Latin gelatins, frozen. 

§ As in gelatine, gelatinous, &c. 

|t As in Practice and I'ruphecy. 

«! Thomson, in his Ftymons, derives Peddler from 
pied alter . but the analog) of the Language is alto- 
gether in favor of Peddle, and the common affix er, 
which denotes an agent or doer. 



Plat, Plot. The word is properly written 
in Plat form ; but grass-PLOT seems to be 
beyond correction. 

Poreblind, Purblind. The most proba- 
ble etymology of the disputed syllable of 
this word is the Greek *»*«>, blind. Pore- 
blind is therefore to be preferred. 

Porpoise, Porpus. From the Latin por- 
cus, a hog, and piscis, a tish. The latter is 
quite incorrect. 

Puny, Puisne. From the French puisne, 
the root of which is the Latin post natus. 
The latter orthography is never used, except 
when the term is officially applied, as to a 
junior judge. 

Rear, Here. There is a strong disposi- 
tion at present to use the latter orthography, 
which, if it were only to distinguish the 
word from rear, to raise or bring up, and 
rear, raw or underdone, should be encou- 
raged. The root of Rere is the Latin Retro, 
t being sunk, as in pere from patre, mere 
from aiatre, pierre from pktra, &c. Ety- 
mology, therefore, is in favor of Rere. 

Resin, Rosin. The latter is quite errone- 
ous. The French is resin, and the Latin 
resina. Analogy, too, is in favour of Resin, 
as Resinous, &c. 

Reticule. From the Latin reticulum, 
a small net. This word is often errone- 
ously pronounced, and sometimes written, 
Redicule. 

Ribbon, Ribon, Riband, Riban* The 
etymology of this word is disputed, and 
hence tho various spellings. As the French 
Ruban is, in all probability, the word from 
which ours is derived, Riban deserves the 
preference. 

Scissors, Scissars. There is a disposition 
at present to introduce the latter ortho- 
graphy, for which there is neither authority 
nor reason. 

Seamstress, Sempstress, Semstress. This 
term is nearly obsolete. The first is evi- 
dently the proper form. 

Sirup, Syrup, Sir op, Syrop. Tho ety- 
mology of thi3 word is doubtful, and hence 
the confused orthography. Usage, at pre- 
sent, is in favor of the first. 

Soder, Solder. The first of these words 
is from the French souder ; the second ia 
direct from the Latin, viz., solidare, to make 
solid, to mend or cement metal. 

Spa, Spaio. We are indebted for this 
word to Spa, a town in Germany, famous for 
its mineral waters. We should, therefore, 
write Spa. 

Spinach, Spinage. The first is to be pre- 
ferred, because derived from the Latin spin- 
acia. 

Sponge, Spunge. We derive this word 
from the Larin spongia. Spongb is, there- 
fore, the proper orthography. 



* Webster proposes Ribin, which he derives from 
the Welch rhibiu, a row or streak ; and adds, — 
" This word has no connexion with band, and Ch3 
Common orthography is grossly erroneous." 

Menage derives Ruban from the Latin rubens, (t\x~ 
benus, rubanus,) red. " Pareeque les pius beaux 
rubans sont de eouleur de feu." We add, Be g»tti- 
but non disputandum. 

C2 



xlri 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



WORDS SIMILAR IN SOUKD, 

BUT DIFFERING IN SPELLING AND SIGNIFICATION.* 



It Is a shame for a man to be so Ignorant of this little art, a9 to he perpetually confounding words of like 
.ound and different signification ; the consciousness of which defect makes some men, otherwise of good 
{earning and understanding, averse to writing even a common letter. — F&anklin. 



Beach. 
Beech. 



Been. 

Beat. 
Beet. 

Beau. 
Bow. 

Beer. 

Bier. 

Bell. 

Belle. 

Berry. 
Bury. 

Bight. 
Bite. 

Birth. 
Berth. 

Blew. 
Blue. 
Boar. 
Bore. 

Board. 
Bored. 

Bold. 
Bowled. 

Boll. 
Bowl. 

Borne. 
Bourn. 
Borough. 
Burrow. 

Bough. 
Bow. 

Boy. 
Buoy. 

Braid. 
Brayed. 

Brake. 
Break. 

Brays. 
Braze. 

Bread. 
Bred. 



Brews. 



Broach. 
Brooch. 

Bruit. 
Brute. 

But. 

Butt. 

Buy. 

By. 

Cain. 

Cane. 

Call. 
Caul. 

Canon. 

Cannon. 

Cask. 

Casque. 

Cast. 

Caste. 

Cession. 



Chagrin. 
Shagreen. 

Chair. 
Char. 
Chock. 
Cheque. 

Chews. 
Choose. 
Choler. 
Collar. 
Chord. 
Cord. 

Chough. 

Chuff. 

Cite. 

Sight. 

Site. 

Clarke. 

Clerk. 

Clause. 

Claws. 

Climh. 
Clime. 



Close. 
Clothes. 
Coarse. 
Course. 
Complement. 
Compliment. 
Coquet. 
Coquette. 
Core. 
Corps. 
Creak. 
Creek. 
Crews. 
Cruise. 
Cue. 
Queue. 
Cygnet. 
Signet. 
Dam. 
Damn. 
Day. 
Dey. 
Dane, 
Deign. 
Dear. 
Deer. 
Dew. 
Due. 
Die. 
Dye. 
Doe. 
Dough. 
Does (doe). 
Doze. 
Done. 
Dun. 
Dost. 
Dust. 
Drachm. 
Dram. 
Draft. 
Draught. 
Ewer. 
Your. 
Fain. 
Faue. 
I Feign. 



Faint. 
Feint. 
Fair. 
Fare. 

Faun. 
Fawn. 

Feat. 
Feet. 

Fellow. 
Felloe. 

Feud. 

Feod. 

Fillip. 
Philip. 

Find. 
Fined. 

Fir. 
Fur. 

Flea. 
Flee. 

Flew. 
Flue. 

Flour. 
Flower. 

Fool. 
Full. 

Fore. 
Four. 

Fort. 

Forte. 

Forth. 
Fourth. 
Foul. 
Fowl. 

Frays. 
Phrase. 

Freeze. 
Frieze. 

Furs. 
Furze. 

Gage, 
Gauge. 

Gait. 
Gate. 



Gall. 
Gaul. 

Galloon. 
Galleon. 
Gild. 
Guild. 

Gilt. 
Guilt. 

Glaire. 
Glare. 

Gore. 

Goar. 

Gourd. 

Gored. 

Grate. 

Great. 

Grater. 
Greater. 
Grease. 
Greece. 

Greaves. 

Grieves. 

Groan. 

Grown. 

Grocer. 

Grosser. 

Grot. 

Groat. 

Hail. 
Hale. 
Hair. 
Hare. 
Hall. 
Haul. 

Hart. 

Heart. 

Heal. 

Heel. 

He'll. 

Hear. 

Here. 

Heard. 
Herd. 

Hew. 
Hue. 
Hugh. 



* The meaning of these words will be found in the subjoined Dictionary ; and In the Author's little work, 
called " The SpeUAng-Book Superseded," these, and all the other irregular words in the English language, 
ore fully explained, and illustrated by practical exercises. 



WORDS SIMILAR IN SOUND. 



xlvii 



Limb. 

Limn. 

Links. 

Lynx. 

Lo. 

Low. 

Loan. 
Lone. 

Made. 
Maid. 

Mail. 
Male. 

Main. 

Mane. 
Maize. 
Maze. 

Marshal. 
Martial. 

Mead. 
Mede. 
Meed. 
Mean. 
Mien. 
Meat. 
Meet. 
Mete. 

Metal. 

Mettle. 
Meter. 
Metre. 

Mewl. 
Mule. 

Mews. 
Muse. 
Might. 
Mite. 

Mighty. 
Mity. 



Mist. 
Moan. 
Mown. ' 

Moat. 
Mote. 

Nap. 
Knap. 

Naught. 
Nought. 

Naughty. 
Knotty. 

Nay. 
Neigh. 

None. 
Nun. 
Nose. 
Knows. 

Oar. 
Ore. 
O'er. 



One. 
Won. 

Pail. 
Pale. 

Pain. 
Pane. 

Pair. 
Pare. 
Pear. 

Palette. 
Pallet. 
Pall. 
Paul 

Panel. 
Pannel. 

Pause. 
Paws. 

Peace. 
Piece. 
Peak. 
Pique. 

Peal. 
Peel. 
Peer. 
Pier. 

Pencil. 
Pensile. 

Place. 
Plaice. 
Plain. 
Plane. 

Plait. 
Plate. 

Pleas. 
Please. 
Plum. 
Plumb. 

Pole. 
Poll. 
Pore. 
Pour. 

Practice. 
Practise. 

Pray. 
Prey. 

President. 
Precedent. 

Pries. 
Prize. 

Quarts. 
Quartz. 
Quire. 
Choir. 

Rain. 

Reign. 

Rein. 

Raise 

Rays. 

Raze. 



Rap. 
Wrap. 

Read. 
Reed. 

Read. 
Red. 

Reck. 
Wreck. 

Reek. 
Wreak. 

Rest. 
Wrest. , 

Right. 
Rite. 
Wright. 
Write. 

Rime. 
Rhyme. 
Ring. 
Wring. 

Road. 
Rode. 

Roe. 
Row. 

Room. 
Rheum. 

Root. 
Route. 

Rote. 
Wrote. 

Rough. 
Ruff. 

Sail. 
Sale. 

Sane. 
Seine. 

Satire. 
Satyr. 

Scene. 
Seen. 
Seine. 

Scent. 

Sent. 

Cent. 



Seal. 
Ceil. 

Seam. 
Seem. 

Sear or Sere. 

Cere. 

Seer. 



Sell. 
Cell. 



Shore. 
Sewer. 

Sink. 
Cinque. 

Size. 
Sice. 
Sighs. 

Slight. 
Sleight. 

Sloe. 
Slow. 

So. 

Sow. 

Sew. 

Soar. 
Sore. 

Sold. 
Soled. 

Sole. 
Soul. 

Some. 
Sum. 

Son. 
Sun. 

Stair. 

Stare. 

Stake. 
Steak. 

Steal. 
Steel. 

Step. 

Steppe. 

Stile. 
Style. 

Straight. 
Strait. 

Suite. 
Sweet. 

Sutler. 
Subtler. 

Tacks. 
Tax. 

Tail. 
Tale. 

Tare. 
Tear. 

Team. 
Teem. 

Tear. 
Tier. 

Teas. 
Tease. 



Their. 
There. 
Threw. 
Through, 

Throe. 
Throw. 

Throne. 
Thrown. 

Tide. 
Tied. 

Time. 
Thyme. 

To. 

Too. 

Two. 

Toe. 
Tow. 

Told. 
Tolled. 

Ton. 
Tun. 

Tray. 

Trait. 
Trey. 

VaiL 
Vale. 
Veil. 

Vain. 
Vane. 
Vein. 
Wade. 
Weighed. 

Wail. 
Wale. 

Wain. 
Wane. 

Waist. 
Waste. 

Wait. 

Weight. 

Ware. 

Wear. 

Way. 
Weigh. 
Weak. 
Week. 

Weather. 
Wether. 

Wood. 
Would. 

Wrought. 
Rot. 

Wry. 
Rye. 

Yoke. 

Yolk. 

Yew. 

You, 

Ewe. 



DERIVATION. 



Derivation is that part of Etymology winch treats of the origin and 
primary signification of words. 

Words are either Primitive or Derivative. 

A primitive word cannot be reduced or traced to any simpler word 
in the language; as man, good. Primitive words, from which deriva- 
tives are formed, are called roots. 

A derivative word can be reduced or traced to another in the lan- 
guage of greater simplicity ; as manly, goodness. 

Derivative words are formed from their primitives : — 1 . By the addition 
of letters or syllables. 2. By the omission of letters, or contraction. 
3. By the interchange of equivalent or kindred letters. 

All words having prefixes or affixes, or both, are examples of the 
firot process. All Avords which undergo what grammarians call aphae- 
resis, syncope, or apocope, are examples of the second process of deri- 
vation. For examples of the third process, see the words under the 
head of " English Etymologies" (page li). 

The meaning of a word is either primary or secondary. The primary 
meaning of a word is that in which it was first or originally applied. 

A word can have but one primary, but it may have several secondary 
meanings. Though in several instances the primary meaning of a 
word has been lost, or is no longer in use, yet in general it will be 
found to pervade all its secondary or figurative applications. 

Many words considered as primitives or roots in English, are deriva- 
tives from the Latin, Greek, and other languages. To the Latin language, 
in particular, the English is indebted for a large portion of its vocabulary. 
In proof of this the reader is referred to the Dictionary of Derivations. 

A prefix is a significant particle, generally an inseparable preposi- 
tion, prefixed to a word to vary or modify its signification ; as un in un- 
just, mis in mistake. 

An affix or termination is a significant particle or syllable added 
to a word to vary or modify its meaning; as Jul in harmful, less in 
harmless. 



PREFIXES AND AFFIXES. 

ENGLISH OR SAXON PREFIXES. I Fork, (before) ; as foresee, forewarn, 

A. at, to, or on ; as afield,* that is, at, or /oretell. 
to the field ; afoot, orafoot ; aboard, on- Mrs, not, wrong or error; as wwtake, 
board ; ashore, onshore. I »»»conduct. 

Be. This prefix is merely the verb to be; ! Oct, beyond, superiority ; as outiixe, out- 
as oefriend, that is, to be a friend to; be- \ run - 

token, to be a token or mark; oespeak, to | Over, above, beyond; as overcharge, over- 
speak or order a tiling to be prepared ; be- \ reach. 

dewed, being dewed or covered with dew. Un > not > llko the Latin in ; as un- 
Be usually gives a transitive signification to , spcakabla, meltable ; wwwilling, mvolun- 



verbs ; as become, fcestridi 

EM,t to make ; as enable, to make able. 
En is sometimes changed into em; as em- 
bark, empower. 

For, negative or privative ; as forbid, to 
bid not, or prohibit ; forget, not to get or 
have in recollection. 



* " flow jocund (lid they drive their team afield." 
f En. In some words, en is used both as a prefix . 
•ad an ajfix; as in cjtlighten, enliven, embolden. I Leep/rowi 



t;iry. 

Up, motion upwards; as Wjostart : also, 
subversion ; as upset. 

With, from, against ; as withdraw, with- 
stand. 

LATIN PREFIXES. 

A, ab, abs, from ; as avert, to turn from } 
absolve, to f ico from ; abstain, to bold OX 



PREFIXES AND AFFIXES. 



xlix 



An,* to; as advert, to turn to; adverb, 
a part of speech added) to a verb. 
Ante,! before; as antecedent, going be- 
fore. 

Bis, Br, two ; as bisect, to cut or divide 
into two; biped, a £w>o-footed animal. 

CiRcini, circu, about or around; as c/r- 
cwwjacent, lying around; circulate, to carry 
rowwd. 

Con, with or together; as coracourse, a 
running together. 

Contra, against ; as contradict, to speak 
against, or to the contrary. Contra some- 
times takes the form of counter, as in coun- 
teract. 

De, down, from, of; as descend, to come 
down ; depart, to part from ; describe, to 
write of or concerning. 

Drs, di, asunder, apart, or separated 
from; (and hence its negative force) not; as 
disjoin, d/smember, d/.vplease. 

E, ex, out of; as eject, to cast out ; ex- 
clude, to shut out. 

Extra, out, beyond; as extraordinary, 
beyond ordinary or common. 

In, when prefixed to a verb, has its usual 
meaning, in, into ; as mject, to cast in or 
mto ; but when prefixed to an adjective, it 
"iieans not ; as mfirm, not firm, or weak. 

Intkr, between ; as intervene, to come 
between. 

Intro, to within ; as m^roduce, to leadfo 
within. 

Juxta, nigh to; as juxtaposition, position 
nigh to. 

Ob, in the ivay of, against ; as obvious, 
Obstacle, object (to cast or urge against). 

Per, through, thoroughly or completely ; 
as pervade, to go through ; perfect, tho- 
roughly made, or complete. 

Post, after; as postscript, written after. 

Pr.e, before ; as precede, to go before ; 
predict, to foretell. 

Pro, forth, or forward ; also, for, or in- 
stead of; as protrude, to thrust forward ; 
pronoun, for or instead of a, noun. 

Re, back or again ; as revert, to turn 
back ; reform, to form again, to remodel, to 
improve. 

Rktuo, backward ; as retrospect, a look- 
ing backward or on the past. 

Se, aside or apart ; as secede, to go apart 
or withdraw from. 

Sub, under ; as subset ibe, to write under ; 
*'«oterranean, under ground. 



* Ad. — The final letter of a preposition in compo- 
sition usually becomes the same as the initial letter 
of the word to which it is prefixed. Thus ad be- 
comes ac, as in accede ; a/,as in a/fix; ag, as in ag- 
gression ; al, as in ailude j an, as in announce; ar, 
as in arrogate; as, as in absent; and at, as in at- 
tract. This change is made to please the ear. For 
the same reason, con is frequently changed into co, 
cog, col, com, cor ; as coheir, connate, collect, com- 
press, corrupt; k, ex, into ec, ef, el; as in eclipse, 
effulgent, eHipse; in, into yi, il, hn, ir ; a3 in ig. 
noble, iUicit, immerge, irruption; ob, intoo, oc,6f, 
op; as in on.it, occur, offer, oppose ; sub, into sue, 
ruf, rug, sup, stis ; as in success, »w/fuse, s-ugn est, 
suppose, sus\ eml ; and svn, into sy, ayl, sym ; as in 
ostein, *//(!. .L'isui, ^gwipathy. 

f A nte. In anticipate, the e in ante has been cor- 
rupted into i. 



Sit'er,* above or over; as supernume- 
rary, above the number. 

Trans, beyond; as transport, to carry 
beyond. 

GREEK PREFIXES. 

A,f not or without ; as apathy, without 
(jjathos) feeling ; abyss, ivithout a bottom.^: 

Amphi, about, on both sides ; as amphi- 
theatre, a theatre with seats about or circu- 
lar ; amphibious, living in both, that is, both 
on land and in water. 

Ana, again or back ; as anabnptism, that 
is, baptism again or a second time ; ana- 
lyse, to resolve or loose (into the compo- 
nent parts) again ; ♦araachronism, (dated 
back or earlier than the occurrence, ) an error 
in chronology. 

Aim, against; as antidote, given against 
or to counteract. 

Apo, from ; as apostle, (sent from,) a mis- 
sionary ; apostate, one who stands from or 
abandons his profession or party; apology, a 
word or discourse from, an excuse or justifi- 
cation; (sometimes apo becomes aph, as in 
aphelion.) 

Auto, self; as autograph, self written (as 
" an autograph letter from the Queen") ; 
autobiography, a biography or history oi 
one's self. 

Cata, down ; as cataract, a vratex-fall. 

DrA, through ; as diameter, a line passing 
through the middle ; diagonal, a line passing 
through a parallelogram from one angle to 
the opposite ; dialogue, a discourse (passing 
from one side to the other) between two. 

Epi, upon ; as epidemic, upon the people, 
or very prevalent ; epilogue, a word or speech 
wpora, or immediately after, the play. 

Hyper, above; as hypercritical, over- 
critical. 

Hypo, under ; as hypocrite, one who 
keeps under or conceals his real sentiments ; 
hyphen, a mark used to bring two words 01 
syllables under or into one. 

Meta, bei/ond ; as metaphor, a carrying 
of, or applying, a word beyond its propel 
meaning. 

Para, beside, from ; as paragraph, a 
writing beside ; parallel, beside one another ; 
parasol, keeping the sun from ; paradox, 
from or contrary to the general opinion (a 
seeming contradiction). 

Pkri, round about; as periphery (cir- 
cumference). 

Syn, isym) together with ; as sympathy, 
suffering with, or compassion. 

AFFIXES OR TERMINATIONS. 

[It is impossible in every case to ascertain 
the exact force, or even general import of an 
affix or termination. Several of them seem 
to have different, and even contradictory 
meanings, and in some cases they appear to 



* Super. ITence sur (through the French) ; as sur- 
base, above the base; «i*rtout, over all; surmount, 
stirpass, &c. 

t A. Before a vowel, a becomes an ; as o-narchy 
without government ; anonymous, without a name. 

$ The dark, unbullomed, infinite alryas. — Milton 



DERIVATION. 



be merely paragogic, that is, they lengthen 
the word without adding to the meaning. 
Teachers should recollect this, and not, as 
many of them do,* require their pupils to 
assign a meaning to every affix which 
occurs.] 

Able, ible, ble, or ile, implies having 
ability or power to do what the word to 
which it is attached signifies ; as portaeZe, 
fit or able to he carried ; defensive, that 
which can, or is ableto be defended ; doci'Ze,f 
able or fit to be taught ; ducvi'Ze, that which 
may be, or is fit to be drawn out. 

Aceous, consisting of, resembling ; as 
herbaceous, testaceous, crustaceous. 

Acy, implies doing, or the thing done ; 
also, state or condition ; as conspiracy, leg- 
acy, celibacy, prelacy. 

Age, ation, tion, ion, denote the act of 
doing ; the thing done ; state or condition ; 
as carriage, passage, marriage, bondage, 
creation, position. 

Al, an, ory, ic, id, ile, ine, denote be- 
longing or pertaining to ; as naturaZ, duc«Z ; 
European, collegian, Christian ; prefatory, 
introductory; public, theoretic; timid, luc- 
id; alkaline, feminine; infanti'Ze, mercant- 
ile. See Ary. 

Ana, denotes sayings or anecdotes of; as 
Walpoliana, Johnsoniawa (of Walpole — of 
Johnson). 

Ard, state or character ; as dotard", one 
in a state of dotage ; sluggard, one who slugs 
or indulges in sloth ; wizard, a wise man or 
sage. 

Ary, implies pertaining to, or one who is 
what the word to which it is attached signi- 
fies ; as military, adversary, missionary. 

Ary, ery, or ory, implies ?lso a set or 
collection of; as library, aviary; nursery, 
rookery, knavery, repository, dormitory. 

Ate, in some cases, signifies to make ; as 
in renovate, invigorate, abbreviate. 

Dom, implies dominion or possession, state 
or condition ; as kingdom, Christendom, 
martyrdom, freedom, wisdom. 

Ee, usually denotes the person in a passive 
state, or as the object of the action ; as 
(lessor, the person who lets or gives a lease) 
lessee, the person to whom a lease is made ; 
patentee, trustee, committee (a certain num- 
ber of persons to whom some inquiry or 
charge is committed). 

En, denotes made of; also, to make ; as 
wooden, golden ; blacken, brighten. Com- 
pare FY and ize. 

Er$ or or, denotes the agent or person 
acting ; as doer, writer, actor, professor. 

Ess, the feminine termination of a noun ; 
as princess, lioness, duchess, actress. 

Ful denotes full of, or abounding in ; as 
'*ope/nZ, artful, joyful. 



* This observation is specially intended for ttie 
teachers of the National Schools. 

f Docile. In such cases rue is a cont-action of ible, 
and must be distinguished from the adjective termi- 
nation ilb, which denotes similitude ; as pueriZe, 
like a boy, infantile, like an infant. 

t Er. In a few words this termination has be- 
come eer, iter, or ar ; as auctioneer, engineer, spin- 
fter : liar, beggar. 



Fv, denotes to make ; as magnify, pur\/y, 
beautify, notify. See En and Ize. 

Head or Hood, implies state or degree? 
as godhead, maidenhood, boyhood, manhood, 
priesthood. 

Ish, implies belonging to ; like or re- 
sembling ; having a tendency to ; as British, 
Irish, boyish, greenish, thievish. 
* Ism, denotes sect, party, peculiarity, or 
idiom ; as Calvinism, Jacobinism, Latinism, 
vulgarism. 

1st, denotes skilled in or professing ; as 
botanist, florist, artist, naturalist, linguist. 

Ite, a descendant or follower of; as Is- 
raelite, Jacobite. 

Ive, has usually an active signification ; as 
defensive, offensive, persuasii/e, arfhesii/e. 

Ize, denotes to make ; as fertilize, general- 
ize, civilize. Compare En and Fy. 

Kin, a diminutive affix, meaning akin to, 
or like ; as lamMi'n, manikin, pip/tin. See 
Ling. 

Less, denotes privation, or to he without ; 
as joy Zess, careZess, harm less. 

Like or ly, denotes likeness or simili- 
tude : as godZi'Are or godZy, gentlemanZi'Ae 
or gentlemanZy. 

Ling, cle, el, et, or ock, expresses dimi- 
nution, endearment, contempt ; as gosling 
(little goose), foundling (a little child or 
infant found), darling (little dear), under- 
ling, -worldling, particZe, satcheZ, pocket, 
hillock. 

Ment, implies the act or doing of; also, 
state or condition ; as acknowledgment, con- 
tentment. 

Ness* denotes the prominent or distin- 
guishing qualities ; state or quality of being ; 
as goodness, greatness, whiteness. 

Ory. See Al and Ary. 

Ose, denotes full of; as verbose, full of 
words. 

Ous, implies having or consisting of; as 
dangerons, bilions, ambitions. 

Rick, implies rule or jurisdiction ; as 
bishopries. 

SHip.f denotes office, state or condition ; as 
chancellors^, lordship, fellowship, friend- 
ship. 

Some, denotes some of, or in some degree ; 
as troublesome, venturesome, quarrelsome. 

Tide, denotes time or event ; as noontide, 
Whitsuntide. 

Tude, ty, or ity, implies being or state of 
being; as gratiZwde, multiZnde, fortitude; 
ability, adversi'Zy ; noveky, anxiety, honesty, 
liber/y. 

Ward, means turned or in the direction 
of; as toward (turned to}, forward (fore- 
ward), backward. 

Uke, implies doing or being ; state or 
condition ; as manufacture, captnre, Script- 
ure, exposnre, displeaswre. 

Y, implieshaving or aboundingin ; as (stone) 
stony, (wealth) wealthy, (wood) woody. 



* Ness properly means a promontory; as Lang- 
ness, the Naze, &c The root is the Latin nasut, the 
nose. 

t Ship properly means the shape or form (as In 
landscape, for \a.ndshape) , and hence, the prominent 
or distinguishing quality. 



ENGLISH ETYMOLOGIES. 



ENGLISH ETYMOLOGIES. 

The great importance of a knowledge of the Latin and Greek roots, 
by which the vocabulary of the English language has been so much en- 
riched, is now universally admitted. In almost every spelling-book 
and grammar now published, copious lists of them are given; while 
English Etymology, properly so called, is comparatively neglected. It 
seems to be forgotten that a similar use may be made of primitive Eng- 
lish words. The following will serve as an introduction to the subject. 



EXAMPLES OF DERIVATIVE WORDS FORMED 
FROM THEIR ROOTS BY THE ADDITION OF 
LETTERS OR SYLLABLES. 



Nib, 

Drip, 

Scribe, 

Crumb, 

Roam, 

Game, 

Cramp, 

Gripe, 

Curd, 

Side, 

Stride, 

Wade, 

Wrong, 

Wbet, 



Nibble. 

Dribble. 

Scribble. 

Crumble. 

Ramble. 

Gamble. 

Crumple. 

Grapple. 

Curdle. 

Sidle. 

Straddle. 

Waddle. 

Wrangle. 

Whittle. 



Wring, 

Bog, 

Wry, 

Wrest, 

Stray, 

Hack, 

Hack, 

Wink, 

Spark, 

Track, 

Throat, 

Shove, 

Rough, 

Pose, 



Wrinkle. 

Boggle. 

Wriggle. 

Wrestle. 

Straggle. 

Hackle. 

Higgle. 

Twinkle. 

Sparkle. 

Trickle. 

Throttle. 

Shuffle. 

Ruffle. 

Puzzle. 



Verbs of this formation are called fre- 
quentatives, because they imply a fre- 
quency or iteration of small acts. 

Nouns of this formation are called diminu- 
tives, because they imply diminution ; as, 



Bind, 

Hand, 

Ruff, 

Round, 

Spin, 

Thumb, 

Stop, 



Lade, 



Bundle. 
Handle. 
Ruffle. 
Run die. 
Spindle. 
Thimble- 
Stopple. 

Some frequentative verbs are formed 
by adding er to the primitive word ; as, 



Steep, 

Nib, 

Gird, 

Tread, 

Shoot, 



Ladle. 

Saddle. 

Steeple. 

Nipple. 

Girdle. 

Treadle. 

Shuttle. 



Beat, 

Spit, 
Spit, 
Pest, 
Climb, 



Batter. 

Sputter. 

Spatter. 

Pester. 

Clamber. 



Gleam, 

Wend, 

Long, 

Hang, 

Whine, 



Glimmer. 

Wander. 

Linger. 

Hanker. 

Whimper. 



The large classes of nouns which are form- 
ed from the past participle, and also, from 
the old form \-eth\ of the third person singu- 
lar of verbs, are examples of the second and 
third process, that is, of contraction, and in- 
terchange of kindred letters. 

EXAMPLES OF NOUNS FORMED FROM TH3B 
PAST PARTICIPLES OF VERBS. 



Joined, Joint.* 
Feigned, Feint. 
Waned, Want. 
Bended, Bent. 
Bended, Rent. 
Gilded, Gilt. 
Weighed, Weight. 
Prayed, Fright. 
Mayed, Might. 



Bayed, Bight. 

Cleaved, Cleft. 

Weaved, Weft. 

Thieved, Theft. 

Thrived, Thrift. 

Shrived, Shrift. 

Drived, Drift. 

Gived, Gift. 

Rived, Rift. 



* Joined (joiu'd, joind), Joint; and In like 
ner, the others. 



Graffed, Graft. Held, Hilt. 

Haved, Haft. Flowed, Flood. 

Haved, Heft. Flowed, Float. 

Deserved,Desert. Cooled,* Cold. 

NOUNS FORMED BY CONTRACTION FROM THE 
OLD THIRD PERSON SINGULAR OF VERBS. 



Healeth, Health, 
Stealeth, Stealth. 
Wealeth, Wealth. 
Groweth, Growth. 
Troweth, Troth. 
Troweth, Truth. 
Breweth, Broth. 



Beareth, Birth. 
Breathe thB reath 
Girdeth, Girth. 
Dieth, Death. 
Tilleth, Tilth. 
Smiteth, Smith.f 
Mooneth, Month. 



Bake, 


Batch. 


Wake, 


Watch. 


Hack, 


Hatch. 


Make, 


Match. 


Break, 


Breach. 


Speak, 


Speech. 


Seek, 


Beseech. 


Poke, 


Pouch. 



Some nouns have been similarly formed 
from adjectives ; as, 

Deep, Depth. Wide, Width. 

Long, Length. Broad, Breadth. 

Strong, Strength. Slow, Sloth. 

Young, Youth. Warm, Warmth. 

Merry, Mirth. Dear, Dearth. 

EXAMPLES OF THE INTERCHANGE Ot i 
KINDRED LETTERS. 

Dike, Ditch. 

Stick, Stitch. 

Nick, Notch. 

Crook, Crouch. 

Mark, Marches, pi. 

Stark, Starch. 

Milk, Milch. 

Kirk, Church. 
From the natural^ tendency in all lan- 
guages to abbreviations, long sounds in sim- 
ple or primitive words, usually become short 
in compounds and derivatives. In the lists 
of words here given, several examples may 
bo found ; and the following are additional : 
Vale, Valley. Wild, Wilderness. 
Shade. Shadow. Wise, Wizard. 
Grain, Granary. White, Whitbread. 
Clean, Cleanse (e). Fore, Forehead. 
Dear, Dearth. Know, Knowledge. 
Please, Pleasant. Holy, Holiday. 
Seam, Seamstress. Import, Important. 
Zeal, Zealous. Goose, Gosling. 

Sheep, Shepherd. Coal, Collier. 
Spleen, Splenetic. Foul, Fulsome. 
Vine, Vineyard. Sour, Surly. 
Prime, Primer. Boor, Burly. 
Behind, Hinder. House, Hustings. 
Wind, Windlass. South, Southerly. 

* The irregular verbs, as they are called, are addi- 
tional examples of this tendency in the language. 
t "Whence Cometh Smyth, albe he knight or 
sijuire, 
But from the smith that tmiUfli at the fire." 
Vebstkgjiv. 
t Because we wish to coir.munioate our ideas wj : b. 
as much quickness as possible. 

C o 



lii 



DERIVATION. 



This is an important principle in pronun- 
ciation, as well as in derivation. We some- 
times hear the fore in forehead pronounced 
four, as in the simple word, instead ot for, 
as it should be in the compound ; also chas- 
tity with the long sound of a, as in chaste, 
instead of chastity. Compare humane, hu- 
manity ; nation, national ; serene, serenity ; 
divine, divinity ; conspire, conspiracy ; pro- 
nounce, pronunciation, &c. 

In English, as in all other languages, there 
are families of words, that is, words allied 



1 in derivation and meaning ; as bind, band, 

bandage, bond, bound, boundary, bundle. 

Beat, batter, battery, bat, baton, beetle. 
i Drop, droop, drip, dribble, dripping, dsip- 
! ping-pan, drivel. Srp, supper, sop, soup, 
' sip. Spit, spittle, spout, sputter. Sup, 
' slop, slope, slipper. Heal, health, hale, 

hail (to wish health, to salute). Bow, bough, 
i booth (bowcth, or made of boughs), bay. 
i Basis, base, abase, debase, abasement. Feed, 

food, fodder. Foot, feet, fetter, fetlock. 
I Head, heed, hood. 



Many of the preceding words are etymologically explained in the 
following List : — 



Abase, to lower; to debase or degrade. 
See Base. 

Abate, to bent down ; to lower ; to lessen 
or diminish. Bate is another form of the 
same word. 



Acorn, the corn or berry of the oak. 
Compare Auck\:ind, that is, 0<;Arland. 

Adieu.* An elliptical expression, equiva- 
lent to " I commend you (a) to ( Dieu\ God." 
Compare the phrase " Good-bye," a con- 
traction of God be with you. 

After, a comparative from aft,\ behind. 

Agast, aghast. These words airier in 
their etymology and meaning. Agast is 
from agazed, and means to gaze on with 
amazement ; aghast is to look pale and 
frightened as if one had seen a. ghost. 

Ail, seems to be another form of the word 
ILL, which is contracted from EVIL, as the 
Scotch term deil from devil. Compare our 
phrase, " What ails you?" with the French, 
" Oil arez-vou3 malt" 

Ai.deuman, another form of eldermzn. 
Compare Senator. 

Almost, that is, most all} nearly. 

Aloft. On loft, that is, lifted up, on high. 

Alone. All one, that is, entirely by 
one's self. We sometimes hear ''all" re- 
doubled ; as " all alone." Hence, also, lone, 
lonely, &c. 

" He made his mone 

Within a gardeine all him one."— Gowbr. 

Aloof, from all off, that is, entirely off, or 
away from ; remote ; apart. 

Also, that is, so all; in like manner, 
likewise. 

Amass, to bring to the mass or heap ; to 
accumulate. 

Amount, to mount or ascend. " The 
amount" is what the entire sum ascends or 
rises to. 

Ant, an abbreviation of emmet. 

Appal, to make pale with fear ; to terrify. 

A ppbasb, to bring to peace; to pacify. 

Appraise, to set a price or value on. 

Arrears, that portion which remains (in 
the rear) behind or unpaid. 

* Some of the ettmoi-ootes given in this list are, 
aki'.s, not English : but they are such as 
can be understood by an English scholar, 
t AJt and auafl are still used at sea. 



Ash-Wednesday, tho first day of Lent ; 
so called from the ancient custom of sprink- 
ling ashes on the head on that day. 

Atone, to make to be at one ; to recon- 
cile ; to expiate. 

" If they were wroth she woMe bringen them at one, 
So wise and ripe wordes hadde she." — C'jiaucer. 

Bacon, swine's flesh baked [Oaken) or 
dried by heat. 

Bairn, another form of boren or born ; 
from the verb to bear. Bairn is a Scotch 
term for a child. 
" They say bairns are blessings." — Shakspearr. 

Baft, a bit or bite of food put upon a hook 
to allure fish ; and hence, a temptation. 
Hence, bait, to stop at an inn for the pur- 
pose of taking (a bit or bite) a hasty refresh- 
ment. 

" The sun that measures heaven all day long, 
At night doch bait his steeds the ocean waves among " 
Spenser. 
" Aa one who in his journey baits at noon." 

AllLTOH. 

Bandy, to beat to and fro ; to give word 
for word. From bandy, an instrument bent 
at tho bottom, for striking balls at play. 
Bandy-legs, uneven, bending, or crooked 
legs. 
" Do you bandy looks with me, you rascal ?" 
" To bandy hasty words, to scant my sizes." 

SllAKS 



Barricade, barrier, are so called be- 
cause maue or fortified with bars. See Em- 
bargo. 

Base, the lowest part, or foundation ; a 
low, deep sound in music ; low, mean, 
worthless. 

Baste, to beat with a baton* or cudgel ; 
to give the bastinado. To baste meat is to 
beat or rub it with a stick covered with fat, 
as was formerly the custom. 

Batch, the number of loaves baked at the 
same time. Compare the words similarly 
formed, page li. 

Batter, a frequentative of beat. Hence, 
battery, battle, battle-door, bat, combat, 
debate. 

Bauble, a baby or child's plaything; a 
gewgaw. 

Bay, a palm or date tree branch ; the 
color of the fruit of that tree, and hence a 

* Baton was formerly written basioiu 



ENGLISH ETYMOLOGIES. 



liii 



biy color. Hence, bayard, properly a bay 
horse ; and bay salt (so called from its 
brown color). 

Bay, a bending or curving of the shore ; 
a portion of the sea encompassed or surround- 
ed by the land, except at 'the entrance. Bay 
window (usually and properly written 
Bow), a window curving outward, and 
thereby forming a kind of bay or hollow in 
the apartment. Hence, bight,* an old word 
for bay ; as the Bight of Benin, the Bight of 
Biafra. Bay is another form of BOW. 

Bayonet, so called from having been first 
made in Bayonne, in France. 

Beam. A sxvn-beam, the beam of a ba- 
lance, and a beam of timber, are evidently 
different applications of the same word. 
Compare Ray and Radius. 

Beaver, a hat made of the fur of the 
beaver or castor. 

Bkdla-m, originally the hospital of St. 
Mary Bethlehem, which was opened in Lon- 
don in 1545, for the reception of lunatics ; 
but the term is now generally extended to all 
mad-houses or lunatic asylums. 

Beef-eater, said to be a corruption of 
buff-tier, a term applied to yeomen of the 
guard, because their duty originally was. to 
stand at the buffet ', and attend upon the 
king while at dinner. 

Beetle, from the verb to beat, because 
used for beating or pounding. A beetle is a 
heavy-looking! and clumsy instrument, and 
hence the terms "beetle-headed," that is, 
with ahead as thick as a beetle; "beetle- 
browed," having a brow heavy and over- 
hanging like a beetle. This common house- 
hold word has been also beautifully extended 
to poetry ; as, 

" The cliff 

That beetles o'er his base into the sea." 

Shakspkask. 



Where the hawk 



High in the beetling cliff his aery builds." 

Thomson. 

Behalf, seems to be a corruption of be- 
toof, which means to a person's profit or 
advantage. 

Behold, to hold or keep the eyes fixed 
upon ; and hence, to look steadfastly on. 

Beholden, the old form of the past par- 
ticiple of the verb to hold. Compare bound, 
obliged, and obligated. 

Belong, from be and long, to lengthen ; 
to stretch out ; to reach ; to attain to ; to 
get possession of; and hence, to belong to. 

Bereave, from be and reave or rive, to 
take away from ; to plunder or rob. 

Between, between twain or two. See 
Twin. 

Bewilder. To be bewildered is to he 
puzzled and perplexed, like a person in a 
wilderness, who does not know which way to 
turn. See Wild. 

Bib, Bumjer, from the same root as im- 



* Right la formed from bayed, as fright from 
frayed, mioht from rruiyed, and tight from tied. 
Biaht, with sailors, means a turn or coil of a rope. 

\ Some beetles wire so beav) that It required three 
men to manage them, as appears by the term 
" three-riui/n. beetle," in rihukspeire. 



bibe, to drink in. Bib is properly a cloth 
tucked under the chin of a child when it 
drinks or feeds. 

Bill, the beak of a bird ; a kind of battle- 
axe with a hooked point ; a kind of cleaver. 
Bill, a written paper of any kind, as an 
account of money ; a law submitted in writ- 
ing to Parliament, which, when passed, is 
called an Act. Hence, billet, a small note 
or paper in writing. To billet soldiers is, f 
note their names, &c, in a bill, or piece of 
writing ; and hence, to send them to their 
quarters or lodgings. 

Blade, the. sharp or cutting part of a knife 
or weapon ; the fiat bone of the shoulder- 
Hence, a leaf of grass or corn, from its re- 
semblance to the cutting part of an instru- 
ment, has been called a blade. A sharp, 
koen, knowing person, is also called a blade; 
but this application of the term is vulgar. 

Bloat, from blowed (blow' d, blowt, bloat), 
as float from flowed. Bloated, blown 
out ; swollen or puffed out. 

Blow, a stroke ; a sudden event ; an un- 
foreseen calamity ; to puff like the wind ; tc 
swell or put forth blossoms. 

Board,* a broad piece of timber ; a table ; 
the deck or floor of a ship ; a council or 
commission sitting at the same board or table. 
To board a person is to entertain him at our 
board or table. 

Boggle, to stick as if in a bog ; to hesi- 
tate ; to be in doubt. 

Bond, that by which a person is bound. 
Booth, from boweth ; as broth from 
breweth ; truth from troweth, &o. A 
booth properly means a house made of 
boughs ; and hence a temporary house. 

"And Jacobe toke his journey towarde Siieoth, 
and bylt him an house, and made boothes for hij 
cattle." — Genesti xxxiii. Old Translation. 

Bough, from bow, to bend, because it bows 
or bends from the stem or trunk. 

Bout, from bow (bow'd, bout). Another 
bout means another turn. 
" In notes with many a winding bout 
Of linked sweetness long drawn out." — Miltos. 
Bow, to bend the body as a mark of re- 
spect, is a different pronunciation and appli- 
cation of the word bow, an instrument for 
discharging arrows. 

Box, a kind of tree ; a case made of wood 
(properly boxwood) ; an enclosed or circular 
seat, as a box in a theatre, the box of a coach. 
Brace (to embrace, to hold tightly), to 
hind. Two or a pair ; as a brace of par- 
tridges. Like the word couple, brace seema 
to have acquired this signification from the 
custom of bracing or coupling two dogs, or 
pieces of game, together. 

Bread, from brayed, past participle of 
bray, to pound or break. Bread properly 
means brayed corn. 

Brinded, brindled, other forms ef the 
word branded. The skin or hide of a 
brinded cat, or brindled cow, is marked with 
brown streaks, as if branded, or burned in. 



* Board is derived from broad, by the metathesis 
of r ; as in the following corruptions: crub for curb, 
cruds for cards, party tor pretty, Ace. 



liv 



DERIVATION. 



Broach, from troche, a spit ; and hence, 
any sharp-pointed instrument, as a punch or 
borer ; a bodkin or needle. To broach a 
vessel is to pierce it with a broach or sharp- 
pointed instrument, for the purpose of draw- 
ing or letting out the liquor ; and hence the 
phrase, to broach a doctrine or opinion, 
which means to utter or publish it for the 
Irst time ; just as the term, when applied 
to the cellar, means to draw or produce 
liquor new, or untasted before. Broach, or 
hs it is usually written, brooch, is the same 
word. From the broche or pin (the most 
important part) the term was naturally 
transferred to the whole ornament. In fact, 
the broach, like most other ornaments, 
had its origin in utility. The savages, who 
were accustomed to tag their garments with 
thorns,* and our more refined ancestors, 
who used wooden pins or skewers for the 
same purpose, may be said to have worn 
broaches. For a description of the ancient 
broach, see the song called "The broach 
of Lorn" (in the " Lord of the Isles," canto 
iL), and the interesting notes which accom- 
pany it. 

" A brooche she bare upon her colere 

4.s broad as is the bosse of a bocklere."— Chaucer. 

Hence, brocade (brocata), from the broche 
or needle used in the embroidery ; and 
brochure, a stitched book (broche) or 
pamphlet. 

Brood, the number bred at one time. 
" To brood over," is a beautiful metaphor 
from a bird sitting constantly and anxiously 
over its eggs, till they are brought to ma- 
turity. 

Burly, for boorly, that is, like a boor. 
Compare surly (for sourly) from sour. 

Bex is derived from be out, and usually 
means except, that is, take or leave out. 
In Scotland this word is still used in its 
primary meaning. The but of a house, for 
example, means the be-out or outer apart- 
ment, as the ben means the be-in or inner 
one. " Boots but spurs," means boots with- 
out spurs ; and " Touch not the cat but a 
glove" (the motto of the ancient clan Chat- 
tan,] whose crest was a wild cat), means 
without the gauntlet, or armed glove. 

Butt, the point or mark to be aimed at ; a 
person at whom jests are aimed or directed. 

Cambric, from Cambray, because noted 
for its manufacture. Compare calico, from 
Calicut ; damask, from Damascus ; dia- 
per, from d' Ypres ; dimity, from Dami- 
etta, &c. 

Canvas, cloth made of hemp,% which, 
from the coarseness of its texture, is often 
used for the purposes of straining and sift- 
ing; and hence, the act of sifting, searching 
after, and soliciting votes before an election, 
has been called canvassing. This word is 
no w written canvass. 



* Omuibus sagum fibula nut si desit, spina con- 
eornim.— Tac. Genn. 1 7. Consertum tegmen spinis. 
— Virrj. 

f See Scott's "Fair Maid of Perth," chap, x., 
«ol. 2. 

t Canabis, Latin. 



Casement, a window opening in a case at 
frame. 

Cashier, the person in a mercantile esta- 
blishment who has charge of the cash. 

Cast, to throw i to throw or pour into a 
mould or form ; and hence, cast (the thing 
moulded or formed), a model, shape, or 
form. 

Cavalierly, haughtily ; like a cavalier, 
I or trooper. Cavalier, cavalry, and chiv- 
alry, are different forms and applications of 
the same word. 

Cess, abbreviated from assess. Cess is 
the amount of taxes assessed or rated. 

Chandler, a maker and seller of candles. 
Hence also chandelier, a branch for candles. 

Charge, a load, properly of a car; a bur- 
den ; and hence, something given in charge ; 
a trust. Hence, charger, a large dish 
which holds, as it were, a load of meat ; and 
charger,* a large, strong horse, and there- 
fore able to carry a more than ordinary 
weight. To charge a jury is, to lay before 
them the whole weight of the evidence ; to 
charge the enemy is, to attack them with all 
our weight or force ; and to charge and dis- 
charge a gun, are evidently to load and un- 
load it. Cargo is another form of the same 
word. 

"A fault in the ordinary method of education, is 
the charging of children's memories with rules and 
precepts." — Locke. 

" What a sigh Is there !— That heart is sorely 
Shakspeabe. 



Chase (put for enchase), to set in a case 
or frame ; as a precious stone in gold. To 
adorn by embossed or raised work. 

Check, from echecs, the French for a chess- 
board. Hence also the terms exchequer , 
chequer, and cheque. The Exchequer 
was so called from the chequed cloth re- 
sembling a chess-board, which covers the 
table there ; and because this oourt was 
originally established to call the king's debt- 
ors to account, the term check came to sig- 
nify to examine into accounts ; and hence, to 
control or repress. Chequed cloth, or check, 
is crossed and variegated, something like a 
chess-board (echecs), and a chequered life is 
a varied and diversified one. 

Chilblain, from chill and blain. A chil- 
blain is a blain or blister produced by cold. 

" Botches and blaint shall his flesh emboss." 
Milton. 

Clamber, a frequentative from climb. 
See page li. 

Closet, a small or close apartment ; a pri- 
vate room. 

Clumsy, from clump (clumpsy), and hence 
heavy, shapeless, awkward. 



* Charger. Gibbon, in his description of the 
knight of the Crusades, says : " The lance was the 
proper and peculiar weapon of the knight ; his horse 
was of a large and heavy breed; but this chargzh, 
till he was roused by the approaching danger, was 
usually led by an attendant, ami he quietly rode a 
pad or palfrey of a more eas) [.ace. The light cavalry 
of the Turks and Arabs could seldom stand against 
the direct and impetuous weight of their cuAnaE."-- 
Chapter lviii. 



ENGLISH ETYMOLOGIES. 



IV 



CoMB, an instrument for dressing or orna- 
menting the hair ; also, the crest of a cock ; 
so called from its fancied resemhlance to a 
comb.* 

Comely, coming together ; and hence, 
fitting, suitable, decent, graceful. Compare 

BECOMING. 

Confine. See under Fine, page M. 

Consistency, uniformity or agreement 
with self. Degree of denseness or rarity ; as, 
hoiled into the consistency of sirup. 

Coop, originally a cask or barrel ; and 
hence, the term cooper, a maker of coops. 
The name was also given to cages or enclo- 
sures for poultry, &c. ; and hence, to coop 
up, came to signify to shut up, or confine 
within narrow limits. 

Corn, seeds or grains which grow in ears, 
not in pods ; grain unreaped ; hence, corn, 
to sprinkle or throw grains of salt on meat ; 
and hence, to salt slightly. An excrescence 
on the foot of a corneous or horny substance. 

Count, to reckon or compute ; any thing 
summed up or reckoned ; as, a count in an 
indictment. 

Count, a foreign title ; an earl ; originally 
the governor or lieutenant of a county. 

Countenance, the contents of the face ; 
the whole features taken together. 

Counter, a bench on which money is 
counted or received ; a piece of fictitious 
money used for keeping count or reckoning. 
Contrary to ; as, to counter&ct. 

Court, the residence of a king, or of his 
representative ; the hall or chamber where 
justice is administered. Hence court, to 
solicit with courtly attention ; to woo. 

Craft, trade ; manual art or handicraft ,• 
and henoe, art, artifice, cunning. Hence, 
craft, a small 6hip (engaged in craft or 
trade). 

" And because he was of the same craft, he abode 
with them, and wrought." — Acts xviii. 3. 

" If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand 
forget her cunning." — Psalm cxxxvii. 

Crane, a bird with a long beak ; also, a 
long bent tube for drawing liquor out of 
casks. Hence, crane, an engine for raising 
weights ; so called from its overhanging 
shape and capacity to pick up objects. 

Craven, one that has craven or craved 
his life from his antagonist. 

Crimple, crumple, frequentatives from 
cramp, a eontraction or drawing together. 
See page li. 

Cripple, from creep. A cripple is some- 
times obliged, as it were, to creep along. 

Crop, to cut short or close. Hence, crop, 
that which has been cropped or cut off; the 
harvest cut down ; and bence, the produce of 
the field. 

Cross, to lay one body, or draw one line 
across or athwart another. To cross the 
channel is to go across in a straight line. 
To cross a person is to thwart or cross him 
in his purpose ; and a person disposed to act 
so is called cross or perverse. 



* Comb. '* Iteoause it standeth lagged like the 
teeth ot a combe," says Muvsuew. "Erom its pec- 
tinated indentures."— Johnso*. 



Crouch, to crook or bow down. Crutch 
is another form of crook, and means a staff fol 
crouching or stooping old men. Crotchet 
is from the same root. 

Crow, a well-known bird. " To pluck a 
crow," would be to lose our labour for no- 
thing, for crows are not eaten ; and hence 
the phrase (which is now vulgar) came to 
signify to lose our time in disputing about a 
matter of no consequence, even if decided. 
This kind of disputation was called by the 
Romans de lana caprina, that is, a contro- 
versy about goafs wool, or nothing. Hence, 
crow, an iron bar (with a beak like a crow) 
used as a lever. Compare crane, a siphon. 

Cud, that is, what has been already cheived 
(chew'd). Quid is another form of the same 
word. 

Curd, curdle, from crude, by meta- 
thesis of the letter r. See note on Board, 
page liii. 

Dam, the mother of an animal. Dame is 
another form of the same word, and was 
formerly used in the same sense.* 

Damson, for Damascene, from Damascus. 

Dappled, marked with round spots, like 
apples ,* spotted. 

Date, of a letter, that is, the time when 
it was given from under our hands ; the 
time of any event. 

Dawn, for dayen; the beginning or break 
of day. 

Deal, to divide, share, or parcel out ; as, 
to deal cards ; to retail or sell in small por- 
tions or quantities ; to trade or traffic. A 
division, share, or quantity ; as, a great deal, 
that is, a great share or portion. Fir planks 
are called deals, perhaps from being dealed 
or divided, equally from the trunk, as cards 
from the pack. 

Dear, esteemed or beloved ; much prized 
or valued ; and hence, expensive or costly ; 
for things which are highly prized, or much 
valued, are always dear. Darling, for- 
merly dearling, means little dear ; as gos- 
ling means little goose. 

Deck, to cover; to clothe; to adorn ; in 
the last sense, perhaps, put for decorate, as 
phiz is vulgarly used for physiognomy. 
Hence, deck, the floor of a ship (that which 
covers the hull). 

Deed, any thing that is do-ed or done. 
See page li. 

Desert, that which one has deserved or 
merited. (Deserved, deserv'd, desert.) 
" Not my deserts, but what I shall deserve." 

Desert, to forsake or leave deserted. 

Diet, an assembly ; as the German Diet, 
held for enacting laws, and regulating the 
mode of government. Food or regimen 
regulated by the rules of medicine; and 
hence, food generally. 

" To fast like one that takes diet" (that Is, to ab- 
stain like one confined to a prescribed regimen).— 
Shakspeark. 

Dismay, from dis, as in disarm, and may, 
to bo able. To be deprived of might ; and 
hence, to be discouraged and terrified. 



* In Paradise Lost Eve is called " UuiversalsAMS 



Ivi 



DERIVATION. 



Doff, to do or put off; to lay aside. 
Compare don (to do on). 

Doom, that which is deemed or adjudged. 
Doomsday, the day of judgment. 

Draughts, a game in which the men are 
played by being draughted or drawn along 
the' hoard'. 

Draw, to drag or draw along, as a horse 
does a car. Draw (that is, the brush or 
pencil along the paper), to delineate or 
portray. 

Drawingroom, an apartment for with- 
drawing or retiring to. 

Drawl, to draw out one's words slowly 
and affectedly. 

Dray, a heavy cart, originally without 
•wheels ; so called from being drawn or 
dragged along. 

Droop, to drop or hang down the head ; 
to languish. 

Elder, the comparative of the obsolete 
word eld, old. Older and Alder (man) are 
the same words differently spelled. 

Ell, properly means an arm ; whence 
elbow, the bow or bend of the arm. The 
Ell English was fixed by the length of the 
king's arm in. 1101, (Henry I.) See Nall, 
page lx. 

Embargo, a prohibition of trade or com- 
merce ; to detain vessels in a harbour, by 
laying a bar or boom across its mouth ; to 
prevent or prohibit vessels from leaving or 
entering a port. 

Em hark, to go into a bark or ship; to 
put to sea ; and hence, to engage in a hazard- 
ous undertaking or enterprise ; to engage in 
any affair. 

Embarrass vto oppose a bar or obstacle), 
to obstruct ; to perplex or confuse. 

Embroider, to border or ornament with 
raised figures of needle-work. For the me- 
tathesis of the letter r, see note on Board, 
page liii. 

" Among the thick-woven arboreta anrl flowers, 
EmOurdcred on each bank — the work of Eve." 
Milton. 

Endeavour, to do one's devoir or duty ; 
to exert one's self. 

Engross, to take the gross or whole ; to 
monopolize ; to copy in gross or large 
characters ; as in records or law writings. 

" All our praises why should lGrds engross? 

Rise, honrst Muse, and sing the man of Ross." 
" A clerk, foredoom d his father's soul to cross, 
Who pens a stanza when he should engross." — Popb. 

Enlist, to enter on a list or roll the 
names of persons who engage themselves for 
military service. 

Etiquette, a ticket, or small card, on 
which the forms and ceremonies necessary to 
be observed at court, &c, on particular oc- 
casions, were inscribed. Hence, "accord- 
ing to etiquette," means according to the 
ticket (that is, " according to the card"), or 
prescribed form. 

Express, to press out; to utter or send 
out words ; to pronounce or declare. To 
send out or off speedily ; a message so sent. 

Facade, the face or front of a building. 
It is pronounced J'aA-sad'. 



Fag, one that does the coarse or hcary 
work ; a drudge. To be fagged is, to bo 
weary from over-work ; and the fug-end is 
the coarse or inferior end. 

Fair, pleasing to the eye or mind ; as a 
fair lady, a fair day, fair conduct ; also, 
favorable; as a. fair wind. 

Fallow, a yellowish-red ; and hence, the 
term has been applied to fallow-deer, and 
fallow-ground, that is, ground turned up by 
the plough and left unsown. Hence, to lie 
fallow is to be unoccupied. 

Fancy, from phantasy ; as frenzy, from 
phrensy ; palsy, from paralysis ; and 
proxy, from procuracy. 

Farthing, from four thing, a division into 
four parts. 

Fellow, one of the same society; as a 
fellow of college ; and hence, an equal, a 
match ; as one glove is said to be the fellow 
of the other. This word is also used in con- 
tempt ; as companion formerly was. 

" Away ! scurvy companion." — Shakspeare. 

Festoon, originally a garland worn at a 
feast ; but now an ornament in architecture, 
in the form of a wreath or garland of flowers. 

Fetlock, from foot and lock; which 
means either the joint that locks or fastens 
the foot to the leg, or the lock of hair that 
grows behind the pastern of a horse. 

Fkttkr, properly chains or shackles for 
the feet ; as manacles for the hands. 

Fifteen, from five and ten. Compare 
twe7ity (twain ten), thirty (three ten), &c. 

File, a thread of wire on which papers 
are strung to keep them in order. A cata- 
logue or roll. A line or rank of soldiers. 
To file a bill is to put it on the file of the 
court for trial in due order. 

File, to defile ; but now obsolete. 

" For TJanquo's issue have I filed my mind ; 
For them the gracious Duncan have I murdered." 

Fillet la little thread), a slight bandage ; 
a chaplet or band round the head. Hence, 
fillet, the thick part of a leg of veal ; so 
called from being usually trussed with a 
fillet, or slight bandage. 

" What with fillet* of roses, and fillets of veal, 
Things garni with lace, and things garni with eel." 
Fvdgv Family. 

Five, an end. Finish, to bring to an end, 
and hence, to perfect or complete. A finish- 
ed scholar, is a perfect, complete, or ac- 
complished scholar. A fine day, a fine lady, 
andfine cloth, are evidently different appli- 
cations of the same word. A fine in law is 
a sum of money paid for the purpose of put- 
ting an end to further proceedings. A con'- 
fine is an end or boundary ; and to confi'ne 
is to restrain within certain bouudsor limits ; 
to imprison. From the same root romes 
fines'se, which means too much fineness; 
and heme, suhtilty and artifice. Hence, also, 
finical, that is, too refined or nice; and 
hence, effeminate, foppish. 

First, the superlative of fore (as in be- 
fore, and forehead). Fore, forer, forest, 
for'st, first. Compare wore, worer, wor- 
est, worst. 



ENGLISH ETYMOLOGIES. 



lvii 



Flag, a -water plant -with a broad droop- 
ing leaf; to hang loose ; to droop ; to grow 
Spiritless. 

Flea, perhaps ivomfiee ; from its agility 
in escaping. 

Fodder, to gi vefood to ; from feed. 

Foible, a failing or weakness ; another 
form of FEEBLE. 

Fold, a double or plait. Twenty-/o/d 
means twent> doubled, or twice the number. 
Hence, man{/bZd, that is, many doubled, or 
very numerous. Hence, fold, a place in 
which sheep are (enfolded) enclosed. 

Foot, as the foot of a man ; the foot of a 
table; the fool (or lower part) of a moun- 
tain. A measure of twelve inches ; such be- 
ing the supposed length of the human foot. 
See Nail. 

Forkstal, to buy up provisions before 
they reach the stall or market ; and hence, 
to anticipate or hinder by preoccupation or 
prevention. 

Fohgk, to beat with the hammer into a 
particular shape or form ; to make or form. 
Hence, forge, to fabricate or counterfeit a 
writing in imitation of the original ; as, to 
forge a note ; to forge a signature. 

Forsake, not to seek ; and hence, to leave 
or desert. See page xlviii tor the prefix for. 

Fortnmght, from fourteen and night; as 
se'nnhjht is for se»e«night. 

Forward. See Ward, page 1. 

Found, to lay the ground- work 01 founda- 
tion ; to build or establish. 

Found, to form by melting into a mould ; 
as in a. foundry. 

Fret, to vex or agitate. To wear or eat 
away ; as "a moth fretteth a garment." 

Fribble, a frivolous or trifling peison; a 
fop. Compare DRIVEL from dribble. 

Froward, turned J torn, or perverse. Com- 
pare toward. 

Fulsome, from fouled some. See page li. 

Fume, to smoke ; to be hot with rage ; to 
vapour. 

Gad-fly, from goad and fly, as tad-pole 
is for toad-vole, that is, a young toad. Com- 
pare HORNET with gad-t\\. 

Game, sport or amusement of any Kind ; 
as a game or match at football ; to play (as 
a gamester or gambler! high. Animals, as 
partridges ami hares, which, by being shot 
or hunted, are said to afford game or sport 
to persons who are called J/wrtMiien. 

Ga.vg, a number of persons ganging or 
going together; as "the press -gang;" "a 
gang of robbers," &c. 

Gang-way, the way by which persons 
gang or go. 

Garner, from granary \>y metathesis of r. 
See note on Board, page liii ; also, Grain. 

Gin, an ;ibi reviation of Geneva. 

Gin, an ingenious contrivance ; a snare or 
trap. An abbreviation of engine. 
" Nor did he 'scape by all his engines." — Spenser. 

Gingerbread, so called from being spiced 
or flavoured with ginger. 

Goslinc, from goose and ling. Seo page 1. 

Grain, a single seed of corn ; and hence, 
any tbimr very minute or small ; as, a grain 



of salt. See Corn. Grain (like scruple, 
which originally meant a little stone!, a small 
weight. The grain of a body means the 
particles of which it is composed; and hence, 
the texture of cloth ; the temper or consti- 
tution of the mind. 

Grate, a range of bars ; as, a grate for 
fire, or the grating of a window. To rub 
against a rough uneven surlace ; as, to grate 
ginger. 

Grave, to engrave; to carve on a hard 
substance ; a hole graved or scooped out for 
the dead. 

" He died — and they unlocked his chain, 
And scooxjed lor bin. a hollow grave." 

The Pr'isone o/C/iillon. 

Graze, to crop or feed on grass. Hence, 
graze, to take the tops of the hair off in 
passing, as a bullet from a gun ; to touch the 
skin slightly in passing. 

Grenadk, primarily a rtome-granate , and 
from the similarity in shape, a small bomb 
or fire-ball. The tallest and strongest men 
in the regiment were formerly employed in 
throwing grenades, and hence, they were 
called grenadiers. 

Groat. This, now the smallest, was ori- 
ginally the largest of our silver coins, to 
which circumstance it owes its name groat, 
the old form of the word great. The groat 
was first coined in the reign of Edward III., 
and as it was four times the size of the silver 
penny, (till then the largest silver com.'l it 
was naturally called the groat piece, that is, 
the great piece or penny. Skinner,* while 
be derives its name from its great size, con- 
jectures that it was originally made of brass 
or iron ; but there is no necessity for this 
supposition, as it is only by comparison that 
things are great or small. When the groat 
made its appearance, it was four times as 
largef as the largest silver coin in use, - and 
this is sufficient to account for its name. It 
is worthy of remark that the French and 
Italians have denominated their groat grew,:!: 
grosso, that is, great. Compare groats 
for gruel ; large, coarsely-broken oats, not 
ground to meal. 

Grocer, from gross, a large quantity ; a 
grocer originally signifying a dealer that 
sells by the gross or wholesale. 

Grotesque. This term was originally ap- 
plied to figures found in the ancient grottos 
in Italy. 

Guinea, so called because first coined from 
the gold brought from Guinea, in Africa. 

* Skinner. Groat. Numisma qtioddam, a mag- 
nitinlhie sic dictum fortasse eniin ohm ex sere vel 
ferr.i cusum erac. 

t Twenty shillings originally weighed a pound, as 
the term denotes; but the same number of the pre- 
sent currency is only about one-third of that weight; 
and hence, we may infer that the groat originally 
was about three times its present weight, and from 
its thinness, between four and five times as large. 
" Our piece of fourpence, being formerly great (even 
as trreat as a shilling now is), was called a groat." — . 
Butler's English Grammar, lu"33, quoted by Todd, in 
his edition of Johnson. 

t Orns. Le nom de gros fut donne 1 a cette espece 
parceijue e'estoit la plus grossr rnoniioye d'argent 
(ju'il y east al rs en France. II pesoit ? deniers. sept 
| grains trebuchant. — Le Blanc, quoted by Menage. 



lriii 



DERIVATION. 



Gunnel, properly gunwale, from gun and 
wale, a ridge, a streak ; a rising or project- 
ing plank in the sides of a ship, through 
which the guns, when there are any, are 
pointed. 

Haft, is haved, hav'd, haft. The haft 
of a knife or poniard is the haved part ; the 
part by which it is held. Heft is another 
form of the same word ; and hllt, that is, 
held, is similarly derived. 

Hammercloth, from hamper and cloth ; 
the cloth that covers the coach-box. Under 
the seat of the coachman there was formerly 
a hamper, for market and other purposes, 
and the cloth that covered or concealed it 
was called the hamper cloth; whence ham- 
mercloth. 

Hamper, a large basket used for package. 
Hence, hamper, to put obstacles in one's 
■way ; to clog or embarrass. 

Hanger, a short sword ; so called because 
it hangs or is suspended from the side. 

Hare-brained, wild, unsettled. Com- 
pare the adage, " as mad as a March hare." 

Harier, now written harrier, a hound 
for hunting hares. 

Heed, to give one's head or mind to. 

Hermetical, hermetic. From Hermes 
Trismegistus, the imagined inventor of che- 
mistry. Hermetically sealed means che- 
mically sealed ; air-tight. 

Higgle, probably another frequentative 
from hack, and meaning to cut as with a 
blunt instrument, and therefore to be long 
about a thing. Compare the word decide, 
which means to cut off at once. See Hack, 
page li. 

Hind, as hind legs, "behind. Hence, 
hinder, to keep behind or back ; to ob- 
struct. Compare to forward.* 

Holster, another form of holder. Com- 
paro rhymer and rhymster ; spinner and 
spinster ; singer and songster, &o. See 

TJPHOLSTERER. 

Hood, a covering for the head. 

Hound, a dog tor hunting with. Com- 
pare mound and mount. 

Husband, probably from house and band; 
as being the stay or support of the family. 
Hence, husbandman, a farmer or tiller of 
the ground ; and husbandry, tillage or cul- 
tivation ; thrifty management or economy. 

" The name of a hwband, what is it to say ? 

Of wife and the household the band and the stay." 

Tl'sskb. 
" There's husbandry in heaven, their candles are all 
out." — Shakspkarb. 

Huswife, from house and wife. 

Ill, a contraction of evil. See Ail. 

Imagine, to form an image or likeness of 
any thing in the mind ; to fancy or conceive 
that a thing is so. 

Impertinent, not pertaining or relating 
to ; and hence unfit ; unbecoming ; intru- 
sive. 

Incense, -perfume drawn out by fire. 
Hence, incense, to inflame with anger. 

Indenture, a deed or covenant, so named, 



* Forward (for /oreward), to bring in front ; to 
advance or promote. 



because the counterparts are indented ot 

notched, so as to correspond. 

Inform, to represent to the mind or con- 
ception the form or idea of a thing ; and 
hence, to convey or impart ideas ; to instruct. 
See the following quotation from Chaucer, 
for a happy explanation of this word : — 

" Enformed when the king was by the knight, 
And hath conceived in his mind aright 
The manner and the form of all this thing." 

" There's no such thing; 

It is the bloody business which informs 
Thus [forms or presents itself thus] to mine eyes." 
Shakspeaeq. 

Jack, the diminutive of the proper name 
John ; and hence applied to any thing small. 
Jack was formerly a common name for little 
boys ; and hence, the terms bootjack and 
jackspit, which, from having been originally 
applied to the little boy whose business was 
to pull off the boots and turn the spit, were 
naturally given to the instruments substi- 
tuted for the purpose. A jack, or Jack- 
anapes, is a pert, conceited, little fellow ; a 
jack-snipe is a small snipe ; and s. jack-da,w 
is a small species of crow. To these may be 
added jack-piVe, jacket, jackaen. The two 
latter are double diminutives ; the one from 
the French (jaquette), the other from the 
Irish (jackeew). 

Jest, an abbreviation of gesture. A jest 
is properly a gesture or grimace to excite 
mirth. 

Jet, a beautiful black fossil. Hence, the 
expression, as black as jet. 

Jockey, the diminutive of the Scotch 
term Jock, or Jack, and hence, a little boy ; 
also a horse-rider ; because boys or small 
persons are usually employed for that pur- 
pose. Hence jockey, to trick, to cheat; 
because jockeys or horse-riders are noted for 
such propensities. See Jack. 

Jot or iota, the smallest letter in the 
Greek alphabet, and hence applied to the 
smallest quantity of any thing. 

Jovial, F. ; born under the influence of 

j the planet Jupiter [Jove] ; gay ; merry. 

Compare the derivations of saturnine and 

MERCURIAL. 

*' The jovial star reignedat his birth." — Shakspkarb. 
Kerchief. This was formerly written 
couvrechef which leads us to its etymology, 
Damely, the French couvrir, to cover, and 
chef, the head. A kerchief, therefore, is 
properly a covering, or dress for the head; 
a veil. Hence, handkerchief, a kerchiefs 
or loose cloth for the hand. 

" Hire litel child lay wepin? in her arrae, 

And kneling piteously to him she <ai.l, 

' Pees litel soue, I woll do thee no harm ; 

"With that her couverchief of hire hed she braid, 

And over his litel eyen she it laid, 

And in her arme she lulleth it full fast, 

And into heveu her eyen up «he cast.'' — Chauckr. 

Kidnap, to nab or steal children ; kid 
having formerly meant a child. By aspirat- 
ing the d in kid, as in p:ith from pad, bur- 
den from burden, and raurMer from murder, 
j we have kith ; whence the expression, "nei- 
ther kith nor kin." 



ENGLISH ETYMOLOGIES. 



lix 



Kind, species or sort ; as mankind ; man- 
ner or way. Hence, kind (fond of one's 
kind* or kin), congenial, benevolent. Com- 
pare humane, that is, becoming a human 
being. 

Kine, for cowen, the old plural of cows ; 
as swine for so wen. 

Kirk is the Scottish form of the word 

CHURCH. 

Laggard, one that lags or keeps behind. 
See page 1. 

Landscape, from land and shape. The 
shape and appearance of the land, &c, in a 
picture. 

Lass, a contraction of ladess, the femi- 
nine of lad. Compare ma'a?n for madam ; 
last for LATEST. 

Last, a contraction of latest ; and hence, 
to be the latest, or most enduring. Hence, 

LASTING, EVERLASTING, &C 

Launch or lanch, to hurl a lance; to 
dart from the hand ; and hence, to propel 
with velocity, as a ship into the sea. Hence, 
launch, a light boat, and therefore easily 
launched. 

Lazar is derived from Lazarus in the 
Gospel. 

" A lazar-honse it seemed, in which were laid 
Numbers of all diseased." — Milton. 

Left (that which is leaved, leav'd, left), 
not taken ; quitted ; abandoned ; the left 
hand, that is, the hand which is {leaved) 
left or not used. 

Letter, one of the characters of the 
alphabet. Hence, letter, an epistle (or 
message communicated by letters or written 
characters). 

Levant. Thisterm, like the Latin oriens, 
properly means rising ; and hence, like it, 
it ha3 been applied to the eastern (oriental) 
regions, because the sun seems to rise in 
that quarter of the heavens. The Levant, 
however, particularly means the eastern 
part of the Mediterranean.! Hence levee, 
the time oirising ; a morning visit ; lever, 
a mechanical power used in raising great 
weights; and levy, to raise — either men or 
money. Hence, also, leavened bread, that 
is, bread raised with barm ; and from the 
effect which the leaven has upon the mass 
with which it is mixed, the term has been 
applied to any thing which corrupts or 
changes. 

" Pride like leaven in a mass of flour. 
Tainted the laws, and made e'en virtue sour." 

Churchill. 

Light, luminous matter ; as the light of 
the sun ; the light of a candle. Hence, 
light, to kindle or produce light; as to 
light the fire. Hence, also, lighten, to en- 
lighten, and lightning. 



* Hence, kindles*, unnatural; as " Eindless vil- 
lain," applied by Hamlet to his uncle, the murderer 
of hia father. Hence, also, kindly, natural; as "the 
kindly fruits of the earth." 

t Because to the east of Italy. In the same way 
the Turks called Asia Minor (Anatolia) Natolia, 
because to the east of Constantinople. Anatolia is 
from two Greek words which signify the rising up, 
K. of the sun. 



Light, to come down or settle upon; as 
to light upon the ground ; to light from a 
carriage ; to light as birds ; to happen or 
light upon by chance.* 

Lime, viscous or sticky matter; as bird- 
lime ; mortar or cement used in building. 

Line, as a rod and line ; a line of poetry ; 
a line of soldiers ; a line of conduct. Hence, 
out^'we, Zmeament, delineate, lineal, line- 
ago, &c. 

Line, to put lining (properly linen) into 
clothes. 

Link, a single ring of a chain ; any thing 
connecting ; as a link in the evidence ; link' 
ing arm and arm. 

List, a narrow strip of paper on which 
names are enrolled ; a border on cloth ; the 
space enclosed for combatants. See Enlist. 



Litter, straw, because used for the bed- 
ding of horses, &c. Hence, litter, to 
throw or scatter things carelessly about like 
litter ; and litter, a brood of young ; as 
the litter of a pig, that is, the number far- 
rowed in the litter. 

Lock, as a lock of wool ; a lock of hair ; 
a lock of hay. Lock, an instrument com- 
posed of springs and bolts used to fasten, 
shut up, or confine ; as the lock of a door ; 
the lock of a canal ; the lock of a gun. 

Locket, the diminutiveof lock. Asmall 
lock or catch used for fastening a necklace 
or other ornament. Compare pocket from 
poke. 

Loiter, to be later ; to be slow or dilatory. 

Long, as a long journey ; a long time. 
Hence, long, to desire earnestly (to think 
the time long till we possess the object). 

Lot, a die or any thing used in deciding 
chances, as to cast lots ; fortune or state 
assigned, as a happy lot, a hard lot; a par- 
cel of goods, as if drawn by lot ; a proportion 
of taxes, as to pay scot and lot. 

Luggagk, properly, baggage, so heavy 
that it requires to be lugged or pulled along. 
Hence, also, Lugger, a vessel which sails 
heavily, and as if draggingly along. 

Lumber, probably from lump; things 
lying in confused lumps or heaps. 

Mail, a coat of steel net-work ; a bag 
(properly one made of meshes, like an 
angler's casting net, or reticule). 

Mail-coach, the coach which carries or 
conveys the mail or yostbag. 

Mall, a hammer or beater. Maul is 
another form of the same word, and properly 
means to beat with a mall. Trounce (to 
beat with a truncheon), cudgel, and cane 
are analogous. Hence, also, mall, originally 
a place appropriated for playing mall, once 
a favourite game, but now a public prome- 
nade. See Pell-mell. 

Manacles, chains for the hands. Com- 
pare fetters. 

Manual, a book that may be carried in 
the hand ; and hence, a small book. 



* IArjht in this sense seems formed from the past 
participle of lay. Compare the formation of bight && 



DERIVATION. 



Match, a contest ; a game: also (because 
the contending parties are supposed to be 
equal) one that is equal or suitable to ano- 
ther ; as, John and his wife are well match- 
ed ; these gloves do not match. Hence, 
matchless, without an equal or match. 

Maudlin. Johnson says, "the corrupt ap- 
pellation of Magdiden, who is drawn by poin- 
ters with swollen eyes and a disordered look. 
A drunken countenance, seems to have been 
so named from a ludicrous resemblance to 
the picture of Magdalen. Drunk; fuddled; 
approaching to ebriety." It may be added 
that " Magdalen College," at Oxford, is 
usually pronounced " Maudlin" which 
makes this etymology the more probable. 

"Let then the fair one beautifully cry, 
In Magdalen's loose hair and lifted eye." — Popb. 
" Is there a parson much be-mused in beer, 
A maudlin poetess, a rhyming peer." — Pope. 

Mayor, the chief magistrate in a city. 
Another form and application of .major; the 
proper meaning of which is greater. 

Mean, the middle or medium ; as, "the 
golden mean." Mean, middling (and 
hence, not high); low; base. In the mean- 
time means in the imcT?nediate time. 

"And the mean- mau shall be brought down, and 
the mighty man shall be humbled."— Isaiah v. 15. 

Meander, from the Meander, a river in 
Phrygia, remarkable for its winding and 
serpentine course. 

Meet, adj. Johnson says, "of obscure 
etymology," but it isevidently from the verb, 
to -meet; and hence, meeting, concurring, 
suitable, fitting, proper. Compare conveni- 
ent (i. e., coming togel her i and competent. 

" It is not meet to despise the poor man that hath 
understanding, neither is it convenient to magnify a 
sinful man." — Jiccles x. 3. 

Mettle. The word metal corrupted, 
and used in a metaphorical sense ; as, a man 
of mettle. The word sterling is similarly 
applied ; as, a sterling friend. 

Mob. Abbreviated from, and now used 
instead of mobile, the populace, the rabble. 
Chaucer has the " mobile people" (in allu- 
sion to the " mobile vulgus" of Virgil) ; and 
it is only since the time of Addison that mob 
Las been recognised as an English word. In 
" Spectator," No. 135, he says — " I dare not 
answer that mob., rap., pos., incog., and the 
like, will not in time be looked upon as part 
of our tongue." 

"By the senseless clink of misapplied words, the 
restless demagogues inflamed the minds of the mobile 
to a stran_ce and unaccountable abhorrence of the 
best of men." — South. 

Monkey is a corruption of the German 
mannchen, a manikin, or little yuan. 

Moor, an African, properly a native of 
.Morocco. 

Mortar, a vessel in which things are 
pounded or brayed together ; and hence, 
MORTiR, cement used in building, because 
the sand, lime, &c, are mixed and blended 
together as if in a mortar. Mortar, a 
short, wide cannon for throwing bombs (so 
called from having some resemblance in 
shape to an apothecary's mortar). 



Mote, a very small particle, seems to be 
another form of mite, a small insect ; a small 
coin. 

Moth. " The name of an insect that 
eateth or freiteth a garment. It is the same 
word as mouth, differently written, spelled, 
and applied." — Tooke. 

Mould, earth : to grow mouldy or rusty. 
Hence, moulder, to turn to mould or dust ; 
to crumble. Mould, a form or shape 
(usually made of mould or clay) in which 
things are cast or modelled. Mould is per- 
haps from meal* [mealed, meal'd, mould, 
like the words in page li). 

Mound, another form of mount. Compare 
hound from hunt. 

Nail, a sharp spike of metal ; the horny 
substance which protects the human fingers 
and toes. Hence, nail, a measure ifrom the 
second joint of the finger to the end of the 
nail of two inches and a quarter. Hand 
and foot are also used to denote measure.— 
See Foot and Ell. 

Naught, a compound of ne aught, that is, 
not any thing ; and hence, worthless, bad, 
wicked. 

" Thy sister's naught : Regan ! she hath tied 
Sharp-toothed unkindness like a vulture here." 

■3HAKSPEARB. 

Neighbour, from nigh, and perhaps boor. 

Neither, from ne or not, and either, one 
of the two. 

Ness, a nose or point of land running into 
the sea; as, the Saxein Norway ; La?igness 
in the Isle of Man <i. e., longness or nusei. 

Net, so called because knitted. 

Niggard, from nigh, near, and ard. For 
ard, see page 1. A niggard is a near, close, 
or stingy person. 

Nimble, quick, agile ; properly light- 
fingered ; from the old verb nim, to filch 
or steal. f (Hence, the appropriate name of 
Corporal Kym in Shakspeare.) 

None, a contraction of no one. Compare 
neither. 

Noose is obviously derived from nose. 

Nosegay, a buuch of flowers for s?nell and 
gay appearance. 

Nostril, from nose and thrill; to drill ox 
pierce. Nostrils, therefore, mean the holes 
or passage through the nose. 

Nought, a corruption of naught, but the 
meaning is now different ; nought meaning 
not any thing ; and naught, bad or wicked. 

Nozzle, a frequentative from nose. See 
psge li. 

Offal, that which (fills off\ is cast away 
as unfit for food ; and hence, any thing worth- 
less. Compare refuse and rubbish. 

Offspring, that which springs off, or 
arises from ; children. 

Only, from one and ly or like. 

Onset, from on and set, that is, a set on, 
an assault or attack. 

Orrery, an astronomical instrument 
which the inventor (Rowley) so named, in 
honor of his patron, the EarJ of Orrery. 



Meal is from the Latin m-nla. a mill. 
double. Refer to the class of words, page li. 



ENGLISH ETYMOLOGIES. 



lxi 



Ostler, hostler, the man who takes care 
of horses at a {hosteb hotel or inn. 

Ought, a contraction of owed, ow'd, 
ought. Ought means to owe it as a diriy 
to act so and so. Compare the formation of 
bought from bayed. 



Padlock (a loch for a ;?atf gate); a lock 
with a staple and hasp. 

Padimsoy, a kind of silk from Padua. 

Pale, a .stake; an enclosure formed by 
stakes ; any enclosure ; a district, jurisdic- 
tion, or boundary; as, " beyond the pale." 

Pall. " Of this word the etymologists 
give no reasonable account ; perhaps it is 
only a corruption of pale, and was originally 
applied to colours." — Johnson. 

" Beauty soon prows familiar to the lover, 
Fades iii tne eye, a.nd palU upon the sense." 

Addison. 

Palm, the inner part or palm of the hand ; 
a hand or measure of four inches. — Compare 
foot and nail. Palm, a tree; so called 
because its leaves, when expanded, have 
some resemblance to the palm or open hand : 
and because the branches of this tree were 
worn by conquerors, palm came to signify 
victory, "triumph. Palw, to conceal in the 
palm of the hand, as jugglers ; and hence, to 
impose upon by fraud. 

Palmer. Pilgrims who had visited the 
Holy Land carried branches of pal/// in their 
hands; and hence, they were denominated 
palmers. Paijukimvorm. "A worm covered 
with hair; supposed to be so called because 
he wanders over all plants." — Johnson. 

"The failed palm-branch in his hand. 

Showed pilgrim from the Holy Land.'" — Scott. 

Palsy. A contraction of paralysy ; as 
proxy, of procurac:;; and fancy, of phan- 
tasy. From paralysis, a relaxation or loosen- 
ing, SC. of the nerves and muscles. 

Parboil, to {part buil) half boil. 

Parcel, a small part or portion ; a small 
package. 



Parse, to resolve a sentence into its ele- 
ments or parts of speech. 

Parti at., pen ainingqnly to a part; inclined 
to a particular part ; as John is too partial 
to Janus, that is, too much disposed to take 
his part, whether right or wrong. 

Passing-bell. In former times it was 
customary to toll a bell for the purpose of 
soliciting the prayers of the pious for the 
soul about to pass into eternity. Hence, the 
term passi?ig-bell. 

"Anil lade the passing knell to toll 

lor wel.are ol the parting souL" — Scott. 

Passport, leave or permission to pass out 
Qf port, or through the gates. 

Pattern, a corruption of patron, and 
hence a model, because dependents follow 
and try to imitate their patrons. 

Telt, contracted from pellet, a small 
ball. To pelt, properly means to hit with 
pellets. 



Perch, a long pele; a measuring rod; 
a measure of five yards and a half ; to sit 
upon a perch or bough. 

Perform, to bring to a, form or shape; to 
perfect ; to achieve or accomplish. 

Perry, a drink made from pears. 

Peruse, to use [per) throughly or tho- 
roT'ghly ; and hence, to read through and 
through, or carefully. 

Philippic, properly the speeches of De- 
mosthenes against Philip, King of Macedon; 
but afterwards applied to any invective de- 
clamation; as, the orations of Cicero against 
Antony. 

Phiz. " This word is formed by a ridi- 
culous contraction from physiognomy, and 
should, therefore, if it be written at all, be 
written phyz." — Johnson. 

Pike, a long lance or spear; a voracious 
fish — so named from the sharpness of its 
snout. Pique, to touch to the quick, to 
offend deeply, is the same word differently 
spelled ami applied. Hence, piquant, sharp, 
pungent, severe. 

Pipkin, a small pipe or vessel. Compare 
Lamh/v'ra, &c 

Pitch, therein of the pine; tar. Hence, 
the expression, " as black as pitch." 

Pitch, to throw headlong. Pitch, a cer- 
tain degree of elevation ; as, at the highest 
pitch of the voice. 

Poach. See under the next word. 

Tocket, a small poke, or bag. Pouch 
and pock {a little bag or pustule) are diffe- 
rent forms of the same word. Hence, also, 
poach, to bag or steal game; and poacher, 
a stealer of game. 

Pout, a gate or entrance ; a harbour. 
Portholes in a ship are the apertures or 
doors through which the guns are put out. 

Port, bearing, mica.. Compare carriage. 



Port (wine), an abbreviation of Oporto. 

Porter, a gale or door-keeper. Porter, 
one who carries loads for hire. Hence, 
porter, strong beer ; the usual drink of 
porters. 

Pound, a weight ; and because a pound of 
silver was formerly coined into twenty shil- 
lings, twenty shillings are still called a 
pound, though they are now only about one- 
\ third of that weight. Pound, to beat or 
I bruise with something weighty. 

Premises. This term, which properly 
means the things premised, or before men- 
tioned, as houses and lands in a lease, came 
to be applied to the houses and tenements 
themselves. In logic, the term means the 
two propositions premised ; and from which 
the third, that completes the syllogism, is 
deduced. 

Pucker (to formintosmall pocks or pokes), 
to wrinkle or ruffle. See Pocket. 

Quagmire, from quake, as m earthquake, 
and mire. 

Quick, alive or living ; as "the quick and 
the dead." Hence, be quick, and be alive, 
are equivalent expressions. Life implies 
motion, and hence the expression quickail ver. 



lxii 



DERIVATION. 



Quiver, a case for arrows; another form 

of COVER. 

Rally, to re-ally or reunite broken forces. 

Rat. This term has been applied to per- 
sons who desert their party when it is in 
danger of being broken up, from an idea 
that rats leave houses which aro in danger 
of falling, and ships that are likely to sink. 

"In few, they hurried us aboard a bark, 
A rotten carcase of a boat — the very rati 
Instinctively had quit it." — Skakspeakb. 

Ratlin, from rat and line ; because the 
sailors, when they run up the shrouds, are 
like rats running up ropes. 

Rear, to raise up ; to bring up ; to breed ; 
also, to elevate by throwing on the hind legs, 
as a horse. 

Rear (or Rere), that which is behind; 
as, the rear rank. 

Reel (a frequentative of roll), to roll 
or turn, to move quickly round ; to stagger. 

Regale (to entertain like a king), to feast 
sumptuously. Prom regal, kingly. 

Regiment, rulo ; discipline; but now 
applied only to a body of soldiers, under the 
command {regiment) of a colonel. Regimen, 
food regulated or prescribed by physicians, 
is another form of the same word. 

Remnant, a contraction of remanent, 
remaining. 

Rest, that which rests or remains behind. 
Rest, cessation or relaxation, is the same 
word differently applied. 

Riddle, an enigma or puzzle, is a dimi- 
nutive of read or rede, to guess. 

Riddle, a coarse sieve, is from reticle. 

Rock, a vast mass of stone fixed in the 
earth ; and because places of defence are 
usually founded upon a rock, the term, par- 
ticularly in Scripture, has been used to de- 
note a defence or protection ; as, " the rock 
of Israel." 

Roost, to rest ; the place on which birds 
perch to rest for the night. 

Sable, a little animal ; the skin of this 
animal (which is dark and glossy). Hence, 
sable, dark, black ; as, the sable night. — 
Compare the figurative applications of jet 
and pitch. 

Salver, from save. Salvers were origi- 
nally used for saving or carrying away the frag- 
ments of an entertainment. Salvage is a 
recompense awarded to those who have saved 
ships or merchandize from being wrecked. 

Sample, another form of example. 

Sampler, an example; a copy or model. 
See the preceding word. 

Satchel (a small sack), a small bag. 
For the terminations which express diminu- 
tion, see page 1. 

Saw, a saying ; a proverb ; as, " full of 
wise saws and modern instances." 

Scale, bladder; also, a figure (so called 
from having some resemblance to a ladder) 
in maps exhibiting the proportions between 
the represented and actual distances. Hence 
the expressions, " on a grand scale," "on a 
small scale." Hence, scale, to climb or 
ascend by ladders; as to scale the walls. 
Scale — as, the scale of a fish ; the scale of a 



balance. Scale, to pare or peel off in thin 

particles like scales. 

Scrap, that which is scraped off; and 
hence, a very small portion. Compare scum, 
that which is skimmed off. 

Set, to place ; to place or put in order ; as, 
to set a watch, to set a razor, to set the house 
in order. Set, a number of things (set down 
together) suited to each other ; as, a set of 
china, a set of fire irons. 

Shaft, an arrow ; any thing long and 
straight; as, the shaft of a car. Shaft, a 
narrow, deep, perpendicular pit ; as the 
shaft of a mine. 

Sharper (a sharp, keen person) ; a cheat. 
See Blade, page liii. 

Sheen, bright or shining ; from the yerb 
to shine. 

Sheriff, from shirereeve. Compare port- 
reeve. 

Shoal, a shallow or sandbank. 

Shuffle, a frequentative from shove. To 
shove or move cards frequently from one 
hand to the other ; and hence, to keep chang- 
ing one's ground or position. Shovel is from 
the same root. 

Skipper, another form of shipper; the 
master or captain of a trading vessel. 

Sloven, from slow ; as craven from crave. 
Slut is from the same word (slowed, slow'd, 
slut). See page li. 

Sneer. It is remarkable that most words 
beginning with sn have reference to the nose ; 
as snout, sneer, sneeze, snore, snort, snarl, 
snuff, snuffle, sniff, snivel, snaffle, &c. 

Snuff is the past participle of to sniffl 
that which is sniffed. 

Soak seems to be connected with suck. 

Sole, a flat fish; so called from its simi- 
larity to the sole of the foot, or the sole of 
a shoe. 

Sorrel, a plant of a sour or acid taste. 
Compare surly. 

Sound, any thing audible, a noise. Sound, 
a shallow sea — such as may be sounded* 
with the plummet ; as, the Sound of Den- 
mark. Hence, sound, to try, to examine : 
as, have you sounded him od the subject? 
Sound, healthy, sane ; wise; uninjured; as, 
a sound mind in a sound body ; safe and 
sound. 

Spice, a very small quantity — as much as 
would enable one to judge of the species or 
quality. Specimen is another form of the 
same word. 

Spring, to shoot up unexpectedly or im- 
perceptibly, as plants; to spring up sud- 
denly, as an elastic body when the pressure 
is removed ; to spring or leap upon, as a 
wild beast on its prey. Spring, the season 
in which plants, &c, spring up. Spring, 
a well of water springing up out of the 
ground. 

Springe, a gin or noose to catch by a spring 
or jerk. 

Stake, a strong stick or post st uck or fixed 
in the ground. Stake, a wager or pledge — 
deposited or fixed to await the event ; and 
hence, chance, risk, hazard. 



* Sound. See Acts xxvii. 28 for an illustration. 



ENGLISH ETYMOLOGIES. 



bdii 



Staple, another form of stable ; firm, 
established. 

Starch, another form of stark, stiff, firm, 
confirmed, established; as, "stark mad." 
Starch is used for stiffening linen, &c. It 
also means stiff, formal, precise. Compare 
march from mark; crouch from crook; 
milch from milk; breach from break; 
speech from speak, &o. 

Stave, another form of staff, a stick used 
for supporting or assisting one while walking ; 
and hence, the term has been applied to the 
officers in special attendance on a general, 
as " the General's staff." Stave off is to 
keep off, or to defend one's self with a stave. 
Stave, to break (in the past tense, stove), 
is properly to break up any thing made of 
staves, as a barrel. 

Steeple, from steep, high. See page li. 
Step, that which enables us to ascend, is 
also from steep. 

Stern (the steering place), the hind part 
of a ship. 

Stick (a long, slender piece of wood), a 
staff. Stick, to fasten or pin against; to 
adhere to. 

Stickle, a frequentative of stick, to stick 
or adhere to, to defend or advocate. 

Stock, the trunk or stem of a tree ; so 
called from being stuck or fixed in the 
ground ; a family or race ; fixed quantity or 
store of any thing ; a stock or capital in 
trade ; that part of a gun in which the barrel 
is stuck or fixed. 

Stocks, a place of confinement, in which 
the legs of the offenders are stuck. Stocks, 
a frame in which ships are ttuck or fixed, 
while building. Stocks, the public funds. 

Strain, to squeeze or press; to press too 
much or violently ; to force or constrain. 
Hence, to strain one's ancle ; to strain a 
point. 

Stud (another form of stood), a number of 
horses standing together ; a set of horses ; 
a nail or button for fixing or keeping things 
steady ; the head of a nail or similar orna- 
ment set or fixed on any thing. 

Tadpole. See Gadfly, page Mi. 

Talent, a weight or sum of money ; also 
(from the parable of the Talents), a natural 
gift ; a faculty or power. 

Tamper, to try a person's temper, with 
the view of practising upon it. 

Tantalize, from Tantalus, as to hector, 
from the Trojan hero Hector. The etymo- 
logy of the vulgar term, " to Burke," may 
yet puzzle posterity. 

Tap, to strike or hit with the tip of any 
thing, as the finger; to knock gently. 

Taper, a wax candle; alight. Hence, taper 
(formed like a taper), conical; slender. 

Tender (to extend the arm), to offer. 
Tender (put for attender), a small vessel 
which attends upon the fleet, &o. 

Tendril, the young or tender spirals of 
the vine. 

Text-hand, the larger hand in which 
texts were written, in distinction from the 
smaller hand of the comments. Text pro- 
perly means something interwoven. 

Tidings, things that betide or happen; 



news. Vrom tide, which primarily meant 
time. Hence, tidy, doing every thing in 
its proper time ; orderly ; neat. 

Tight, from tied. See page li. 

Trice is from thrice, and means in an 
instant ; before you con id say thrice. 

Trifle. It seems another form of trivial. 

Twilight, the waning light between day 
and dark. 

Twin, from twoen. Twain, twine, and 
tween, as in between, are the different 
forms of the same word. 

Twist, that which is tiviced. See page li. 

Upholsterer, another form of upholder, 
(upholdster, upholsterer,) a bearer or sup- 
porter at a funeral ; one who undertakes to 
supply funerals ; and hence, one who provides 
furniture or upholstery for houses. Com- 
pare undertaker ; and see Holster, page 
lviii. 

Usher, one that stands at. a door, for the 
purpose of introducing strangers or visitors ; 
and hence, an under teacher — one who in- 
troduces or initiates young children in the 
rudiments or elements of learning. 

Utter, for outer, farther out ; and hence, 
extreme, as in "utter darkness;" also (to 
give out words), to speak (to give or sell 
out) ; to publish ; to vend. See Express. 
" Till to the bridge's utter gate I came." — Spenser. 

Vault, auarched cellar. Hence, vault, 
to leap in an arched or circular direction. 

" The fiery darts in flaming volleys flew, 
And, flying, vaulted either host with lire." 

Milton. 

Veneer, to inlay with wood so as to give 
the appearance of veins. 

Waddle, from wade. To walk as if 
loading; to walk awkwardly. 

Wag, to shake or move frequently; to wag 
one's head at, or play tricks on another ; and 
the person who has a habit or turn for 
doing so is called a wag. 

Warn, from the old verb ware-en, as in 
beware. Compare learn* from lear-en; 
for the old form was tear, whence lcre. To 
warn is, to tell a person to beware, or to be 
wary. 

Waver, from wave. " For he that 
wavereth is like a wave of the sea, driven 
with the wind and tossed." 

Whisk, a quick sweeping motion ; a 
kind of brush for sweeping ; hence, whisker, 
from the resemblance to a whisk or brush. 

" No thought advances, but the eddy brain 

WfiUki it about, and down it goes again."— Popb. 

Wig, an abbreviation of periwig, which 
is corrupted from the French peruke. 

Wild, will, willed, wil'd, wild. Self- 
willed, or following one's own will. 

Winnow, to separate the grain from the 
chaff by means of the wind; to sift or ex- 
amine. 

Wizard. For the affix, ard, see page 1. 

Wrong, from wring, as song from sing. 
Wrong means wrung, or wrested from 
the right or correct course of conduct. 

* Also wkah [wear-en), worn; and tkar (tear^nU 
torn. 



lxiv 



DERIVATION. 



LATIN AND GREEK EOOTS. 

In page xlviii it has been stated that the English language owes a 
large portion of its vocabulary to Latin and Greek roots, particularly 
to the former. The following List contains the most productive, and 
consequently the most useful of these roots : but in order that the 
knowledge of them may be made available to the fullest extent, it will 
be necessary for the learner to make himself previously and perfectly 

acquainted with the Prefixes and Affixes, or Terminations See page 

xlviii. 



THE FOLLOWING ROOTS ARE TRACED AS EXAMPLES. 



Cai\* capt, cept, cip, to take, hold, or 
contain. Henee, capable, able or fit to take 
or hold, equal or adequate to; incapable, 
not capable ; crz/jability, ability or power of 
taking, adequateness ; capableness ; capa- 
cious (that can take or hold much), large; 
captions idisposed to take or -start objec- 
tions to, or to find faultl, peevish, morose; 
copiousness, a disposition to be captious; 
captive, a person taken or captured in war ; 
captivity, the state of a captive; captivate 
(to take captive), to subdue by force of 
charms ; captor, the person who takes or 
subdues ; cptare, a taking, a prize ; ao- 
Crpt (to take to, sc. one's self), to receive ; 
accepter, the person who accepts ; accept- 
able, fit or worthy of being accepted; ac- 
ceprablenes9, acceptability, acceptation ; an- 
tic/pate, to take before-hand ; anticipation ; 
concei'ye (through the Frenchl ; conception; 
deceive rt deception, deceptive ; except, to 
take out of or from ; exception ; inceptive, 
taking in ias a commencement) ; intercept 
(to tak? between), to stop or obstruct ; parti- 
cipate, to take a part in, to share with ; par- 
ticiple, a part of speech participating, sc. in 
the qualities of both a verb and an adjective; 
perception, the act of {taking through) per- 
ceiving ; perceptible, that can be perceived ; 
imperceptible ; recepracle, reception, receipt ; 
recipe (take thou) ; susceptible (that may be 
taken or subdued by), subject to. &c. 

Cede:): or ceed, to go, to go back, to yield 
or give up. Cede, to give up ; cession, a 
giving up ; cessation, a giving up or ceas- 
ing ; cease, to give up or stop ; accede (ad- 
cede) (to go or yield to, sc. a proposal), to 
comply with; access, a going to, approach 
or admission to ; accessible (that may be 
gone to i, easy of access ; accession, accessary, 
accessory (going to), helping or abetting ; 
antecedent, going before; concede (to go 
with), to comply with or agree to ; concession, 
a going with or yielding ; exceed, to go 
above or beyond ; excess, excessive ; inter- 



* Cap, &c. From capio, to take or hold ; captus, 
taken.. In composition, cipio, ceptus. 

f Di-ceive is derived, through the French, from de- 
tipio, which literally means to take from. To trace 
out and account for the peculiar force, and (appa- 
rently) different meanings of prepositions in compo- 
sition, constitutes the chief difficulty in the Latin 
language. We must not therefore expect to be able, 
in every case, to defect *nd explain their proper and 
peculiar f.rce. 

t Cede or Ceed. Froi/i cedo, to go, to go back, or 
tticld ; cessus, given up. 



cede (to go between), to mediate; interces- 
sion ; precede, to go before; precedent (an 
examplei, going before ; proceed, to go for- 
ward ; procession; process, something g'om.g' 
forward or on ; procedure ; recede, to go 
back ; recess; secede, to go apart ; seceder, 
a person who secedes ; succeed, logo up to 
or after, to follow (to go up to our wishes 
or object) to prosper ; success, successful, 
unsuccessful ; succession, successive (fol- 
lowing afterl ; decease, going from, or de- 
parture, death ; predecessor, the person who 
goes from, sc. a place before the successor 
or person who comes after ; ancestor (for 
antecessor), one who goes before. 

Di;cE,* duct, to lead or bring. Duke, a 
leader ; dukedom, the dominion or terri- 
tory of a duke ; ducal ; ducat \a coin, so 
called because issued by a reigning duke — 
as our coin, a sovereign) ; ductile, Jit or able 
to be led ; ductility ; abduction, a leading 
from or away ; adduce, to bring to, or for- 
ward ; conduce, to bring with, to help or 
promote ; couducible, conducive ; conduct, 
to lead with, to guide ; conductor ; conduit, 
a pipe for conducting, sc. water — an AQUB- 
duct ; deduce, to lead or bring from ; de- 

I duction, dedttcible ; educe, to bring out; 

\ educate, to lead or bring up, education ; in- 
duce, to bring in or on; inducement, induc- 
tion ; introduce, to bring to within, intro- 
duction ; introductory ; produce, to bring 
forth or forward ; pruducr, production ; pro- 
ductive, able to produce ; reduce, reduction, 
seduce, seduction, superinduce, traduce, &c. 
Ject,| to throw or cast. Hence, abject, 
cast from or away ; adjective, cast to or add- 
ed ; coiy'ecruro, a casting (our thoughts) to- 
gether ; dejected, cast down; eject, to cast 
out ; ejectment, ejection, a casting out ; 
ejector, a person who ejects ; inject, to cast 
in, injection ; inter/ertion, a casting be- 
tween (other words and phrases) ; object, 
to cast in the way of, or against, to oppose ; 
object, something cast in our way, or be- 
fore our eyes ; oij/ec/or, a person objecting ; 
ol/'eciionable, that may or can be objected 
to ; unob/ecriotiable, objective ; project, ta 
cast or shoot forward ; projection ; project- 

I or, a person projecting or designing ; pro- 

jectile (iZe for ible), that which can be cast 
forward, a body put in motion ; reject, re- 



* Duce, Duct. From neco, to lead : doctus, lei. 
t Jtct. From jaciu, to cast or tliroio ; jkciuS, 
cast or Vvrown. 



LATIN AND GREEK ROOTS. 



Ixr 



jection, to cast back or refuse ; subject, sub- j 
jection, cast under, in the dominion or power I 
of, &c. 

Port,* to bear or carry. Port, bearing i 
or carriage ; porter, a carrier ; portable, lit i 
or able to be carried ; portmanteau (for car- I 
rying a mantle or cloak) ; portfolio (tor j 
carrying a folio) ; comport, comportment; 
dejoori, deportment (the manner of con- 
ducting or demeaning one's self) ; export, 
to carry out i exportation; import, to carry 
treto, to imply or mean, to be of importance ; 
importation; important (carrying into), of 
consequence ; purport (to bear forward), to 
import or mean ; report, a carrying back, sc. 
of noise (as the report of'a gun) or news ; 
reporter ; support, to carry or bear under, 
to assist or uphold ; supporter ; transport, 
to carry beyond, sc. the seas, or ourselves, 
transportation, &c. 

Press, to force or urge. Press, a frame 
or case in which clothes, &c, are kept in 
press, or when folded up ; also, the machine 
used for printing or impressing the paper 
■with the types; and figuratively, the term 
has been applied to printing, and in an espe- 
cial manner to newspaper printing. Hence, 
the terms " liberty of the press," " licen- 
tiousness of the press," " gentlemen of the 
press ,•" the prcw.v-gang (persons commission- 
ed in war times to press or force mariners to 
serve in the navy). A press-bad folds or 
shuts up in the form of a press ; express is 
to press out or utter our thoughts ; also, 
to send out or off speedily or specially'; 
whence the term expressly. The other 
words in which this root is found, are nume- 
rous and easy ; as pressure, compress, de- 
press, impress, oppress, suppress, &c. 

LATIN ROOTS. 

jEquus, even, equal, just. Equable, 
equability, equal, equally, equality, equal- 
ness, equalize, equalization, equation, equa- 
tor, equatorial, equiangular, equanimity, 
equidistant, equilateral, equilibrium, equi- 
nox, equinoctial, equipoise, equitable, equity, 
equitably, equivalent, equivocal, equivocally, 
equivocate, equivocation, equivocator, ade- 
quate, adequately, adequateness, co-equal, 
inadequate, inadequately, inadequacy, in- 
equality, inequitable, iniquity, iniquitous, 
unequal, unequally, unequalled, unequal- 
ness, unequivocal, unequivocally, &c. 

Ago,| to do or act ; actus, done. Agent, 
agency, act. active, actively, activeness, ac- 
tivity, actor, actress, action, actionable, 
actual, actually, actuary, actuate, cogent, 
cogency, counteract, enact, enactor, enact- 
ment, exact, exactly, exactor, exactness, ex- 
action, exigence, exigency, exigent, inaction, 



* Port. From porto, to carry; portatus, carried. 

t Ago, to do. It is much better to English Latin 
and Greek verbs in a general way, (that is. by the 
infinitive mood,) than to give the exact translation, 
■which, with persons ignorant of the learned lan- 
guages, seems to limit their meaning to the first per- 
son singular, present tense. Besides, it is ridiculous 
to bear children calling out, " pen&eo, I hang;" 
'• cusdo, I kill ;" "pario," &c. &c. 



inactive, inactivity, overact, rea^t, reaction, 
transact, transaction, inactive, &c. Also 
(from its frequentative, aoito, to drive, to 
stir up, or excite), agitate, agitation, agita- 
tator, cogitate, cogitative, cogitation, &c. 
Hence, also, navigable,* navigate, naviga- 
tion, navigator, circumnavigate, circumnavi- 
gator, circumnavigation, ccc. 

Alter, another. Alter, alterable, alter- 
ant, alteration, alterative, altercation, altern, 
alternate, alternative, adulterate, adultera- 
tion, subaltern, inadulterate, &c. 

Aiuo, to love; amatus, loved. Amiable, 
amiably, amiablcness, amiability, amour, 
amorous, amorously, amorousness, amateur, 
amatory, enamour, paramour, &c. Also 
(from its derivative amicus, & friend), amity, 
amicable, amicably, amicablenets, enemy, f 
enmity, inimical, &c. 

Angulus, a corner, an angle. Angle, an- 
gular, angularity, equiangular, quadrangle, 
quadrangular, rectangle, rectangular, tri- 
angle, triangular, &c. 

A.vLma, breath, spirit, life. Animate, 
animated, animation, animal, animalcule, 
inanimate, inanimatcd, reanimate, reani- 
mated, exanimate, &c. 

Animus, the mind. Animadvert, anim- 
adversion, animosity, equanimity, magna- 
nimity, magnanimous, magnanimously, pu- 
sillanimity, pusillanimous, pusillanimously, 
unanimity, unanimous, unanimously, &c. 

A.vnus, a year. Annals, annalist, anni- 
versary, Anno Domini, or A.D., annual, 
annually, annuity, annuitant, biennial, tri- 
ennial, septennial, perennial, millennium, 
superannuate, superannuation, &o. 

Antiquus, old or ancient. Antiquary, 
antiquarian, antiquated, antique, antiquity, 
ancient, anciently, ancicntness, antic, &c. 

Aptus, fit, apt, meet. Apt, aptly, apt- 
ness, aptitude, adapt, adaptation, inaptitude, 
inept, ineptly, ineptitude, &c. 

Aqua, water. Aquatic, aqueous, aqua- 
rius, aquafortis, aquamarina, aquavitag, aque- 
duct, terraqueous, &c. 

Arma, arms. Arm, arms, army, armour, 
armorial, armory, armada, armament, ar- 
mistice, unarmed, &c. 

Ars !ARTts)4 an art, skill. Art, artful, 
artfully, artfulness, artless, artlessly, artless- 
ness, artisan, artist, artifice, artificer, artifi- 
cial, artificially, &c. 

Audio, to hear ; auditus, heard. Audi- 
ble, audibly, audience, audit, auditor, audi- 
torship, auditory, inaudible, &c. 

Augeo, to increase; auctus, increased. 
Augment, augmentation, auction, § auction- 
eer, author, U authoress, authorize, authoriz- 



* Navigate is from navis, asliip, and ago, in the 
sense of to lead or conduct. 

f Enemy, Enmity. The prefix en in these words 
(which we derive through the French) represents in 
in its negative sense. See page 1. 

t Ars. When two words are given, as ARS(ARTrs), 
the first is the nominative, and the second the geni- 
tive or possessive car.e. In such words the deriva- 
tives are formed from the genitive ease. 

§ Auction. Because the price goes on increasing 
till the sale is effected. 

|| Author. Proiier'y, one who increases, generates, 
or produces liny thing. 



lxyi 



DERIVATION. 



ation, authority, authoritative, authorita- 
tiveness, unauthorized, autumn. 

Barbarus, rude, savage. Barbarous, 
barbarously, barbarian, barbarity, barbaric, 
barbarism,' barbarize, Barbary,* barb. 

Bellum, war. Belligerent, belligerous, 
rebel, rebellion, rebellious, rebelliously, re- 
belliousness, &c. 

Bene, well, good. Benediction, benefac- 
tion, benefactor, benefactress, benefice, be- 
neficed, beneficence, beneficent, beneficial, 
beneficially, benefit, benevolence, benevo- 
lent, benison, unbeneficed, &c. 

Bieo, to drink. Bib, bibuloxis, imbibe, 
imbiber, wine-bibber, &o. See Bib, page liii. 

Bis, bi, twice, tivo. Biscuit.f bidental, 
biennial, biformed, bifurcated, bigamy, bi- 
gamist, bilinguous, biped, bisect, bisection, 
bivalve, bivalvular, &o. 

Bonus, good. Bonus, s., boon, bounty, 
bounteous, bounteousness, bountiful, boun- 
tifully, bountiful ness, &o. 

Brevis, short, brief. Brevity, breviary, 
breve, brevet, brief, briefness, abbreviate, 
abbreviation, abridge, abridgment, &c. 

Brutus, bride, senseless. Brute, brutal, 
brutally, brutality, brutalize, brutify, bru- 
tish, brutisbly, brutishness, &c. " Brutum 
fulmen" (Brutus). 

Cado,+ to fall out or happen ; cASVs,fallen. 
Cadence, cadency, cadent, cascade, case, ca- 
sual, casually, casualty, casuist, casuistical, 
casuistry, accidence, accident, accidental, 
accidentally, coincide, coincidence, coinci- 
dent, decadence, decay, deciduous, incidence, 
incident, incidental, incidentally, occasion, 
occasional, occasionally, Occident, &c. 

Cjedo,± to cut, to kill; oaEsus, cut, killed. 
Decide, decision, decisive, decisively, cir- 
cumcise, circumcision, concise, concisely, 
conciseness, excise, excision, incision, inci- 
sor, indecision, precise, precisely, precise- 
ness, precision, fratricide, homicide, homi- 
cidal, matricide, parricide, parricidal, regi- 
cide, suicide, suicidal, uncircumcised, un- 
decided, undecisive, unexcised, raticide, &o. 

Calculus, a small stone or pebble. Cal- 
culate, calculation, calculating, calculator, 
calculable, incalculable, miscalculate, &c. 

Campus, a plain, an open field. Camp, 
campaign, decamp, decampment, encamp, 
encampment, champaign, champagne, Cam- 
pania,? champion,! &c. 

Candeo, to be white, to shine, to be 
bright, to glow with heat, to inflame. 
Candent, candid, candidly, candidness, can- 
dour, candidate, If candle, candlemas, chan- 



• Barbary. This name was given by the Romans 
to the countries along the northern coast of Africa. 
Barb is properly a Barbary horse. 

f Biscuit, that is, twice or double baked. The root 
is coctus. 

i In composition, cado makes cldo, as Incldo; 
C*no, cldo {chut), as incldo. 

§ " Or where Campania's plain forsaken lies, 
A dreary waste expanding to the skies." 

Goldsmith. 

| Champion. One who takes the field (champ) in 
defence of any person or cause. 

^ Those who canvassed for place or preferment 
among the Romans, were called candviati, from the 
while toira which they wore, as emblematic of the 
purity of their inte»tlonj. 



dler, chandelier, incendiary, ineen'se, v., 
in'cense, *., censor, &o. 

Cano,* to sing; cantus, sung. Canorous, 
cant, canter, cantation, canticle, cantator, 
canto, chant, chanter, chantry, chanticleer, 
charm, charmed, charmer, charming, charm- 
ingly, ac'cent, *., accent', v., accentuate, ao- 
oentuation, accentual, des'cant, *., descant', 
v., enchant, enchanter, enchantress, en- 
chanting, enchantingly, enchantment, in- 
cantation, precentor, recant, recantation, &c. 

Capio, to take, to hold or contain ; cap- 
itis, taken. See page lxiv for the deriva- 
tives of this word. 

Caput (capitis), the head. Cap, cap-a- 
pie, cape, capital, capitally, capitular, ca- 
pitulation, captain, cbaplet, chapter, bicipi- 
tal, bicipitous, occiput, precipice, precipi- 
tanoe, precipitant, precipitate, precipita- 
tion, precipitous, recapitulate, recapitula- 
tion, &o. 

Caro (carnis), flesh. Carnage, carnal, 
carnally, carnival,! carnivorous, charnel- 
house, incarnate, incarnation, &c. 

Causa, a cause, a reason. Cause, cause- 
less, causal, causality, causation, causative, 
accuse, £ accuser, accusation, accusatory, ac- 
cusative, excuse, § excusable, inexcusable, 
recusant, &c. 

Caveo, to beware, to avoid ; cautus, 
avoided. Caution, cautionary, cautious, cau- 
tiousness, incautious, precaution, &c. 

Cavus, hollow. Cave, cavern, cavity, con- 
cave, concavity, excavate, excavation, &c. 

Cedo, to go, to go back, to yield ; cessus, 
yielded. See page lxiv. 

Censeo, to think, to judge, to estimate or 
value ; census, judged. Censor, censorial, 
censorious, censoriousness, censure, censurer, 
censurable, census, &o. 

Centrum, the middle point or centre. 
Centre, central, central ity, ceutrio, centri- 
fugal, centripetal, concentric, concentrate, 
concentration, eccentric, &c. 

Centum, a hundred. Cent, centage, cen- 
tenary, century, centennial, centesimal, cen- 
tigrade, centipede, centurion, &c. 

Cerno, to sift or separate by a sieve, to 
distinguish, to perceive, to judge or deter- 
mine ; cretus, separated. Concern, con- 
cerning, decree, decretal, discern, discern- 
ment, discerner, discernible, discerning, dis- 
creet, discreetness, discretion, discretional, 
discretionary, discrete, discretire, discrimi- 
nate, discrimination, discriminative, indis- 
cernible, indiscreet, indiscretion, indiscrete, 
indiscriminate, indiscrimination, secret, J 
secrecy, secretary, secrete, secretion, uncon- 
cern, undiscerning, &c. 

Certus, certain, sure. Certain, certainly, 
certainty, certify, certificate, certitude, as- 



* In composition, cano makes clno (centus), as 
aecTno {acentus). 

t Carnival. The latter part of the word Is from 
valeo, to bid farewell. 

t Accuse. From aceOso to bring (causam) a 
cause or charge (ad) against a person. 

§ Excuse. From excQso, to tret a person (ex) out 
of (causa) a cause or charge. To free from blame. 

S Secret. From (se, aside or np.Jrt, and cretui, 
separated) skcretus, put apart or concealed: and 
hence, secret. 



LATIN AND GREEK ROOTS. 



lxvii 



«e?tain, ascertainable, incertitude, uncer- 
tain, uncertainty, &c. 

Cieo, to stir up, to call ; citus, roused, 
cited. Cite, citation, excite, exciter, excite- 
ment, excitable, excitability, exciting, &o. 

Circulus, a circle, a ring. Circle, circu- 
lar, circularly, circularity, circulate, circu- 
lation, encircle, semicircle, semicircular, &c. 

Ctvis, a citizen. Civic, civil, civil war, 
civilly, civility, civilian, civilize, civilizer, 
civilization, incivility, uncivil, uncivilly, un- 
civilized, &o. 

Clamo, to cry or call out ; clamatus, 
exclaimed. Claim, claimer, claimant, cla- 
mour, clamourer, clamorous, clamorously, 
acclaim, acclamation, acclamatory, declaim, 
declaimer, declamation, disclaim, disclaimer, 
exclaim, exclamation, exclamatory, irre- 
claimable, proclaim, proclaimer,- proclama- 
tion, reclaim, reolaimable, reclamation, un- 
claimed, unreclaimed, &c. 

Cdarus, clear, bright, manifest. Clarify, 
clarified, clarification, clarion, clarionet, 
clear, clearness, clearance, declare, declara- 
tion, declarative, declaratory, &c. 

Claudo,* to shut, to close ; clausus, shut. 
Clause, close, closely, closeness, closet, con- 
clude, conclusion, conclusive, conclusive- 
ness, disclose, disclosure, enclose, enclosure, 
exclude, exclusion, exclusive, inclusive, in- 
conclusive, inconclusiveness, preclude, pre- 
clusion, preclusive, recluse, seclude, seclu- 
sion, inconclusiveness, &c. 

Clino, to bend, to lean, to lie down. 
Clinic, clinical, decline, declinable, declina- 
tion, declension, disincline, disinclination, 
incline, inclination, inclinable, indeclinable, 
recline, undeclined, &c. 

Colo, to till or cultivate ; cultus, tilled. 
Colony, colonial, colonist, colonize, coloniz- 
ation, cultivate, cultivation, cultivator, cul- 
ture, agriculture, agriculturist, agricultural, 
horticulture, uncultivated, &o. 

Concidio, to unite, to make friends. Con- 
ciliate, conciliation, conciliatory, reconcile, 
reconcilement, reconciliation, irreconcilable, 
unreconciled, &c. 

Contra, against, opposite to. Contrary, 
oontrarily, contrariness, contrariety, con- 
trast,! counter, counteract, &c. 

Coquo, to boil, to cook ; coctus, boiled. 
Cook, cookery, concoct, concoction, concoc- 
tive, decoct, decoction, &c. 

Cor (cordis), the heart. Core, cordial, 
cordially, cordiality, accord, accordant, ac- 
cordance, accordingly, concord, concordance, 
discord, discordance, discordant, record, un- 
recorded, courage, courageous, encourage, 
encouragement, &o. 

Corpus (corporis), a body. Corps, corpse, 
corporal, corporally, corporate, corporation, 
corporeal, corpulence, corpulency, corpulent, 
corpuscle, incorporate, incorporeal, &c. 

Credo, to believe, to trust ; creditus, 
trusted. Credence, credential, credible, 
aredibly, credibility, credit, creditable, cre- 



• In composition, claitdo makes cltido (clusus), as 
InclQdo (inciusus). 

f Contrast. The latter part of the word 18 from 
•to, to stand. Xo contrast is to make to stand or 
place in opposition for the purpose of comparison. 



ditor, credulity, credulous, credulously, cre- 
dulousness, creed, accredited, discredit, dis- 
creditable, incredible, incredibleness, incre- 
dibility, incredulity, incredulous, &c. 

Creo, to make out of nothing ; creatus, 
created. Create, creation, creative, Creator, 
creature, in create, miscreated, procreate, 
procreation, procreative, recreate, recrea- 
tion, recreative, uncreated, &c. 

Cresco, to grow, to increase; cretus, 
grown. Crescent, orescive, accrue, concrete, 
concretion, concretive, decrease, decrement, 
decrescent, encrease, excrescence, excres- 
cent, increment, recruit, supercresccnce, un- 
recruitable, &c. 

Crimen (crimInis), a crime, an accusa- 
tion. Crime, criminal, criminality, crimi- 
nate, crimination, criminatory, recriminate, 
recrimination, recriminatory, &c. 

Crusta, a crust. Crust, crusty, crustily, 
crustaceous, crustation, crustiness, incrust, 
incrustation, <fec. 

Crux (crucis), a cross. Crucial, crucify, 
crucifix, crucifixion, cruciform, excruciate, 
excruciation, cross, crosier, cruise, cruiser,&c. 

Cubo or cumbo, to lie down, to recline at 
table. Cubation, incubus, incubation, in- 
cumbency, incumbent, recumbence, recum- 
bency, recumbent, succumb, superincum- 
bent, &c. 

Culpa, a fault, blame. Culpable, culpa- 
bly, culpableness, culpability, exculpate, 
exculpation, exculpatory, &c. 

Cura, care, cure. Cure, enrer, cureless, 
curable, curacy, curate, curative, curator, 
curious, curiousness, curiosity, care, careful, 
carefully, carefulness, careless, carelessly, 
carelessness, accurate, accurately, accurate- 
ness, accuracy, inaccurate, inaccurately, in- 
curious, insecure, insecurely, insecurity, pro- 
curator or proctor, procuracy or proxy, pro- 
curable, procuration, procure, procurer, pro« 
curement, secure,* securely, security, sin©« 
cure, insecure, &.c. 

Curro, to run ; cursus, run. Current, 
currently, currency, curricle, cursitor, cur- 
sory, cursorily, courant, courier, course, 
courser, coursing, concourse, concur, concur- 
rence, concurrent, concurrently, discourse, 
discursive, discursively, excursion, excur- 
sive, incur, incursion, intercourse, occur, 
occurrence, precursor, recourse, recur, re- 
currence, succour, &c. 

Damnum, loss, hurt, harm. Damage, 
damageable, damn, damned, damnable, 
damnably, damnation, damnatory, condemn, 
condemner, oondemnable, condemnation, 
condemnatory, endamage, indemnify, in- 
demnification, indemnity, undamaged, un- 
condemned, &c. 

Decem, ten. December, decemviri, de» 
cemvirate, decimal, decimate, decimation, 
decennial, &c. 

Delicije, delicacies, dainties. Delicious, 
deliciously, deliciousness, delicacy, delicate, 
delicately, delicateness, indelicacy, indeli- 
cate, &c. 



• Secure. Prom sfcitrus, which is compounded of 
te, apart, and cura, care or concern. 
" Upon my secwe hour thy uncle stole.**— iT/imlet. 

a 



lsviii 



DERIVATION. 



Dens (dextis), a tooth. Dental, dentist, 
denticulated, dentifrice, dentition, bidental, 
indent, indented, indentation, indenture, tri- 
dent, &c. 

Deus, a god, God. Deity, deist, deisti- 
cal, deism, deodand, " Te Deum." 

Dico, to speak, to say; dictus, spoken. 
Diction, dictionary, dictum, dictate, dicta- 
tion, dictator, dictatorial, benedict, bene- 
diction, endite, indict, indictment, indict- 
able, interdict, interdiction, jurisdiction, 
malediction, contradict, contradiction, con- 
tradictory, predicate, predict, prediction, 
verdict, &c. 

Dignus, worthy. Dignity, dignitary, dig- 
nify, dignified, deign, condign, condignly, 
disdain, disdainful, disdainfulness, indig- 
nity, indignant, indignation, &c. 

DrviDO, to divide; divIsus, divided. Di- 
vide, dividend, division, divisible, indivi- 
dual, &.C. 

Do, to give ; datus, given. Date, datum, 
dative, deodand, donor, donation, add, ad- 
dendum, addition, additional, edit, editor, 
editorial, superadd, <kc. 

Doceo, to teach ; doctus, taught. Doci- 
ble, docibleness, docibility, docile, docility, 
doctor, doctrine, doctrinal, document, docu- 
mentary, indoctrinate, indocile, indociiity. 

Doleo, to grieve, to be in pain. Dole, 
doleful, dolefully, dolefulness, dolour, dolo- 
rific, dolorous, &o. 

Dominus, a lord, a master. Domain, 
dominant, domination, domineer, domini- 
cal, dominion, don, "Anno Domini," pre- 
dominance, predominancy, predominant, &c 

Domus, a house, a family. Domo, do- 
mestic, domesticate, domicile, domiciled, 
domiciliary, &c. 

Duco, to bring, to lead; ductus, led. 
See page lxiv for the derivatives of this word. 

Lurus, hard, lasting. Durable, durably, 
durableness, disability, durance, duration, 
during, endurable, endure, endurance, in- 
durate, obduracy, obdurate, obdurately, ob- 
durateness, &c. 

Ens (entis), being ; esse, to be. Entity, 
essence, essential, ab'sent, absent', absentee, 
absence, interest, interested, disinterested, 
nonentity, presence, present, presentment, 
presentable, presentation, omnipresence, om- 
nipresent, quintessence, represent, represent- 
ation, representative, unessential, uninterest- 
ed, uninteresting, &c. 

Eo, to go ; itus, gone. Ambient, ambi- 
tion,* ambitious, circuit, circuitous, circum- 
ambient, exit, initial, initiate, intransitive, 
obit, obituary, perisb, perishable, post-obit, 
preterite, sedition,! seditionary, seditious, 
seditiously, trance, transient, transit, transi- 
tion, transitive, transitory, transitiveness, 
unambitious, uninitiated, &c. 



* Ambition. This word, from 6imply meaning 
(itus) the going (ambi) about of candidates for the 
purpose of canvassine for posts of honor and prefer- 
ment, came to signify an inordinate desire of ad- 
vancement — a lust of power. 

t Sedition (for se-itio, d being euphonic). This term 
literacy means going apart; butbecause the Roman 
people, when they quarrelled with their rulers, used 
to retire to Mount Aven tine, the term came to signify 
factious proceedings, and insurrectionary attempts. 



Erro, to wander; erratus, wandered^ 
Err, errant, errantry, erratum, errata, erra- 
tic, erring, erroneous, erroneousness, error, 
aberration, arrant, unerring, &c. 

EstImo, to value, to rate, to esteem ; 
estijiAtus, valued. Esteem, estimable, 
estimation, inestimable, inestimably, &c. 

Eternus, without beginning or end. 
Eternal, eternally, eternity, eterne, eternize, 
co-eternal, &c. 

Examen, a balance, a test or trial. Ex- 
amine, examiner, examinator, examination, 
examinant, re-examine, re-examination, un- 
examined, &c. 

Exemplum, a copy or pattern. Example, 
exemplar, exemplary, sample, sampler, un- 
exampled, &c. 

Externus, outside, outward, foreign. 
Exterior, extern, external, externally, ex- 
traneous, extreme, extremely, extremity, 
extrinsic, estrange, estrangement, strange, 
stranger, strangeness, exotic, exoteric, &c. 

Fabuea, so?7ielhing much spoken of, a 
story, a fable. Fable, fabled, fabulist, fa- 
bulous, fib, fibber, confabulate, confabula- 
tion : and from the same root as fabiila, are 
affable, affability, ineffable, &c. 

FActEs, the make, shape, form, outward 
appearance, face. Facade, face, faced, fac- 
ing, fashion, fashionable, fashionably, fa- 
shionableness, feature, barefaced, efface, out- 
face, shamefaced, superficies, superficial, 
surface, &c. 

Facio, to make, to do; factus, made. 
Fio, to be made, to become. Fact, factor, 
faction, factious, factious) y, factiousness, fac- 
titious, factory, fac-simile, factotum, feasi- 
ble, feasibility, feat, fit, fiat, affect, affecta- 
tion, affection, affectionate, affected, affect- 
edness, affecting, artifice, artificer, artifi- 
cial, beatific, benefactor, benefaction, bene- 
fice, beneficent, beneficial, benefit, confec- 
tionary, confectioner, counterfeit, defeat, 
defect, defection, defective, deficiency, defi- 
cient, deficit, disaffected, disaffection, edi- 
fice, effect, effective, effectual, efficacy, effi- 
cacious, efficiency, forfeit, forfeitable, for- 
feiture, fortification, imperfect, imperfection, 
indefeasible, ineffectual, ineffieacy, ineffica- 
cious, inefficiency, inefficient, infect, infec- 
tion, infectious, infective, insufficiency, in- 
sufficient, magnificence, magnificent, male- 
factor, malefaction, manufacture, manufac- 
turer, manufactory, modification, mortifica- 
tion, munificence, munificent, notification, 
office, officer, official, officiate, officious, 
olfactory, orifice, ossification, pacification, 
pacificator, perfect, perfection, personifica- 
tion, petrifaction, pluperfect, perfect, pro- 
ficiency, proficient, profit, profitable, prolific, 
ratification, refection, refectory, refit, sacri- 
fice, sanctification, satisfaction, satisfactory, 
significance, significant, significantly, signi- 
fication, somnific, soporific, specific, specifi- 
cally, specification, stupefaction, sudorific, 
suffice, sufficiency, surfeit, terrific, unaffeot- 
ed, uneffectual, unjustifiable, unprofitable, 
unprofitableness, unsanctified, unsatisfac- 
tory, verification, versification, &o. To theso 
add words ending infy; as forti/y, magnj,/y, 
mv>\\\fy. 



LATIN AND GREEK ROOTS. 



lxix 



Facims, easy to be done; easy. Facile, 
facility, facilitate, faculty, difficult, diffi- 
cultly, difficulty, &c. 

Fallo, to deceive, to mistake ; falsus, 
deceived. Fallible, fallibility, fallacy, falla- 
cious, fallaciousness, false, falsely, falseness, 
falsehood, falsify, falsifier, falsification, in- 
fallible, infallibly, infallibility, &c. 

Fama, fame, renown, repute. Fame, 
famous, defame, defamer, defamation, de- 
famatory, infamy, infamous, &c. 

Fanum, a shrine, a temple. Fane, fana- 
tic, fanatical, fanaticism, profane, profaner, 
profaneness, profanity, profanation, unpro- 
faned, &c. 

Faveo, to favour. Favour, favourer, fa- 
vourite, favouritism, favourable, favourable- 
ness, unfavourable, &c. 

Fendo, to keep ojf, to strike ; fensus, 
kept off. Fend, fender, fence, fencible, 
fencing, defend, defender, defendant, de- 
fence, defenceless, defensible, defensive, in- 
defensible, inoffensive, inoffensiveness, of- 
fend, offender, offence, offensive, offensive- 
ness, undefended, unoffending, &c. 

Feko, to bear or carry, to suffer ; latus, 
borne. Ferry, fertile, fertility, fertilize, 
circumference, confer, conference, defer, de- 
ference, differ, difference, different, diffe- 
rential, infer, inferable or inferrible, infe- 
rence, Lucifer, mammiferous, offer, offering, 
offertory, pestiferous, prefer, preferable, pre- 
ferablenes3, preference, preferment, proffer, 
refer, referable or referrible, referee, refer- 
ence, somniferous, soporiferous, suffer, suf- 
ferer, sufferance, suffering, transfer, transfer- 
able, vociferate, vociferous, &o. See Latus. 

Fessus, confessed. Confess, confessor, 
confessedly, confession, confessional, pro- 
fess, professedly, profession, professional, 
professionally, professor, professorial, pro- 
fessorship, &c. 

Fides, faith. Bond fide, confide, confi- 
dant, confidence, confident, confidential, 
diffidence, diffident, infidel, infidelity, per- 
fidy, perfidious, fidelity, affiance, defy, defi- 
ance, &o. 

Figura, a shape, an image. Figure, figu- 
rative, disfigure, disfiguration, effigy, pre- 
figure, &c. 

Fingo, to form or fashion ; fictus, feign- 
ed. Feign, feigner, feint, fiction, fictitious, 
unfeigned, &c. 

Finis, the end, a limit or boundary. 
Fine, finery,* final, finish, finite, affinity, 
confine, confinement, define, definable, de- 
finite, definition, definitive, indefinite, in- 
finite, infinitive, infinitude, infinity, refine, 
refinement, superfine, unconfined, unfinish- 
ed, &o. 

Firmus, firm, strong. Firm, firmness, 
firmament, affirm, affirmative, affirmation, 
confirm, confirmation, confirmatory, infirm, 
infirmary, infirmity, unfirm, &o. 

Fixus, stuck, fixed. Fix, fixity, fixture, 
affix, crucifix, crucifixion, postfix, prefix, 
transfix, infix, &c. 

Fumma, a flame, a blaze. Flame, flam- 
beau, flammable, fiammability, inflame, in- 



* Finery. See Fine, page lvi. 



flammable, inflammability, inflammation, 
inflammatory, &c. 

Flecto, to bend, to turn, to change} 
flexus, bent. Flexible, flexibility, flexile, 
flection, flexion, flexure, circumnect, cir- 
cumflex, deflect, inflect, inflection, inflex- 
ible, inflexibility, reflect, reflection, reflect- 
ive, reflex, &c. 

Fligo, to beat, to strike ; flictus, struck. 
Afflict, affliction, afflictive, conflict, inflict, 
infliction, &c. 

Flos (floris), afiotver, a blossom. Flora, 
Florence, florid, florist, flour, flourish, flower, 
floweret, flowery, &o. 

Fjluo, to flow; fluxus, flowed. Fluent, 
fluency, fluid, fluidity, fluxion, flux, afflu- 
ence, affluent, confluence, confluent, con* 
flux, defluxion, effluvium, effluvia, influence^ 
influential, influx, reflux, superfluous, su« 
perflux. 

Forma, form or shape, a figure. Form, 
formal, formality, formation, formula, for- 
mulary, conform, conformable, conforma- 
tion, conformist, conformity, deform, de- 
formity, inform, informal, informalits, in- 
former, informant, information, misinform, 
nonconformity, nonconformist, perform, per- 
former, performance, reform, reformer, re- 
formation, transform, transformation, uni- 
form, uniformity, uninformed, &c. 

Fortis, strong, valiant. Fort, forte, 
fortify, fortification, fortitude, fortress, com« 
fort, comforter, comfortable, comfortable- 
ness, comfortless, discomfort, discomfort- 
able, effort, force, forcible, forcibleness, en- 
force, re-enforce, re-enforcement, uncom« 
fortable, uncomfortableness, unfortified, &c. 

Frango, to break ; fractus, broken. 
Frangible, infringe, infringement, fraction, 
fractional, fracture, fragile, fragility, frag- 
ment, fragmentary, frail, frailty, infraction, 
refract, refraction, refractive, refractory, re- 
fractoriness, &.O. 

Frons (frontis), the forehead. Front, 
frontal, frontier, frontispiece, frontlet, af- 
front, confront, effrontery, &c. 

Fugio, to flee ; FVGiTvs,fied. Fugacious, 
fugacity, fugitive, centrifugal, febrifuge, re- 
fuge, refugee, subterfuge, &c. 

Fundo, to pour out, to melt ; fusus, 
poured out. Found, foundery or foundry, 
fuse, fusible, fusion, confound, confuse, con- 
fusion, diffuse, diffusion, diffusive, diffusive- 
ness, effuse, effusion, infuse, infusion, pro- 
fuse, profusion, refund, refuse, refusal, suf- 
fuse, suffusion, transfuse, transfusion, &c. 

Fundus, the bottom. Found, v., founder, 
foundation, fundament, fundamental, pro- 
found, profundity, unfounded. 

Gelu, frost, ice. Gelatine, gelatinous, 
gelid, jelly, congeal, congealable, congela- 
tion, &c. 

Genus (generis), a race or family, a, kind 
or sort. Gender, general, generality, gene- 
ralize, generalization, generalissimo, generic, 
generate, generation, generative, generator, 
generous, generousness, generosity, genial, 
genius, genitor, genteel, gentile, gentility, 
gentle, gentleness, gentleman, gentry, genu- 
ine, genuineness, congenial, congenialness, 
congeniality, degenerate, degeneracy, dia 
d2 



Ixx 



DERIVATION. 



ingenuousness, engcndor, ingenious, ingenr- 
ousness, ingenuity, ingenuous, ungenerous- 
ness, primogeniture, progeny, progenitor, 
regenerate, regeneration, ungenerous, unge- 
nial, ungentlemanlike, unregenerate, &c. 

Gebo, to carry, to bear, to bring ; gestus, 
carried on. Gerund, gest, gestation, ges- 
ticulate, gesticulation, gesture, jest,* jester, 
belligerent, congeries, congestion, digest, di- 
gestible, digestion, digestive, indigestible, 
indigestion, suggest, suggestion, undigested, 
vicegerent, &c. 

Gradior, to go step by step, to go ; 
gres&us, stepped, gone. Grade, gradation, 
gradient, gradual, graduate, gradation, ag- 
gression, aggressive, aggressor, congress, de- 
grade, degradation, degree, digress, digres- 
sion, digressional, digressive, egress, egres- 
sion, ingredient, ingress, progress, progres- 
sion, progressive, regress, retrograde, retro- 
gression, transgress, transgression, transgress- 
or, transgressive, undergraduate, &c. 

Grajvdis, great, grand, lofty. Grand, 
grandness, grandeur, grandee, grandilo- 
quence, grandiloquous, aggrandize, aggran- 
dizement, &.O. 

Granum, a grain of corn. Grain, granary, 
granite, granivorous, granule, granuious, 
granulate, grenade, grenadier, ingrained, 
pomegranate. 

Gravis, heavy, weighty. Grave, grave- 
ness, gravid, gravitate, gravitation, gravity, 
£rief, grieve, grievance, grievous, aggravate, 
aggravation, aggrieve, &o. 

Grex (gregis), & flock, a herd. Grega- 
rious, aggregate, congregate, congregation, 
congregational, egregious, &o. 

Habeo, to have, to hold ; habitus, had. 
Habiliment, habit, habitable, habitation, 
habituate, habitual, cohabit, exhibit, exhi- 
bition, inhabit, inhabitable, inhabitant, in- 
hibit, prohibit, prohibition, prohibitory, un- 
inhabitable, uninhabited, &c. 

H^ereo, to stick to, to adhere; hmsvs, 
adhered. Adhere, adherence, adherent, co- 
here, coherence, coherent, cohesion, cohe- 
sive, cohesiveness, hesitate, hesitation, in- 
coherence, incoherent, inhere, inherence, 
inherent, &c. 

ILeres (h-erSdis), an heir. Heir, heir- 
ess, heirless, heirloom, heritable, heritage, 
heredkable, hereditary, coheir, coheiress, 
disinherit, inherit, inheritable, inheritance, 
inheritor, &o. 

Horreo, to be rough as with bristles, to 
he dreaded. Horrent, horrible, horrible- 
ness, horrid, horridness, horrific, horror, 
abhor, abhorrence, abhorrent, &c. 

Hospes (HOSPiTis),a host; &guest. Host, 
hostess, hospitable, hospitableness, hospital, 
hospitality, hostel or hotel, hostler or ostler, 
inhospitable, ore. 

Humus, the ground. Exhume, exhuma- 
tion, humble, humbleness, humiliate, humi- 
liation, humility, inhume, posthumous, &c. 

Image, an image or picture. Image, 
imagery, imagine, imaginable, imaginary, 
imagination, imaginative, imaginable, &c. 

* Jest. A Jest U properly a gesture, or grimace, to 



Impero, to command. Imperative, 1m* 

perial, imperialist, imperious, imperiousness, 
emperor, empress, empire, &o. 

Insula, an island. Insular, insulated, 
isle, islet, island, isolated, peninsula, &o. 

Ira, anger. Ire, ireful, irascible, irasci- 
bility, irritable, irritability, irritate, irrita- 
tion, &c. 

Jacio, to throw or cast ; jectus, thrown. 
For the derivatives ofth is word, see page Jxiv. 

Judex (judicis), a. judge. Judge, judg- 
ment, judicatory, judicature, judicial, judi- 
ciary, judicious, adjudge, adjudicate, adjudi- 
cation, extrajudicial, injudicious, misjudge, 
prejudge, prejudice, prejudicial, unpreju- 
diced, &o. 

Jungo, to join ; junctus, joined. Join, 
joiner, joint, junction, juncture, junto, ad- 
join, adjunct, conjoin, conjoint, conjunctly, 
conjunction, conjuncture, disjoin, disjunct, 
disjunction, disjunctive, enjoin, injunction, 
rejoin, rejoinder, subjoin, subjunctive, ua- 
jointed, iko. 

Juro, to swear. Juror, juryman, jury, 
abjure, adjure, conju're, con'jure, conjura- 
tion, conjurer, nonjuring, perjure, perjurer, 
perjury, &c. 

Jus (juris), right, law, justice. Jurist, 
juridical, jurisdiction, jurisprudence, injure, 
injury, injurious, uninjured. Justus, just, 
upright. Just, justice, justify, justifiable, 
justification, unjust, &o. 

Labor, labor, toil. Labor, laborer, la- 
borious, laboriousness, belabor, elaborate, 
laboratory, &o. 

Latus, brought or carried. Collate, col- 
lation, elate, illative, legislate, legislation, 
legislator, legislature, oblate, oblation, pre- 
lacy, prelate, prolate, relate, relation, rela- 
tive, superlative, translate, translation, trans- 
lator, &c. Latus, wide. Latitude, latitu- 
dinarian, &o. 

Latus (lateris), the side. Lateral, late- 
rally, collateral, collaterally, equilateral, 
quadrilateral, &c. 

Lavo, to wash ; lotus, washed. Lava, 
lavatory, lavation, lave, laundress, laundry, 
lotion, &o. 

Laxus, loose. Lax, laxity, laxness, laxa- 
tive, prolix, prolixity, relax, relaxable, re- 
laxation, &o. 

Lego, to gather or select, also, to read ; 
lkctus, gathered or selected, read. Legend, 
legendary, legible, legibleness, legibility, 
legion, lecture, lecturer, lesson, ool'lect, col- 
lect', collection, collector, collective, dialect, 
eclectic, elect, election, electioneering, elec- 
tive, elector, electoral, eloquence, elegant, 
elegit, eligible, eligibility, illegible, illegi- 
bility, predilection, pre-elect, prelection, re- 
collect, recollection, re-elect, select, selec- 
tion, &o. From its compounds, diligo, 
come diligence, diligently, &o. ; intelligo, 
intelligence, intelligent, &c. ; negijgo, ne- 
gligence, negligent, &c. 

Levo, to raise or lift up ; levatus, lifted 
up. Leaven, Levant, levee, lever, leviable, 
levy, alleviate, alleviation, elevate, eleva- 
tion, irrelevant, relevant, relief, relieve, &c. 

Lex (iegis), a law. Legal, legality, le- 
galize, legislate, legislation, legislative, 1c- 



JLAXIW AND GllEEX ROOTS. 



Lxxi 



gislator, legislature, legitimacy, legitimate, 

rilegal, illegality, illegitimate, privilege, 
law, lawful, lawyer, &o. 

Liber, free. Liberal, liberality, liberate, 
liberation, liberator, libertine, libertinism, 
liberty, deliver, deliverer, deliverance, illi- 
beral, illiberality, &c. 

Liber, a book. Library, librarian, &c. 

Libra, a pound, a balance. Librate, li- 
bration, equilibrium, deliberate, delibera- 
tion, &o. 

Liceo, to be lawful. Licit, licence, li- 
cense, licentiate, licentious, licentiousness, 
illicit, &c. 

Ligo, to bind, to tie. League, liable, lia- 
bility, liege, ligament, ligature, obligate, 
obligation, obligatory, oblige, disoblige, re- 
ligion, &e. 

Limes (limItis), a path, a boundary. 
Limit, limited, limitation, limitless, illimit- 
able, unlimited. 

Linea, a Line. Line, lineal, lineament, 
linear, lineage, curvilinear, delineate, inter- 
line, interlinear, outline, rectilinear, under- 
line, &c. 

Linquo, to leave ; licttjs, left. Delin- 
quency, delinquent, relinquish, relinquish- 
ment, derelict, dereliction, &c. 

Liquo, to melt, to be liquid. Liquor, 
liqueur, liquid, liquidate, liquidation, lique- 
fy, &c. 

Lis (lItis), strife, a lawsuit. Litigant, 
litigate, litigation, litigious, litigiousness, 
&c, 

Litera, a letter. Letter, lettered, literal, 
literary, literati, literature, alliteration, illi- 
terate, obliterate, obliteration, &c. 

Locus, a place. Local, locality, locate, 
location, locomotion, locomotive, allocate, 
allocation, dislocate, dislocation, &c. 

LoqruR, to speak ; locutus, spoken. 
.Loquacity, loquacious, colloquy, colloquial, 
elocution, eloquence, eloquent, grandilo- 
quent, grandiloquence, interlocutor, oblo- 
quy, soliloquy, soliloquize, ventriloquy, &c. 

Luceo. to shine, to be clear. Lucent, 
lucid, lueidness, Lucifer, elucidate, elucida- 
tion, pellucid, &c. 

Ludo, to play, to deceive ; lusus, played. 
Allude, allusion, allusive, collude, collusion, 
collusive, delude, deluder, delusion, delu- 
sive, elude, elusive, illurie, illusion, illu- 
sive, illusory, prelude, ludicrous. &c. 

Lumen, light. Luminary, luminous, il- 
lume, illumine, illuminate, illumination, 
relume, &e. 

Luna, the moon. Lunacy, lunatic, luna- 
tion, lunar, lune, lunette, sublunary, &c. 

MACEO, to be lean or thin. Macerate, 
maceration, meagre or meager, meagerness, 
emaciated. &c. 

Machina, a contrivance or device, a ma- 
chine. Machine, machinist, machinery, ma- 
chinate, machinator, &o. 

Magistkr, a master. Master, mastery, 
m*gistrat<-, magisterial, magistracy, &c. 

Magnus, great. Magna Charta, magni- 
tude, magnanimity, magnanimous, magnify, 
magnifier, magnificence, magnificent, mag- 
niloquence, main, majesty, majestic, majes- 
tical, major, majority, mayor, <kc. 



Male, bad, ill. .ofalecontent or malcon- 
tent, mal-apropos, malediction, malefactor, 
malefaction, malevolent, malversation, &c. 

Mando, to give in charge, to command. 
Mandamus,*niandate, mandatory, command, 
commander, commandment, countermand, 
demand, remand, commend, commendable, 
recommend, recommendation, reffimuiendi^ 
tory, &c. 

Maneo, to stay, to remain; mansus, re- 
mained. Manse, mansion, permanence, per- 
manency, permanent, remain, remaiuder, 
remnant, &c. 

Manus, the hand. Manacle, manage, 
manageable, manager, management, mani- 
pulation, manual, manufacture, manufac- 
turer, manufactory, manumit, manuscript, 
emancipate, emancipation, emancipator, mis- 
manage, maintain, maintenance, &c. 

Mare, the sea. Marine, mariner, mari- 
time, submarine, transmarine, ultramarine 
rosemary,! &c. 

Mater, a mother. Matron, matronal, 
matronize, matronly, maternal, matriculate, 
matriculation, matrimony, matrimonial, &e. 

Maturus, ripe. Mature, maturity, im- 
mature, immatureness, immaturity, prema- 
ture, prematureness, prematurity, &c. 

Medius, middle. Mediate, mediation, 
mediator, mediatorial, mediocrity, Mediter- 
ranean, medium, immediate, intermediate, 
middle, mean, &o. 

Medeor, to cure or heal. Medical, me- 
dicament, medicate, medicine, medicinal, 
remedy, remediable, remedial, irremediable, 
unremedied, &c. 

MedItor, to muse ot think upon. Medi' 
tate, meditation, meditative, premeditate, 
premeditation, unpremeditated, &c. 

Memor, mindful, keeping in mind. Me- 
moir, memorable, memorandum, memory, 
memorial, memorialist, memorialize, com- 
memorate, commemoration, commemora- 
tive, immemorial, remember, remembranc*' 
remembrancer, &c. 

Menda, a spot, a blemish. Mend, mend 
er, mended, amend, amends, amendment, 
emend, emendation, emendator, &c. 

Mens 'Mentis*, the mind. Mental, men- 
tally, dementate, demented. 

Migro, to migrate. Migration, migratory, 
emigrant, emigrate, emigration, immigrant, 
immigrate, immigration, transmigrate. &e. 

Miles (milItisI, a soldier. Militant, 
military, militate, militia, &c. 

Mille, a thousand. Millenarian, mil- 
foil, millennium, milleped, millesimal, &c. 

Mineo, to hang over or beyond. Emi- 
nence, eminency, eminent, imminence, im- 
minent, pre-eminent, prominence, promi- 
nency, prominent, supereminent, &o. 

Minister, a servant. Minister, minis- 
tering, ministerial, ministry, administer, ad- 
ministration, administrative, administrator, 
antiministerial, &c. 

Minuo, to lessen ; minutus, lessened. 

* Mandamus. The name of a icrit; literally, ice 
command. 

t Rosemary. From rot, dew ; and marimis, na,- 
rine. So called, because it generally prows on the 
*ca-shore, and appear* be-dewed with the spray. 



lxxii 



DERIVATION. 



Minikin, minim, minimum, minion, minor, 
minority, minus, jninu'te, min'ute, minute- 
ness, minutiEe, comminute, diminish, di- 
minution, diminutive, diminutiveness, undi- 
minished, &c. 

Mirus, strange, wonderful. Miracle, 
miraculous, miraculousness, admire, ad- 
mirer, a%nirable, admiration, &c. 

Misceo, to mix ; mistos ooiixtus, mixed. 
Mix, mixture, admixture, commix, intermix, 
intermixture, miscellany, miscellaneous, pro- 
miscuous, unmixed, &c. 

Miser, wretched. Miser, miserable, mi- 
sery, miserableness, commiserate, commise- 
ration. &c. 

Mitto, to send ; missus, sent. Mitti- 
mus, missile, mission, missionary, missive, 
admit, admittance, admissible, admissibility, 
admission, commit, commitment, committee, 
commission, commissioner, commissariat, 
commissary, compromise, demise, demissi- 
ble, demission, demissory, dismiss, dismis- 
sal, dismission, emit, emissary, emission, 
immission, inadmissible, intermit, inter- 
mittent, intermission, manumit, manumis- 
sion, omit, omittance, omission, permit', 
permit, permittance, permission, permis- 
sive, premi'se, prem'ise, promise, promis- 
sory, re-admit, re-admittance, re-admission, 
remit, remittance, remittal, remission, re- 
missible, submit, submission, submissive, 
submissiveness, surmise, transmit, transmis- 
sion, transmittal, uncommissioned, uncom- 
mitted, unremitting, &c. 

Modus, a measure, a manner, a rule. 
Mode, modal, model, moderate, moderation, 
moderator, modern, modernize, modest, mo- 
desty, modicum, modify, modification, mo- 
dish, modishness, mood, modulate, modula- 
tion, modulator, modus, accommodate, ac- 
commodation, commodious, commodious- 
ness, commodity, immoderate, immodest, in- 
commode, remodel, unaccommodated, &c. 

Moneo, to put in mind, to warn; mont- 
Tus, admonished. Monish, monition, moni- 
tor, monitress, monitorial, monument, monu- 
mental, admonish, admonition, admonitory, 
summon, summons, &c. 

Mons (montis), a mountain. Mount, 
mound, mountain, mountaineer, mountain- 
ous, mountebank, dismount, promontory, re- 
mount, surmount, surmountable, tramon- 
tane, ultramontane, unsurmountable, &c. 

Moxstro, to show or point out. Monster, 
monstrous, monstrousness, monstrosity, mus- 
ter, demonstrable, demonstrate, demonstra- 
tive, demonstrator, remonstrate, remon- 
strance, remonstrant, &o. 

Mors (mortis), death. Mortal, mortality, 
mortally, mortgage, mortify, mortification, 
mortmain, mortuary, murder, murderer, mur- 
derous, immortal, immortality, immortalize, 
mortiferous, &c. 

Mos (moris), a manner or custom. Mo- 
ral, morality, moralist, moralize, morals, de- 
moralize, demoralization, immoral, immo- 
rality, &o. 

Moveo, to move ; motus, moved. Move, 
mover, movable, movables, movement, mo- 
tion, motive, motionless, amotion, commo- 
tion, emotion, immovable, irremovable, pro- 



l mote, promotion, remote, rcmotcness> re- 
move, removable, removal, unmovable un- 
moved, &c. 

Mui/rus, many. Multifarious, multifa- 
riousness, multiped, multiple, multipliable, 
multiplicand, multiplicity, multiplier, mul- 
titude, multitudinous, &c. 

Munus (muneris), a gift, an office. Mu- 
nicipal, munificence, munificent, common, 
commonweal, commonwealth, commune, 
communicate, communication, communica- 
ble, communicant, communicative, commu- 
nicativeness, communing, communion, com- 
munity, excommunicate, excommunication, 
immunity, incommunicable, remunerate, re- 
muneration, remunerative, uncommon, un- 
communicative. Sec. 

Muto, to change ; mutatus, changed. 
Mutable, mutation, mutiny, mutineer, mu- 
tinous, commute, commutable, commuta- 
tion, immutable, immutableness, &c. 

Nascor, to be born, to spring; natus, 
born. Nascent, natal, nation, national, na- 
tionality, native, nativity, nature, natural, 
naturalist, naturalize, naturalization, natu- 
rals, non-naturals, cognate, denationalize, 
innate, preternatural, renascent, supernatu- 
ral, unnatural, &o. 

Navis, a ship. Naval, navy, navigable, 
navigableness, navigate, navigation, naviga- 
tor, circumnavigate, circumnavigation, cir- 
cumnavigator, &c. 

Necto, to bind, to knit; nexus, tied. 
Connect, connection or connexion, annex, 
annexation, annexive, disconnect, uncon- 
nected, &c. 

Nego, to deny ; negatus, denied. Nega- 
tion, negative, renege, renegade, nay, deny, 
denial, undeniable, &c. 

Neuter, neither of the two. Neuter, 
neutral, neutrality, neutralize, &c. 

Niger, black. Negro, negress, Nigritia, 
Niger, &c. 

Noceo, to hurt. Nocent, noxious, nui- 
sance, innocence, innocent, innocuous, in- 
noxious, obnoxious, &c. 

Nomen (nomints), a name. Nomencla- 
ture, nominal, nominate, nomination, nomi- 
native, nominator, nominee, noun, name, 
nameless, binomial, denominate, denomina- 
tion, denominator, ignominy, ignominious, 
pronoun, &c. 

Nosco, to know ; notus, knoion. No- 
table, notary, noted, notice, noticeable, 
notify, notification, notion, notorious, noto- 
riety, cognizable, cognizance, cognizant, con- 
noisseur, rec<>guise, recognition, reconnoitre, 
unnoticed, &c. 

Nota, a mark by which a thing can be 
known. Note, notation, annotate, annota- 
tion, annotator, denote, notation, &c. 

Novus, new. New, newness, news, novel, 
novelist, novelty, novice, novitiate, innovate, 
innovation, innovator, renew, renewable, re- 
newal, renovate, renovation, &c. 

Numerus, a number. Number, number- 
less, numbers, numerable, numeral, nume- 
rate, numeration, numerator, numerical, nu- 
merous, enumerate, innumerable, supernu- 
merary, &c. 

Nuxcius, a messenger ; nuncio, to tell or 



LATIN AND GREEK ROOTS. 



Ixxiii 



declare. Nuncio, announce, announcement, 
annunciation, denounce, denouncement, de- 
nunciation, enunciate, enunciation, pro- 
nounce, pronunciation, mispronounce, re- 
nounce, renunciation, unpronounced, &c. 

Nutrio, to nourish. Nutriment, nutri- 
mental, nutrition, nutritious, nutritive, 
nurse, nursery, nurture, nourish, nourish- 
ment, innutritious, &c. 

Octo, eight. Octave, octavo, octennial, 
October,* octagon, octagonal, octangular, &c. 

Oculus, the eye, a bud. Ocular, oculist, 
hinocle, binocular, monocular, inoculate,! 
inoculator, &c. 

OaiEV (oMiNis),a jj£», good or bad. Omen, 
ominous, abominate, abomination, abomi- 
nable, &c. 

Omnis, all. Omnium, omnibus, omnific, 
omnipotence, omnipotent, omnipresence, om- 
nipresent, omniscience, omniscient, omnivo- 
rous, &c. 

Opto, to wish. Optative, option, optional, 
adopt, adopted, adoption, &c. 

Opus (operis>, a work. Opera, operate, t 
operation, operative, operator, co-operate, 
co-operation, inoperative, &c. 

Orbis, an orb, a circle. Orb, orbit, orbi- 
cular, exorbitance, exorbitant, exorbitantly, 
disorbed, &c. 

Ordo (ordinis), order, rank. Ordain, 
ordained, order, orderly, ordinal, ordinance, 
ordnance, ordinary, ordinate, ordination, co- 
ordinate, disorder, extraordinary, extraordi- 
nariness, inordinate, insubordinate, insubor- 
dination, preordain, primordial, reordain, 
subordinate, subordination, &c. 

Orior, to rise; ortus, risen. Orient, 
oriental, orientalist, orientalism, abortion, 
abortive, abortiveness, origin, original, ori- 
ginality, originate, &c. 

Orno, to decorate, to adorn. Ornament, 
ornamental, ornate, ornateness, adorn, ad- 
ornment, suborn, subornation, &c. 

Oro, to speak, to pray, to beseech ; ora- 
tus, begged. Os (oris), the mouth. Oracle, 
oracular, orison, oral, orator, oratory, ora- 
tion, oratorical, oratorio, orifice, adore, ado- 
rer, adoration, adorable, exorable, inexora- 
ble, inexorableness, peroration, &c. 

Ovum, an egg. Oval, ovary, ovarious, ovi- 
parous, &c. 

Palatum, the taste, the palate. Palate, 
palatable, palatableness, palatal, unpalata- 
ble, &c. 

Palma, the palm tree ; also, the inner 
part of the hand. Palm, palmer, palmetto, 
palmy, palmistry,§ &c. See Palm, page Ixi. 



* October. The Roman year began in March, and 
hence, Sept ember, October, November, and December 
derive their names. Before the time of Julius and 
Augustus Caesar, July and August were called Quin- 
tims and Skxtilis, that is, the fifth and the sixth 
months. 

t Inoculate. To insert the [oculus) bud of one 
plant into the stock of another, for the purpose of 
propagation ; and hence, to generate the smali-pock 
by making an incision, and introducing the infected 
matter. 

! Operate. Compare the original meaning of drama 
witli that of opera : also, the words actor and act. 

9 Palmistry is the art or pretence of divining or 
telling fortunes, by examining the lines or marks on 
the palms of the baud. 



Pando, to open, to spiead ; PA2TSU8, 
spread out. Expand, expanse, expansion, 
expansive, expansibility, &c. 

Par, equal. Par, parity, pair, peer,* peer- 
ess, peerage, peerless, compare,! comparable, 
comparative, comparison, compeer, dispa- 
rage,! disparagement, disparity, incompa- 
rable, nonpareil, &c. 

Pareo, to appear. Peer, appear, § ap- 
pearance, apparent, apparition, disappear, 
disappearance, reappear, transparency, trans- 
parent, &c. 

Pario, to bring forth, to beget. Parent, 
parental, parentage, parturient, parturition, 
oviparous, viviparous, &c. 

Paro, to make ready ; paratus, pre- 
pared. Parade, apparatus, apparel, prepare, 
preparative, preparatory, repair, reparation, 
irreparable, &c. 

Pars (partis), a part, a share. Part, 
parboil, partake, partaker, partial, partial' 
ity, participate, participation, participle, 
participial, particle, particular, particular- 
ize, particularity, partisan, partition, part- 
ner, party, parcel, parse, portion, apart, 
apartment, apportion, bipartite, compait- 
ment, copartner, counterpart, d. part, depart- 
ment, departure, dispart, disparted, dispro- 
portion, disproportional, impart, impartial, 
impartiality, proportion, proportionable, 
proportional, tripartite, &o. 

Pasco, to feed. Pastor, pastoral, pasture, 
pasturage, antepast, repast, dec. 

Passus, a pace or step. Pace, pass, pass- 
able, passage, en passant, passenger, pass- 
over, passport, past, pastime, compass, en- 
compass, impassable, repass, surpass, tres- 
pass, &c. 

Pater, a father. Paternal, paternity, 
patriarch, patriarchal or patriarchic, patri- 
cian, patrimony, patron, patroness, patron- 
age, patronize, patronymic, parricide, parri- 
cidal, pater-nostvr, &c. 

Patior, to suffer ; passus, suffered. Pa,- 
tience, patient, passion, passionless, passion- 
ate, passive, passiveness, compassion, com- 
passionate, dispassionate, impatience, impa- 
tient, un impassioned, &c. 

Patria, one's country, fatherland. Par 
triot, patriotism, patriotic, compatriot, ex- 
patriate, expatriation. 

Pauper, poor. Pauper, pauperism, po- 
verty, poor, empoverish or impoverish, &c. 

Pax (pacis), peace. Pacify, pacific, paci- 
fication, pacificator, peace, peaceable, peace- 
ableness, peaceful, peacefulness, appease, 
appeasable, &c. 

Pecco, to sin ; pecatus, sinned. Pecca- 
ble, peccadillo, peccancy, peccant, impecca- 
ble, impeccability, &c. 

Pello, to drive, to thrust. Compel, com- 
pulsion, compulsive, compulsory, dispel, ex- 
pel, expulsive, expulsion, impel, impulse, 



* Peer. Thi3 term has been applied to the no- 
bility, because, though they may differ in rank or 
degree, their essential privileges are equal. 

t Compare is from comparo, to make equal with; 
to liken to. 

$ Disparage. To make unequal to ; to injure fay 
comparison with something of less value. 

§ Peer is an abbreviation of appear. 



lxxir 



DERIVATION. 



impulsive, propel, propulsion, pulse, pulsa- 
tion, repel, repellent, repulse, repulsion, re- 
pulsive, repulsiveness, &c. 

Pendeo, to hang down. Pendant, pen- 
dent, pending, pendulum, pendulous, pen- 
Rant, pensile, append, appendage, appen- 
dix, depend, dependence, dependency, de- 
pendent, impend, impending, independence, 
independently, independent, perpendicular, 
perpendicularity, prepense, propensity, sus- 
pend, suspense, suspension, vilipend, &c. 

Pent>o, to hang weights, to weigh, to pay. 
Perpend, compensate, compensation, dis- 
pense, dispensary, dispensation, expend, ex- 
penditure, expense, expensive, indispensa- 
ble, pensive, pension, recompense, unpen- 
sioned, &c. 

Penetro, to pierce or enter. Penetrable, 
penetrability, penetrant, penetration, im- 
penetrable, impenetrability, &c. 

Penitet, to repent. Penitence, penitent, 
penitential, penitentiary, penitency, impeni- 
tent, impenitence, impenitency, repent, re- 
pentance, repentant, unrepenting, &c. 

Persona, a mask used by players ; a 
person. Person, personal, personate, per- 
sonation, personator, personify, personifica- 
tion, impersonal, impersonality, &c. 

Pes (pedis), the foot. Pedal, pedestal, 
pedestrian, pedicular, pedigree, cap-a-pie, 
expediency, expedient, expedite, expedi- 
tion, expeditious, impede, impediment, in- 
expediency, inexpedient, biped, multiped, 
quadruped, &e. 

Pestis, a plague, pestilence. Pest, pester, 
pestiferous, pestilence, pestilent, pestilen- 
tial, &c. 

Peto, to seek, to ask ; petitus, asked. 
Petition, petitioner, appetence, appetency, 
appetite, centripetal, compatible,* compati- 
bility, compete, competence, competency, 
competent, competitor, impetus, impetuous, 
impetuousness, impetuosity, incompatible, 
incompatibility, incompetency, incompetent, 
repeat, repeater, repeatedly, repetition, &c. 

Pilo, to pillage, to pilfer. Pilfer, pil- 
ferer, pillage, compile,! compiler, compila- 
tion. &c. 

Pingo, to paint ; pictus, painted. Paint, 
painter, painting, Picts,:t pictorial, picture, 
picturesque, pigment, depict, impaint, im- 
pietured, &c. 

Piscis, a fish. Piscatory, pisces, piscine, 
piscivorous, porpoise, § &c. 

Pius, pious. Piety, pious, impiety, im- 
pious, ira piousness, &c. 

Placeo, to please; placitus, pleased. 
Placid, placidity, placidness, please, plea- 
sant, pleasantry, pleasure, pleasurable, com- 
placence, complacency, complacent, com- 



* Compatible Is a corruption of competirle, which, 
savs Dr. Johnson, "is found in good writers, and 
ought always to be used." Compatibl" is properly 
applied to any object which maybe sought consistent 
<oith our duty. 

•f compile, to pick out parts or passages from other 
writers. 

% Picts, so called, it is said, from their custom of 
oaivtinri their bodies. 

§ Porpoise is from the French porc-poisson, that 
Is, thefisli or oea hog. 



plaisant, displease, displeasure, unpleasant^ 
unpleasantness, &c. 

Placo, to appease, to pacify. Placable, 
placableness, placability, implacable, im- 
placableness, implacability, &c. 

PL4NGO, to complain. Plaint, plaintiff, 
plaintive, plain tiveness, complain, complain- 
ant, complaint, uncomplaining, &o. 

Planus, plain, level, evident. Plain, a 
plain, plainness, plain-dealing, plain-work, 
a plane, to plane, planisphere, explain, ex- 
plainable, explanation, explanatory, inex- 
plainable, &e. 

Plaudo, to praise by clapping the hands. 
Plaudit, plausible, plausibleness, plausr 
bility, applaud, applause, explode, explo- 
sion, &c. 

Plecto, to twist, to knit ; plexus, twist- 
ed. Complex, complexity, complexness, 
complexion,* complexional, perplex, per- 
plexity, &c. 

Plenus, full. Plenary, plenipotentiary, 
plenitude, plenty, plenteous, plenteousness, 
plentiful, plentifulness, plenum, replenish, 
unreplenished, &c. 

Pleo, to fill; pletus, filled. Pleonasm, 
pleonastic, accomplish, accomplishment, 
complement, com piemen tal, complete, com- 
pleteness, completion, depletion, expletion, 
expletive, implement, incomplete, manipu- 
lation, replete, repletion, supplement, sup- 
plemental, supplementary, supply, unaccom- 
plished, unsupplied, &o. 

Plico, to fold, to bend ; plicatus, folded. 
Pliable, pliability, pliancy, pliant, pliant- 
ness, ply, pliers,! apply, appliance, appli- 
cable, applicability, applicant, application, 
complicate, complicated, complication, com- 
ply, compliance, compliant, complying, dis- 
play, double, duplicate, duplicity, explicit, 
explicitness, imply, implicated, implicit, 
implicitness, inapplicable, inexplicable, 
misapply, misapplication, multiply, qua- 
druple, quintuple, redouble, reply, simple, 
simpleton, simplicity, simplify, suppliant, 
supplicate, supplication, supplicant, triple, 
treble, &c. 

Ploro, to wail, to weep ; ploratus, de- 
plored. Deplore, deplorable, deplorable- 
ness, explore,:): exploratory, implore, unex- 
plored, &c. 

Plumbum, lead. Plumb, plumber, plum- 
met, plumbago, &c. 

Plus (pluris), more. Plural, pluralist, 
plurality, pluperfect, overplus, surplus, sur- 
plusage, &c. 

Pcena, punishment. Penal, penalty, pe- 
nance, pain, painful, painless, painstaker, 
sub-pccna, &c. 

Pondus (ponderis), weight. Ponderous, 
ponderousness, ponder, pound, pounder, 
preponderance, preponderate, poise, coun- 
terpoise, equipoise, overpoise, &o. 



* COirtplexion , primarily meant the whole com/pli- 
cation or composition of the parts — the general ap- 
pearance ; but it now means the hue or color of the 
skin. 

| f Pliers, an instrument by which any thing ma? 

I be seized and bent. 

J J Explore, to search for earnestly; properly, witla 

I sorrowing and tear*. 



LATIN AND GREEK ROOTS. 



lxxv 



Powo, to place or put down ; positus, 
placed. Pose, posited, position, post, post- 
age, postpone, postponement, posture, ap- 
posite, apposition, apropos,* component, com- 
pose, composer, composedly, composition, 
composite, compositor, compost, composure, 
compound, decompose, decomposition, de- 
compound, deponent, depose, deposit, de- 
positary, depository, deposition, depot, dis- 
compose, dispose, disposable, disposal, dis- 
position, exponent, expose, exposition, ex- 
posure, expound, expounder, impose, impo- 
sition, impost, impostor, imposture, indis- 
pose, indisposition, interpose, interposal, in- 
terposition, opponent, oppose, opposition, 
preoompose, predispose, predisposition, pre- 
position, presuppose, proposal, propound, 
provost, purpose, repose, repository, sup- 
pose, supposable, supposal, supposition, 
transpose, transposition, uncompounded, un- 
opposed. &o. 

Populus, the people. Populace, popular, 
popularize, popularity, populate, popula- 
tion, populous, populousness, public, pub- 
lican, publication, publicity, publish, pub- 
lisher, depopulate, depopulation, people, un- 
people, republic, republican, republish, un- 
popular, &o. 

Porcus, a hog. Pork, porker, porcine, 
porcupine, porpoise, <fec. 

Porto, to bear or carry. For the deriva- 
tives of this word, a«e page Ixv. 

Posse, to be ahle ; potens (potentis), 
able, powerful. Posse, t possible, possibi- 
lity, impossible, impossibility, potent, po- 
tency, impotent, impotency, potentate, po- 
tential, potentiality, omnipotence, omnipo- 
tent, plenipotentiary, puissance, puissant, 
puissant! y, &o. 

Post, after, behind ; posterus, after. 
Postpone, posterior, posteriors, posterity, 
postern, preposterous, preposterousness, &c. 

Postulo, to demand or ask. Postulant, 
postulate, postulation, postulatum, expostu- 
late, expostulation, &c. 

Poto, to drink. Potable, potation, po- 
tion, compotation, &c. 

Pr^eda, prey, booty, plunder. Preda- 
tory, depredation, depredator, prey, &c. 

Pr kcor, to pray or entreat ; precatus, 
entreated. Precarious, % precariousness, de- 
precate, deprecation, imprecate, impreca- 
tion, pray, prayer, &o. 

Prehendo, to take hold of, to seize; 
PREHE.vsus, seized. Apprehend, apprehen- 
tion, apprehensive, apprentice, apprise, com- 
prehend, comprehensible, comprehension, 
comprehensive, comprehensiveness, com- 
prise, comprisal, enterprise, impregnable, 
imprison, incomprehensible, misapprehend, 
prehensile, prison, prisoner, prize, repre- 
hend, reprehension, reprehensive, reprisal, 
surprise, surprisal, unapprised, &c. 



* Apropos, that Is, to the purpose, seasonably ; 
pronounced apropo. 

f Posse, as in "posse comitatus," the power or 
force of the county. 

t Precarious is properly applied to a thing that 
cannot he obtained or granted without prayers or 
■entreaties ; and h?nce, depending on the will of an- 
other; uncertain. 



Premo, to force or press ; pressus, 
pressed. See page Ixv. 

Pretium, a price, worth. Precious, pre- 
ciousness, price, prize, praise, appraise, ap- 
praisement, appreciate, appeciable, depre- 
ciate, depreciation, unappreciated, &c. 

Primus, first. Prime, primed, primer, 
priming, primeval, primitive, primogeni- 
ture, primrose, primacy, primate, premier, 
prior, prioress, prior, priority, pristine, im- 
primis, &c. From this root and capio, come 
prince, principal, principle, principia, &c. 

Privus, one's own, not public. Privacy, 
private, privateer, privilege, privy, privity, 
deprive, deprivation, privative, &c. 

Probo, to prove, to try ; probatus, prov' 
ed. Probable, probability, probate, proba- 
tion, probationary, probe, probity, proof, 
prove, approve, approver, approval, appro- 
bation, disapprobation, disapprove, disprov- 
able, disproof, improbable, improbability, 
improbity, improve, improvement, improv- 
able, reprobate, reprove, reproof, unimprov- 
ed, unproved, &c. 

Propago (propagTnis), a shoot or branch, 
offspring. Propagate, propagation, propa- 
gator, propagandism, propagandist, &c. 

Prope, near ; proxLmus, nearest. Pro- 
pinquity, proximate, proximity, approach, 
approximate, approximation, unapproach- 
able, &c. Proprius, one's own, peculiar, 
fit. Proper, propriety, proprietor, appro- 
priate, appropriator, improper, impropriety, 
unappropriated, &c. 

Propitio, to appease, to atone. Propiti- 
ate, propitiator, propitiation, propitious, 
propitiousness, unpropitious, &o. 

Pungo, to point or prick ; punctus, prick- 
ed. Pungent, pungency, punctual, punctu- 
ality, punctilio, punctilious, punctiliousness, 
punctuate, punctuation, puncture, compunc- 
tion, compunctious, expunge, poignancy, 
poignant, point, &o. 

Punio, to punish ; punittjs, punished. 
Punish, punishment, punishable, punitive, 
punitory, impunity, &o. 

PtXRGO, to cleanse, to purify ; purgatus, 
purified. Purge, purgation, purgatory, pur- 
gatorial or purgatorian, compurgation, com- 
purgator, expurgated, &o. 

Purus, pure. Pure, pureness, purity, 
purist, puritan, puritanical, puritanic, purify, 
purifier, purification, impure, impurity, un- 
purified, &c. 

Puto, to lop or prune ; also, to think, to 
compute. Putative, amputate, amputation, 
compute, computation, depute, deputation, 
deputy, dispute, disputable, disputant, dis- 
repute, impute, imputation, indisputable, 
repute, reputation, count, account, account- 
able, discount, recount, &o. 

Quadra, a figure having four sides, a 
square. Quadrant, quadrate, quadratic, 
quadrature, quadrennial, quadrangle, qua- 
drangular, quadrilateral, quadrille.quadroon, 
quadruped, quadruple, quart, quarter, quar- 
tern, quarto, squadron, squad, square, &c. 

Qu<ero, to seek ; Qu#:srrus, sought. 

Query, quest, question, questionable, ac- 

: quire, acquirable, acquirement, acquisition, 

I acquisitive, conquer, conquest, exquisite. 



Hxxvi 



DERIVATION. 



inquest, inquire, inquiry, inquisition, inqui- 
sitional, inquisitor, inquisitorial, perquisite, 
require, requirement, request, requisite, un- 
acquired, &c. 

Quabis, of what kind, such. Quality, 
qualify, qualification, disqualify, disqualifi- 
cation, &c. 

Quantus, how great, as much as. Quan- 
tum, quantity. Quot, how many, so many 
as. Quota, quotidian, quotient, aliquot. &c. 

Queror, to complain. Querulous, queru- 
lousness, quarrel, quarrelsome, &c. 

Quies (quiEtis), quiet, ease, peace. Quiet, 
quietness, quietude, quietus, quiescent, qui- 
escence, acquiesce, acquiescence, acquies- 
cent, disquiet, inquietude, unquiet, &c. 

Quinque, „/?#£. Quinary, quincunx, quin- 
quereme, quintessence, quintuple, &c. 

Radius, the spoke of a wheel, the semi- 
diameter of a circle, a beam or ray of light. 
Radiate, radiation, radiance, radiancy, radi- 
ant, ray, eradiate, irradiate, &c. 

Radix (radiois), a root. Radical, radix, 
radish, eradicate, &c. 

Rado, to shave, to scrape ; rasus, scrap- 
ed. Rase, raze, razor, rasure, razure, rasher, 
abrade, abrasion, erase, erasion, erasure, &c. 

Ranceo, to be rancid. Rancid, rancid- 
ness, rancor, rancorous, rank, rankness, 
rankle, &c. 

Rapio, to snatch or carry away by force ; 
RAptus, snatched. Rape, rapacious, rapa- 
ciousness, rapacity, rapt, rapture, rapturous, 
rapid, rapidness, rapidity, rapine, ravage, 
enrapture, &c. 

Rarus, rare, thin, scarce. Rare, rare- 
ness, rarely, rarefy, rarefaction, rarity, ra- 
reeshow, &c. 

Rego, to rule or govern; also, to make 
straight or right; rectus, ruled. Regent, 
regency, regimen, regiment, regimental, re- 
gimentals, region, regnant, regular, regulate, 
regulation, regulator, correct, correction, 
correctional, corrective, correctness, corri- 
gible, direct, directness, direction, directory, 
erect, erection, erectness, incorrect, incorri- 
gible, indirect, irregular, irregularity, misdi- 
rect, rectangle, rectify, rectilineal or recti- 
linear, rectitude, rector, rectory, rectorial, 
right, righteous, upright, &c. 

Reor, to think, to judge ; ratus, think- 
ing, judging. Rate, ratable, ratify, ratifi- 
cation, ratio, rationale, rational, rationality, 
irrational, reason, reasonable, overrate, un- 
derrate, &c. 

Res, a thing. Real, reality, realize, re- 
alist, &c. 

Rete, a net. Reticle, reticule, reticular, 
reticulated, reticulation, retina, &c. 

Rideo, to laugh, to laugh at ; Risus, 
laughed. Ridicule, ridiculous, ridiculous- 
ness, deride, derision, derisive, &c. 

Rigeo, to be stiff with cold, to be rigid. 
Rigid, rigidity, rigidness. rigor, rigorous, &c. 

Rivus, a stream, a river. River, rivulet, 
derive, derivable, derivation, derivative, &c. 

Robur (roboris), strength, Robust, ro- 
bustness, corroborate, corroboration, &c. 

Rodo, to gnaw ; rosos, gnawed. Cor- 
rode, corrosion, corrosive, corrosiveness, &c. 

Rogo, to ask ; rogatus, asked. Roga- 



tion, abrogate, abrogation, arrogancy, arro- 
gate, arrogant, derogate, derogation, deroga- 
tory, interrogate, interrogation, interrogative, 
prerogative, prorogue, prorogation, superero- 
gate, supererogation, supererogatory, surro- 
gate, &c. 

Rota, a wheel. Rotary or rotatory, rotate, 
rotation, rote, routine, rotund, rotundity, 
rotundo, &e. 

Ruber, red. Rubicund, rubicundity, ru- 
bric, ruby, &c. 

Rudis, untaught, rough. Rude, rude- 
ness, rudiment, rudimental, erudite, erudi- 
tion, &c. 

Ruimpo, to break, to burst ; ruptus, bro~ 
ken. Rupture, ruption, abrupt, abruptness, 
abruption, bankrupt, bankruptcy, corrupt, 
corruptible, corruptibility, corruption, cor- 
ruptive, corruptness, disruption, eruption, 
eruptive, interrupt, interruption, irruption, 
uncorrupt, uncorruptible, &c. 

Rus (ruris), the country. Rural, rural- 
ness, rustic, rusticity, rusticate, &e. 

Sacer, sacred or holy. Sacrament, sacra- 
mental, sacred, sacredness, sacrifice, sacrifi- 
cial, sacrilege, sacrilegious, sacerdotal, sa- 
cristan, sacristy, consecrate, consecration, 
desecrate, desecration, execrate, execration, 
execrable, &c. 

Sabio, to leap, to jump ; sabtus, leaped. 
Salient, sally, salmon, saltant, assail, assail- 
able, assailant, assault, desultory, exult, ex- 
ultation, insult, result, unassailable, <Scc. 

Sabus (sabutis), safety, health. Salu- 
brity, salubrious, salutary, salute, salutation, 
&c. Sabvus, safe. Salve, salvage, salver 
salvo, save, savings-bank, safe, safety, &c. 

Sanctus, made holy, sacred. Sanctify, 
sanctification, sanctimony, sanctimonious, 
sanction, sanctity, sanctuary, saint, &c. 

Sanguis (sanguinis), blood. Sanguinary, 
sanguine, sanguineous, consanguinity, con- 
sanguineous, cousin,* ensanguined, &c. 

Sanus, sound, in health. Sanitary, sane, 
sanity, insane, insanity, &c. : Sano, to heal, 
to cure. Sanatory, sanative, &c. 

Sapio. to savor or taste of, to know, to be 
wise. Sapience, sapient, sapor, savor, sa- 
vory, insipid, insipidity, unsavory, unsavori- 
ness, &c. 

Satis, enough. Sate, satiate, satiety, 
satisfy, satisfaction, satisfactory, dissatisfy, 
dissatisfied, insatiable, insatiableness, un- 
sated, unsatisfied, &c. 

Scando, to climb, to mount ; scansus, 
climbed. Ascend, ascent, ascension, de- 
scend, descendant, descent, condescend, 
condescension, re-ascend, transcend, &c. 

Scindo, to cut ; scissus, cut. Abscind, 
rescind, scissors, &c. 

Scio, to know. Science, scientific, scio- 
lism, sciolist, conscience, conscientious, con- 
scientiousness, conscious, consciousness, om- 
niscience, omniscient, prescience, prescient, 
unconscious, &c. 

Scribo, to write ; scriptus, written. 
Scribe, scribble, scrip, scripture, scriptural, 
ascribe, circumscribe, circumscription, con- 



* Cousin. From consanguincus ; that is, of the 
same blood. 



LATIN AND GREEK ROOTS. 



lxxvii 



acript, conscription, describe, description, 
descriptive, escritoir, inscribe, inscription, 
manuscript, nondescript, prescribe, prescrip- 
tion, prescriptive, proscribe, proscription, 
rescript, subscribe, subscription, superscribe, 
superscription, transcribe, transcript, tran- 
scription, &c. 

Seco, to cut ; sectus, cut. Secant, sect, 
sectarian, sectary, section, sectional, sector, 
segment, bisect, dissect, insect, intersect, 
trisect, venesection, &c. 

Sedeo, to sit ; sessus, sat. Sedentary, 
sediment, sedulous, sedulity, sess, session, 
sessional, assess, assessment, assessor, assi- 
duous, assiduousness, assiduity, assize, insi- 
dious,* insidiousness, preside, presidency, 
president, reside, residence, resident, resi- 
duum, residuary, subside, subsidize, sub- 
sidy,! subsidiary, supersede, supersedeas, 
siege, besiege, &c. 

Sentio, to think, to feel, to perceive; 
sensus, felt, perceived. Sensation, sense, 
sensible, sensibility, sensitive, sensorium, 
sensual, sensualist, sentient, sentence, sen- 
tentious, sentiment, sentimental, sentinel, 
sentry, assent, consent, dissent, dissension, 
dissentient, insensible, insensibility, non- 
sense, nonsensical, presentiment, resent, re- 
sentment, &c. 

SepAro, to separate, to sever ; separa- 
tus, separated. Separate, separable, sepa- 
ration, separatist, sever, several, insepara- 
ble, <fec. 

Septem, seven. September, septennial, 
&c. Sec Octo. 

Sequor, to follow; secutus, followed. 
Sequence, sequent, sequel, sequacious, con- 
secutive, consequence, consequent, conse- 
quential, ensue, execute, execution, execu- 
tioner, executive, executor, persecute, per- 
secution, prosecute, prosecution, pursue, pur- 
suance, pursuant, pursuit, pursuivant, subse- 
quence, subsequent, sue, suit, suitor, suita- 
ble, unexecuted, &c. 

Sero, to connect, to weave, to join in a 
rank or row ; sertus, ivoven, joined in or- 
der. Assert, assertion, desert, desertion, 
deserter, dissertation, insert, insertion, se- 
ries, seriatim, sermon, sermonize, &c. 

Servio, to be a slave, to serve. Serve, 
service, serviceable, servile, servility, servi- 
tude, serf, deserve, disserve, disservice, dis- 
serviceable, subserviency or subservience, 
subservient, undeserved, &c. 

Servo, to keep, to save ; servatus, pre- 
served. Conserve, con'serve, conservative, 
conservator, conservatory, observe, observer, 
observance, observant, preserve, preserva- 
tive, reserve, reservation, unobservant, &e. 

Sex, six. Sexennial, sextant, sextile, &c. 

Signum, a mark, a sign. Sign, signal, 
signalize, signature, signet, signify, signifi- 
cance, signiheancy, significant, signification, 
assign, assignee, assignation, assignment, 
consign, consignment, design, designate, in- 
signia, insignificance, insignificant, resign, 
resignation, &c. 

* Insidious. Prooerly, lying in wait for; and 
hence, treacherous. 

} Subsidy. Literally, a sitting under, or near, for 
the purpose of aiding. 



Silva, a wood. Silvan, Pennsylvania, 
savage, savageness. &c. 

Siiuilis, like. Simile, similar, similarity, 
similitude, simulate, assimilate, dissemble, 
dissimilar, dissimilarity, dissimilitude, dis- 
simulation, fac-simile, &c. 

SiNGur.us, one, single. Single, single- 
ness, singular, singularity, &c. 

Sinus, a bay, the bosom. Sinuate, sinu- 
ous, sinuosity, insinuate, insin-aatioii, &c. 

Sisto, to make to stand. Absist, assist, 
assistance, assistant, consistence, consist- 
ency, consistent, consistory, desist, incon- 
sistence, inconsistency, inconsistent, irresis- 
tible, non-resistance, persist, resist, resist- 
ance, resistible, resistless, subsist, subsist- 
ence, &c. 

Socius, a companion, an associate. Soci- 
able, sociableness, sociability, social, society, 
associate, association, dissocial, dissociate, 

Sol, tbe sun. Solar, solary, solstice, sol- 
stitial, &c. 

Solid us, firm, solid. Solder, solid, soli- 
dity, consols.* consolidate, insolidity, uncon- 
solidated, &c. 

Solor, to comfort, to solace; solatus, 
solaced. Solace, console, consolation, con- 
solatory, disconsolate, inconsolable, uncon- 
soled, die. 

Solus, alone, single. Sole, solely, solo, 
solitary, solitude, soliloquy, soliloquize, de- 
solate, desolation, &c. 

Solvo, to loose, to free, to melt ; solu- 
tus, loosed. Solve, solvency, solvent, solv- 
ible or solvable, solution, absolve, absolute, 
absolution, dissoluble, dissolve, dissolvent, 
dissolvable, dissolute, dissolution, indissolv- 
able, insoluble, insolubility, insolvency, in- 
solvent, irresolute, irresolution, resolve, re- 
solution, soluble, solubility, unabsolved, 
undissolved, &c. 

Somnus, sleep. Somnambulist, somnam- 
bulism, somnific, somniferous, somnolence, 
somnolent, &c. 

Sonus, a sound. Sonorous, sonata, son- 
net, consonant, dissonance, dissonant, re- 
sonant, sound, resound, &c. 

Sorbeo, to suck in. Absorb, absorbent, 
absorption, unabsorbed, &c. 

Sors tsoRTisi, lot, sort, kind. Sort, sort- 
able, sortie, f assort, assortment, consort, re- 
sort, &c. 

Spargo, to scatter, to bespatter ; spar- 
sus, scattered. Sparse, asperse, aspersion, 
disperse, dispersion, intersperse, &c. 

Specio, to see, to look; specxus, seen. 
Species, special, specific, specification, spe- 
cify, specimen, specious, speciousness, spec- 
tacle, spectator, spectre, spectrum, specu- 
lum, speculate, speculation, speculative, 
speculator, spy, aspect, auspices, auspicious, 
circumspect, circumspectness, conspicuous, 
despicable, despise, despite, disrespect, espe- 
cial, espy, inspect, inspection, inspector, ir- 
respective, perspective, perspicuity, perspi- 
cuous, prospect, prospective, prospectus, re- 
spect, respectable, respectability, retrospect, 



•f Sortie is an issuing or sallying out of troops from 
a besieged place, to attack the besieger*. 



lzxviii 



DERIVATION. 



retrospective, retrospection, suspect, suspi- 
cion, suspicious, &c. 

Spero, to hope; speratus, hoped. Des- 
pair, desperado, desperate, desperation, pros- 
per, prosperity, prosperous, &c. 

Spirq, to breathe ; spiratus, breathed. 
Spiracle, spirit, spright or sprite, sprightly, 
sprightliness, aspire, aspirate, aspiration, 
conspire, conspiracy, dispirit, expire, expi- 
ration, inspire, inspiration, perspire, perspi- 
ration, respire, respiration, transpire, unas- 
piring, &c. 

Splendeo, to shine. Splendid, splen- 
dour, resplendent, transplendent, &c. 

Spolium, booty, spoil. Spoil, spoiler, 
spoliation, despoil, &c. 

Spondeo, to promise ; sponsus, promised. 
Sponsor, correspond, correspondence, corre- 
spondent, despond, despondence, irresponsi- 
ble, irresponsibility, responsive, spouse, 
espouse. 

Sterno, to spread, to throw down, or to 
lay flat ; stratus, spread. Stratum, strata, 
street, stratify, consternation, prostrate, 
prostration, substratum, unstratified, &c. 

Stilla, a drop. Still, distill, distiller, 
distillation, distillery, instill, &c. 

Stimulus, a goad or spur. Stimulate, 
stimulant, stimulation, stimulator, &e. 

Stinguo, to prick, to mark, to distin- 
guish ; STtNCTUS, marked. Distinguish, 
distinguishable, distinct, distinction, dis- 
tinctive, extinguish, extinguisher, extinct, 
extinction, indistinct, indistinguishable, in- 
stinct, instinctive, &c. 

Sto, to stand; status, stood. Stable, 
a stable, stability, stamen or stamina, stanch, 
stanchion, stand, standard, stanza, status, 
state, stateliness, statement, statics, station, 
stationary, stationery, statistics, statue, sta- 
tuary, statute, stay, staid, stays, stead, stead- 
fast, steady, steadiness, armistice, arrest, 
circumstance, constable,* constant, consti- 
tute, constituent, constitution, constitutional, 
contrast, destitute, distance, establish, ex- 
tant, instant, instead, institute, interstice, 
obstinacy, rest, restiff or restive, restitution, 
solstice, substance, unstable, &c. 

Stringo, to bind ; strictus, bound. Strain, 
strainer, strict, strictness, stricture, astrin- 
gent, constrictor, constrain, constraint, re- 
strain, restraint, restrict, restriction, restrict- 
ive, strait, unrestricted, &c. 

Struo, to build ; structus, built. Struc- 
ture, construe, construct, construction, con- 
structive, constructive, destroy, destroyer, 
destruction, destructible, destructive, de- 
struetiveness, indestructible, instruct, in- 
struction, instructive, instructor, instrument, 
instrumental, instrumentality, misconstrue, 
misconstruction, obstruct, obstruction, ob- 
structive, substruction, substructure, super- 
struetion, superstructure, &c. 

Stijdeo, to study. Student, study, studi- 
ed, studious, &.c. 

Stupeo, to be stupid, to be tost in won- 
der. Stupid, stupidity, stupor, stupendous, 
stupefy, &c. 



* Constable originally meant an officer who had 
ihjirge of the royal stud — eomes stabuli. 



Suadeo, to persuade ; suasus, persuaded. 
Suasion, suasive, dissuade, dissuasion, dis- 
suasive, persuade, persuasion, persuasive, 
persuasively, &c. 

Sudo, to sweat. Sudorific, exude. or ex- 
sude, exudation, exuded, sweat, &c. 

Summa, a sum, the whole or highest 
amount. Sum, summary, summit, con- 
summate, consum'mate, consummation, &c. 

Sumo, to take; sumptus, taken. As- 
sume, assumpsit, assumption, consumable, 
consume, consumer, consumption, consump- 
tive, consumptiveness, presume, presump- 
tion, presumptive, presumptuous, presump*. 
tuousness, resume, resumable, resumption, 
unassuming, &o. 

Surgo, to rise, to lift up ; surrectus, 
raised up. Surge, insurgent, insurrection, 
insurrectionary, resurrection, &e. 

Tabula, a board or plank, a table. Tab- 
lature, table, tablet, tabular, tabulate, &c. 

Taceo, to be silent. Tacit, taciturn, ta- 
citurnity, &c. 

Tango, to touch ; tactus, touched. Tan- 
gent, tangible, tangibility, tact, taction, at- 
tain, attainable, attainment, contact, conta- 
gion, contagious, contiguity, contiguous, con- 
tingence or contingency, contingent, integer, 
integrant, integral, integrity, entire, &c. 

Tardus, slow, dilatory. Tardy, tardi- 
ness, retard, retardation, retardment, &c. 

Tego, to cover ; tectus, covered. Tegu- 
ment, tegular, tile, detect, detection, integu- 
ment, protect, protection, protective, pro- 
tector, &c. 

Tejunto, to despise ; temptus, contemned. 
Contemn, contempt, contemptible, contemp- 
tuous, &c. 

Tempero, to temper, to mix, to moderate. 
Temper, temperament, temperance, tem- 
perate, temperateness, temperature, attem- 
per, distemper, intemperate, intemperate- 
ness, &c. 

Tewpus (tempSris), time. Temporal, 
temporalities, temporary, temporize, con- 
temporaneous or cotemporaneous, contem- 
porary or cotemporary, extemporaneous, ex- 
temporary, extempore, &c. 

Tendo, to stretch, to strive ; tentus or 
tensus, stretched. Tend, tendency, tendei 
[to offer), tense, tenseness, tension, tent, 
tenter-hook, attend, attendance, attendant, 
attention, attentive, contend, contention, 
contentious, contentiousness, distend, dis- 
tension, extend, extension, extensive, ex- 
tent, inattention, inattentive, intend, in- 
tense, in tenseness, intensity, intensive, in- 
tent, intention, obtend, ostensible, ostensive, 
ostentatious, ostentation, portend, portent,* 
portentous, pretend, rjretence, subtend, su- 
perintend, superintendent, &c. 

Teneo, to hold ; tentus, held. Tenable, 
tenacious, tenacity, tenancy, tenant, te- 
nantry, tenement, tenet, tenon, tenor, tenure, 
abstain, abstinence, abstinent, appertain, ap- 
purtenance, contain, content, contentment, 
continence, continenev, continent, conti- 



* Portent. Every thins out of the ordinary i 
of nature was regarded by the Romans as a divine 
warning; and henee the terms POBTiiNT, monstrb., 
and pkodioy. 



LATIN AND GREEK. ROOTS. 



lxxix 



nental, continue, continual, continuance, 
continuation, continuity, continuous, coun- 
tenance,* detain, detention, discontent, dis- 
contentment, discontinue, discontinuance, 
discountenance, entertain, entertainment, 
impertinence, impertinent, incontinent, lieu- 
tenant, maintain, maintenance, obtain, ob- 
tainable, pertain, pertinacious, pertinacity. 
pertinent, retain, retainer, retention, reten- 
tive, retinue, sustain, sustenance, untenable, 
unsustained, &c. 

Tento, to try, to attempt. Tempt, temp- 
tation, tentative, attempt, unattempted, &c 

Tenuis, thin., slender. Tenuity, attenu- 
ate, attenuated, extenuate, extenuation, &c. 

Terminus, a limit or boundary. Termi- 
nus, term, terminable, terminate, termina- 
tion, conterminous, determine, determinate, 
interminable, predetermine, &c. 

Tero, to rub, to wear by rubbing ; tri- 
Tus, rubbed, worn out. Trite, triteness, 
triturate, attrition, contrite, detriment, de- 
trimental, detrition, detritus, &c. 

Terra, the earth. Terrace, terraqueous, 
terrene, terrestrial, terrier, t territory, inter, 
interment, disinter, disinterment, Mediter- 
ranean, subterranean, &c. 

Terreo, to frighten. Terror, terrible, 
terrify, terrific, deter, undeterred, &c. 

Testis, a witness. Test, testament, tes- 
tamentary, testator, testatrix, testify, testi- 
monial, testimony, attest, attestation, con- 
test, X detest, detestable, detestation, incon- 
testable, intestate, protest, protestation, un- 
attested, &c. 

Texo, to weave; textus, woven. Text, 
textual, textualist, texture, context, con- 
texture, pretext, &c. 

Timko, t<> fear. Timid, timidity, timo- 
rous, intimidate, intimidation, &c. 

Tingo, to tinge, to stain ; tinctus, tinged. 
Tinge, tincture, tint, taint, attainder, attaint, 
attainted, mezzotinto, untainted, &c. 

Titulus, a title, an inscription. Title, 
titular, titulary, disentitle, entitle, &c. 

Toi.kro, to bear or suffer. Tolerable, 
tolerance, tolerant, tolerate, toleration, in- 
tolerable, intolerance, intolerant, &c. 

Torpeo, to be torpid, or void of feeling. 
Torpedo, torpescent, torpid, torpidity, tor- 
por, &c. 

Torqu eo, to twist ; tortus, twisted. Tort, 
torso, tortile, tortoise, torture, torment, tor- 
tuous, contortion, distort, distortion, extort, 
extortion, extortioner, retort, &o. 

Totus, whole, all. Total, totally, totality, 
factotum, surtout, &c. 

Trado, to deliver, to hand down ; tradi- 
tus, handed over. Tradition, traditional, 
traditionary, traitor, traitorous, treason, trea- 
sonable, &c. 

Traho, to draw; tractus, drawn. Trace, 
traceable, track, tract, tractable, traction, 
trail, train, abstract, abstraction, attract, at- 



« Countenance (from continkns), the contents of 
the face ; the whole features-; taken together. 

t Terrier is a dog that follows his game under 
{ten-a) ground. 

i Contestis properly, to contend at law; the wit- 
ncs-es {testes) of both parties being brought together 
Kton), or face to face. 



tractable, attractability, attraction, attrac- 
tive, attractiveness, attractor, betray, con- 
tract, contraction, contractor, contractible, 
contractibility, detract, detraction, distract, 
distraction, distinctive, extract, extraction, 
intractable, intractability, portrait, portray, 
protract, retract, retraction, subtract, sub- 
traction, subtrahend, untractable, &c. 

Trbmo, to tremble. Tremor, tremulous, 
tremulousness, tremendous, tremble, &c. 

Tres, three. Triangle, trident, triennial, 
trilateral, trine, Trinity, Trinitarian, trio, 
tripartite, triple, treble, triplicate, trisect, 
trisyllable, triumvirate, triune, trivial,* &c. 

Tribuo, to give, to contribute. Tribute, 
tributary, attribute, attributable, contribute, 
contributory, contribution, contributor, dis- 
tribute, distribution, distributive, retribu- 
tion, retributive, &c. 

Tribus, tribe. Tribe,t tribunal, tribune, 
tribunitial, &e. 

TRiOiE, hairs or threads used to ensnare 
birds. Trick, extricate, inextricable, in- 
tricacy, intricate, intrigue, &c. 

Trudo, to thrust; trusts, thrust or push- 
ed. Abstruse, abstruseness, intrude, intru- 
sion, intrusive, obtrude, obtrusion, obtru- 
sive, protrude, protrusion, unobtrusive, &c. 

Tuber, a swelling or bump. Tuber, tu- 
bercle, tubercular, tuberose or tuberous, ex- 
tuberance, protuberance, protuberant, &c. 

Tueor, to see, to watch over, to guard, to 
instruct ; tutus, guarded. Tuition, tute- 
lage, tutelary, tutor, intuition, intuitive, un- 
tutured, &o. 

Tumeo, to swell. Tumid, tumor, tumu- 
lus, tumult, tumultuary, tumultuous, con- 
tumacy, contumacious, contumely, contume- 
lious, tumefaction, &c. 

Tundo, to beat, to bruise, to blunt. Con- 
tusion, obtuse, obtuseness, &c. 

Turra, a crowd, a disturbance. Turbid, 
turbulence, turbulent, disturb, disturbance, 
imperturbable, perturbation, perturbed-, 
trouble, undisturbed, &c. 

Turgeo. to swell. Turgid, turgidly, tur- 
gidness, turgidity, &c. 

Ultimus, last. Ultimate, ultimately, 
ultimatum, penultimate, penult, antepenul- 
timate, antepenult, &c. 

Umbra, a shade. Umbrage, umbrageous 
umbrella, adumbrate, penumbra, &c. 

Unda, a wave. Undulate, undulation, 
undulatory, abound, abundance, abundant, 
inundate, inundation, redound, redundancy, 
redundant, superabound, superabundance, 
superabundant, &c. 

Unguo, to anoint; unctus, anointed. 



x Trivial. From trivium, a place where three 
ways meet ; and hence, common, of little value. 

t Tribe. From tkihiis ablative of tres, three; be- 
cause the inhabitants of Rome were originally divided 
into three classes, perhaps to correspond with the 
three distinct people, namely, the Romans or follow- 
ers of Romuius, the Albans or natives, and their 
neighbours the Sabines. Hence, tribune, originally 
a magistrate set over a tribe; tribunal, the seat 
from which the tribune dispensed justice, and hence, 
a judgment-seat ; tribute, a tax or rate imposed on 
each tribe, and afterwards on every nation conquered 
by the Roman arms. Hence, also, tribuo, to give in 
tribes — to give generally ; whence contribution} retri~ 
bution, &c. 



lxsx 



DERIVATION. 



Unction, unctuous, unctuousness, unctuo- 
sity, unguent, &c. 

Unus, one. alone. Union, unique, unison, 
unit, Unitarian, unite, unity, unanimity, 
unanimous, unicorn, uniform, uniformity, 
univalve, universe, universal, universality, 
university, univocal, &c. 

Urbs, a city. Urbane, urbanity, suburbs, 
suburban, &c. 

Urgeo, to press, to force. Urge, urgency, 
urgent, urgently, &c. 

Urina, animal water. Urine, uriual, 
urinary, urea, ureter, urethra, diuretic, 
strangury, &c. 

Uro, to burn; tjstus, burnt. Adust, 
combustible, combustion, combustive, in- 
combustible, &c. 

Uxor, to use ; usus, used. Use, s., use, 
v., usage, usance, usual, usufruct, usurer, 
usury, usurious, usurp, usurper, usurpation, 
utensil, utility, utilitarian, abuse, abusive, 
disuse, disusage, inutility, misuse, peruse, 
perusal, unused, unusual, &c. 

Vacca, a cow. Vaccine, vaccinate, vacci- 
nated, vaccination, &c. 

Vaco, to be empty, to be at leisure. 
Vacancy, vacant, vacate, vacation, vacuum, 
vacuity, evacuate, evacuation, &c. 

Vado, to go; vasus, gone. Vade-me- 
cum, evade, evasion, evasive, invade, invad- 
er, invasion, pervade, wade, &c. 

Vagus, wandering. Vague, vagueness, 
vagabond, vagrant, vagrancy, vagary, extra- 
vagance, extravagancy, extravagant, &c. 

Valeo, to be well, to be strong. Vale- 
diction, valedictory, valetudinarian, valiant, 
valid, validity, valour, valorous, value, valu- 
able, valuation, valuator, avail, available, 
convalescence, convalescent, countervail, 
equivalence, equivalent, invalid, invalidity, 
invalidate, invaluable, prevail, prevalence, 
prevalent, unavailable, unavailing, &c. 

Valvje, folding doors. Valve, valvular, 
bivalve, bi valvular, univalve, &c. 

Vanus, vain, empty. Vain, vanity, va- 
nish, evanescence, evanescent, evanish, &c. 

Vapor, an exhalation, steam. Vapour, 
vaporate, vaporous, vapory, evaporate, &c. 

Varius, various, diverse. Vary, vari- 
able, variance, variation, varied, variegate, 
variety, various, invariable, unvaried, &c. 

Vastus, large, vast. Vast, vastly, vast- 
ness, vasty. Vasto, to lay waste. Devas- 
tate, devastated, devastation, waste, &c. 

Veho, to carry; vectus, carried. Vehe- 
mence, vehement, vehicle, vehicular, vete- 
rinary,* vex, f vexation, vexatious, vexatious- 
ness, convex, convexity, convey, conveyance, 
conveyancer, conveyancing, inveigle, in- 
vective, reconvey, unvexed, &c. 

Veli.o, to pull or pluck ; vulsus, plucked. 
Vellieate, vellication, convulse, convulsion, 
convulsive, convulsively, di vellieate, divul- 
sion, revulsion, &c. 

Velo, to cover with a veil; to conceal. 



* Veterinary. From veterinarhis. for jiefteterina- 
rius, properly one who cures the diseases of carriage 
or draught horses. 

f Vex. From veso, (to toss, to agitate), a frequen- 
tative of veho. 



Vail, veil, reveal, revealment, revelation, 
unveil, &c. 

Vena, a vein. Vein, veiny, venesection, 
venous, veneer,* &c. 

Vendo, to sell. Venal, venality, vend, 
vendor, vendee, vendible, vendibility, ven- 
dition, &c. 

VenSnum, poison. Venom, venomous, 
envenom, envenomed, &c. 

Veneror, to reverence, to venerate. 
Venerate, venerated, veneration, veuerable, 
venerableness, &c. 

Venio, to come to arrive; ventus, come. 
Vent, venture, venturous, venturesome, ad« 
vent, adventitious, adventure, adventurer, 
adventurous, avenue, circumvent, circumven- 
tion, circumventive, contravene, contraven- 
tion, convene, convenience, conveniency, con- 
venient, convent, conventicle, convention, 
conventional, covenant, covenanter, event, 
eventual, eventuate, inconvenience, incon- 
venient, intervene, intervent, intervention, 
invent, invention, inventive, inventor, in- 
ventory, misadventure, peradventure, pre- 
vent, prevention, preventive, revenue, super- 
vene, supervention, &c. 

Venor, to hunt. Venary, venation, ve- 
natic. venison, &c. 

Venter, the belly. Ventricle, ventrilo- 
quy, ventriloquism, ventriloquist, &c. 

Ventus, the wind. Ventilate, ventila- 
tion, ventilator, &c. 

Verbum, a word. Verb, verbal, verba- 
tim, verbiage, verbose, verbosity, adverb, 
adverbial, proverb, proverbial, &c. 

Vereor, to stand in awe of. Verecund, 
revere, reverence, reverend, reverent, reve- 
rently, reverential, irreverence, irreverent, 
irreverend, &c. 

Vergo, to tend towards, to verge. Con- 
verge, convergence, convergency, converg- 
ent, diverge, divergence, divergent, &c. 

Vermis, a worm. Vermicelli,! vermicu- 
lar, vermifuge, vermilion, ± vermin, vermi- 
nate, worm, &c. 

Verto, to turn; versus, turned. Ver- 
satile, versatility, verse, version, vertebre or 
vertebra, vertebrated, vertex, vertical, ver- 
tigo, advert, advertence, adverse, adversity, 
adversary, advertise, animadvert, animad- 
version, anniversary, avert, aversion, contro- 
vert, controvertible, controversy, controver- 
sial, controversialist, con'vert, convert', con- 
vertible, conversant, conversation, conversa- 
zione, converse, conversion, divert, divertise- 
ment, divers, diverse, diversion, diversity, 
diversify, inadvertence, inadvertency, inad- 
vertent, incontrovertible, inconvertible, in- 
vert, inverse, inversion, irreversible, malver- 
sation, obverse, pervert, pervertible, per- 
verse, perversion, perversity, revert, rever- 
sal, reverse, reversion, reversionary, reversi- 
ble, subvert, subvertivc, subversion, tergiver- 






* Veneer. To inlay with wood, so as to give the 
appearance of veins. 

t Vermicelli. Paste rolled in the form of small 
worms. 

t Vermilion. The berries of the shrub (coccus), 
with which the ancients died scarlet, are full of little 
worms or insects ; and hence the term came to de- 
note that color. 



LATIN AND GREEK ROOTS. 



Ixxxi 



sation,* transverse, traverse, universe, uni- 
versal, universality, university, divorce, vor- 
tex, <&c. 

Verus, true. Veracity, veracious, ver- 
dict, verify, verification, verisimilitude, ve- 
rity, very, verily, aver, averment, &c. 

Vestigium, a track, a footstep, a trace. 
Vestige, investigate, investigation, &c. 

Vestis, a garment or robe. Vest, vest- 
ment, vestry, vesture, divest, invest, invest- 
ment, investiture, &c. 

Vetus (veteris), old. Veteran, invete- 
rate, inveteracy, &c. 

Via, a way. Viaduct, viaticum, deviate, 
deviation, devious, obviate, obvious, pervi- 
ous, previous, trivial, undeviating, convoy, 
Voyage, way, &c. 

Vibro, to vibrate, to oscillate; vibratus, 
vibrated. Vibrate, vibration, vibratory, &c. 

Vicis (vice), a change or turn, instead of. 
Vice-versa, vice-admiral, viceroy, vicegerent, 
viscount, vicissitude, vicar, vicarage, vica- 
rial, vicarious, &c. 

Video, to see; visus, seen. Vide, vis- 
age, visard, visible, visibility, invisible, in- 
visibility, vision, visionary, visit, visitant, 
visitation, visitor, visitorial, visor, visual, 
adverse, advice, advisable, evidence, evi- 
dent, invidious, envious, envy, jurisprudence, 
provide, provider, provedore, provender, pro- 
vidence, provident, improvidence, improvi- 
dent, providential, provision, provisional, 
provisionary, proviso, prudence, prudent, 
imprudence, imprudent, prudential, purvey, 
purveyance, purveyor, revise, revisal, revi- 
sion, revisionary, revisit, supervise, super- 
vision, supervisor, survey, surveyor, unpro- 
vided, unvisited, vedette, videlicet (viz.), 
vis-a-vis, vista,f &c. 

Viduus, empty, bereft. Void, avoid, 
avoidable, devoid, unavoidable, widow, &c. 

Vigil, watchful. Vigils, vigilance, vigi- 
lant, &c. 

Vigor, strength, energy. Vigour, vigo- 
rous, invigorate, &c. 

Vilis, of no value, base. Vile, viieness, 
vilify, vilipend, revile, &c. 

Vinco, to conquer; victus, conquered. 
Vincible, victim, victor, victory, victorious, 
vanquish, vanquisher, convince, convict, 
conviction, evince, evict, eviction, invinci- 
ble, invincibility, province, provincial, un- 
vanquished, &c. 

Vindico, to revenge. Vengeance, venge- 
ful, vindicate, vindication, vindicator, vin- 
dictive, vindictiveness, avenge, avenger, re- 
venge, revengeful, &c. 

Vinum, wine. Vine, vineyard, vintage, 
vintner, vinegar,:): vinous, viny, &c. 

Violo, to injure, to violate. Violate, vio- 
lation, violator, violence, violent, inviolable, 
inviolability, inviolate, &c. 

Vir, a man. Virile, virility, virago, § de- 
cemvir, &c. 



* Tergiversation. From tergum, the bach, and 
verto, to turn. 

f Vista. A sight ; a view or prospect through 
trees. 

X Vinegar is derived from vinum and accr, sharp 
or sour. 

§ Virago. A woman who (agit) acts like {vir) a 
man. 



VirIdis, green. Verdant, verdancy, ver- 
dure, verdigris, &c. 

Virtus, bravery, any excellent quality. 
Virtue, virtuous, virtual, virtu, virtuoso, &c. 

Virus, noxious juice, poison. Virus, 
virulence, virulency, virulent, &c. 

Vitium, vice. Viciate, vitiate, vitiated, 
vice, vicious, &c. 

Vito, to shun, to avoid. Evitable, in- 
evitable, inevitability. &c. 

Vitrum, glass. Vitreous, vitrify, vitri- 
faction, vitrified, vitrescent, vitriol, &c. 

Vitupero, to blame, to abuse. Vitupe- 
rate, vituperation, vituperative, &c. 

Vivo, to live; victus, lived. Vivacity, 
vivacious, viva-voce, vivary, vivid, vividness, 
vivify, viviparous, viand, victual, victuals, 
vital, vitals, vitality, convivial, conviviality, 
revival, revive, survival, survive, survivor, 
survivorship, &c. 

Voco, to call, vocatus, called. Vocal, 
vocation, vocative, vociferate, vociferation, 
vociferous, advocacy, advocate, avocation, 
convocation, convoke, equivocal, equivocate, 
equivocation, equivocator, evoke, invocate, 
invocation, invoke, irrevocable, provoke, 
provocation, revocable, revocation, revoke 
unequivocal, unprovoked, vocable, vocabu 
lary, vouch,* avouch, vouchsafe, voucher, 
vowel, &c. 

Volo, to fiy. Volatile, volatility, volatil- 
ize, vole, volley, &c. 

Voluptas, sensuality, pleasure. Volup- 
tuary, voluptuous, voluptuousness, &c. 

Volvo, to roll; volutus, rolled. Volu- 
ble, volubility, volume, voluminous, volute, 
volution, circumvolve, circumvolution, con 
volve, convolvulus, convoluted, devolve, 
evolve, evolution, involve, involution, re- 
volve, revolt, revolution, &c. 

Voito, to devour. Voracity, voracious, 
voraciousness, carnivorous, devour, gramini- 
vorous, granivorous, herbivorous, omnivo- 
rous, &c. 

Voveo, to vow; votus, vowed. Vow, 
votary, vote, votive, avow, avowal, devote, 
devotcdness, devotee, devotion, devotional, 
devout, &c. 

Vulgus, the common people. Vulgar, 
vulgarism, vulgarity, vulgate, divulge, pro- 
mulge, promulgate, promulgation, undivulg- 
ed, &c. 

Vulnus ivulneris), a wound. Vulne- 
rable, invulnerable, invulnerableness, &c. 

GREEK ROOTS. 

Acouo, to hear. Acoustics, &c. 

Adelphos, a brother. Philadelphia, &c. 

Aggello (ang-el-lo), to bring tidings. 
Angel, angelic, angelical, archangel, evau- 
gelist, evangelical, evangelize, &c. 

Ago, to drive or lead. Demagogue, peda- 
gogue, synagogue, &c. 

Agora, a place for p?iblic assemblies, an 
oration. Allegory, category, categorical, 
panegyric, &c. 

Allos, another. Allegory, allegorical, 
allegorize, &c. 

* Vouch. To give one's (vocem) word; to tear 
witness ; to warrant. 



Ixxxii 



DERIVATION. 



Anemos, the wind. Anemone, &c. 

Anthropos. a man. Misanthropy, mis- 
anthrope or misanthropist, philanthropy, 
philanthropist, &c. 

Archafos, ancient. Archaiology or ar- 
chaeology, archaism. &c. 

ArchS, the beginning ; government. 
Archetype, anarch, anarchy, heptarchy, hie- 
rarch, hierarchy, monarch, monarchy, oli- 
garchy, patriarch, tetrarch, &c. 

Aristos, the best, tho noblest. Aristo- 
cracy, aristocrat, aristocratic, &c. 

Arithmos, number. Arithmetic, arith- 
metical, arithmetician, logarithms, &c. 

Astro.v, a star. Astral, astrolabe, astro- 
logy, astrological, astronomy, astronomical, 
asterisk, &c. 

Autos, one's self. Autobiography, auto- 
crat, autograph, automaton, &c. 

Ballo, to cast. Bolt, bolus, amphibology, 
emblem, emblematic, hyperbole, parable, 
parabola, problem, problematic, symbol, 
symbolic, &c. 

Balsa.mon, balm. Balsam, balsamic, 
balm, baimy, embalm, &c. 

Bapto or BAPTizo, to dip, to baptize. 
Baptize, baptist, baptism, baptismal, &c. 

Baros, weight. Barometer, barytes, bary- 
tone, &c. 

Basis, the foot, the lowest part, the I 
foundation. Base, basement, baseness, bass, | 
debase, surbr.se, &c. 

Biblos. a book. Bible, biblical, biblio- 
pc!i-t, bibliomania, &c. 

Bros, life. Biography, biographer, bio- 
graphical, amphibious, autobiography, ceno- 
bite, &c. 

BotAnk, an herb. Botany, botanical, bo- 
tanic, botanist, &c. 

Character, a mark, an impression. 
Character, characteristic, &.C. 

Ch.akis icharitosj, love, grace, thanks. 
Charity, charitable, charitableness, eucha- 
ri-r. uncharitable, &c. 

C'holS, bile, anger. Choler, choleric, 
cholera-morbus, melancholy, &c. 

Chorda, a gut, a string. Chord, cord, 
cordage, harpsichord, pentachord, &c. 

Christos, anointed. Christ, Christian, 
Christmas, chrism, &c. 

Chronos, time. Chronic, chronicle, 
chronology, chronometer, anachronism, &o. 

Chrusos, gold. Chrysalis, chrysolite, &c. 

Chumos, juice (from chko, to melt or 
pour). Chyme, chemistry, chemist, chemi- 
cal, cheinic, alchymy, &c. 

Daiaion, a spirit; generally an evil spirit. 
Demon, demoniac, demonology, pandemo- 
nium, &c. 

Da mao, to tame, to subdue. Adamant, J 
adamantean, adamantine, diamond, &c. 

Deca, ten. Decade, decagon, decalogue, j 
Decapolis, &c. 

Demos, the people. Demagogue, demo 
cracy, democrat, democratic, endemic, epi 
demie, &c. 

Despotes, a master, a tyrant. Despot, 
despnic, despotism, &c. 

Diploma (literally a duplicate), aletter or 
writing conferring some privilege. Diploma, 
diplomacy, diplomatist, diplomatic, <Ssc. 



Drs, di, twice. Dilemma, diphthong, 
dimeter, &c. . 

Dogma, an opinion. Dogma, dogmatic, 
dogmatical, dogmatize, &c. Doxa, an 
opinion, belief. Doxology, heterodox, ortho- 
dox, paradox, &c. 

Doros, given. Dotation, dose, anecdote, 
antidote, &c. 

Drama, a scenic representation, a play. 
Drama, dramatic, dramatical, dramatist, &c. 

Dromos, a race-course. Dromedary, 
hippodrome, <fec. 

Drus, an oak. Druid, druidical, hama- 
dryad, &c. 

Dunamis, power, force. Dynamics, dy- 
nasty, &c. 

Dus, ill, difficult. Dysentery, dyspepsy, 
dysury, &c. 

Ecclesia, the church. Ecclesiastic, ec- 
clesiastical, &c. 

Echeo, to sound, to echo. Echo, cate- 
chise, catechism, catechumen, &c. 

Eido, to see : Eidos, a form or figure. 
Idol, idolater, idolatrous, idolatry, idolize, 
idea, ideal, ideality, cycloid, asteroid, rhom- 
boid, spheroid, &c. 

Ejlao ielaso), to drive, to impel. Elastic, 
elasticity, &c. 

Electron', amber. Electric, electrical, 
electricity, &c. 

Emeo, to vomit. Emetic, emetical, &c. 

Epos, a word. Epic, orthoepy, orthoe- 
pist, etc. 

Erkmos, desert, solitary. Eremite, her- 
mit, hermitage, &c. 

Ergon, a work. Chirurgeon (surgeon), 
energy, energetic, George, Georgics, metal- 
lurgy, &c. 

Ethn t os, ^nation. Ethnic, ethnical, hea- 
then, &c. 

Ethos, custom, manners. Ethics, ethic, 
ethicai, &c. 

Etumos, true. Etymon, etymology, ety- 
mologist, &c. 

Eu, well. Eucharist, eulogy, euphony, 
evangelist, &c. 

Gameo, to marry. Amalgam, amalgam- 
ate, bigamy, bigamist, monogamist, poly- 
gamist, &c. 

Ge, the earth. Geography, geology, geo- 
metry, Georgics, George, apogee, &c. 

Genea, a race, a descent : Genos, genus, 
kin. Genealogy, Genesis, heterogeneous, 
homogeneous, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, 
cosmogony, theogony, &c. 

Glotta or glossa, the tongue. Glottis, 
epiglottis, polyglot, gloss, glossary, &c. 

Glupho, to carve or engrave. Glyph, 
hieroglyphics, hieroglyphical, &c. 

Gnomon, that which serves to indicate or 
make known. Gnome, gnomon, gnomonics, 
Gnostics, &c. 

GoNiA, a corner, an angle. Diagonal, 
decagon, heptagon, hexagon, octagon, penta- 
gon, polygon, trigonometry, &c. 

Gramma, a letter. Grammar, anagram, 
diagram, epigram, monogram, parallelogram, 
programme, &c. 

Grapho, to write. Graphic, graphical, 
autograph, biography, autobiography, cos- 
mography, ethography, geography, hydro- 



LATIN AND GREEK. ROOTS. 



lxxxiii 



graphy, icrmography, lexicography, litho- 
graphy, orthography, paragraph, selenogra- 
phy, stenography, telegraph, topography, 
typography, &c. 

Gujunos, naked. Gymnasium, gymnas- 
tic, gymnastics, gymnosophist, &c. 

Gunk, a woman. Gynarchy, gyneocracy, 
misogyny, misogynist, &c. 

Gyrus, a ring, a circle. Gyration, cir- 
cumgyration, veer, &c. 

Haima, blood. Hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, 
hemorrhoidal, &c. 

Haireo, to take, to take up an opinion. 
Heresy, heretic, aphseresis, diaeresis, syuaj- 
resis, &c. 

Hebdomas, a week. Hebdomad, heb- 
domadal, &c. 

Hecaton, a hundred. Hecatomb, &c. 

Hedka, a seat, a chair. Cathedral, poly- ! 
hedron, sanhedrim, &c. 

Heijos, the sun. Heliacal, heliocentric, | 
Heliopolis, aphelion, &c. 

Hemkra, a day. Ephemera, ephemeral, ! 
ephenteris, &c. 

Hemisits, half. Hemicrany, hemisphere, ' 
hemistich, &c. 

Hepta, seven. Heptagon, heptachord, | 
heptarchy, &e. 

Heros, a hero. Hero, heroine, heroic, ] 
heroism, &c. 

Heteros, another. Heterodox, hetero- 
doxy, heterogeneous, &c. 

Hex, six. Hexagon, hexameter, &c. 

Hiepojs, sacred. Hierareh, hierarchy, 
hieroglyphic, Hieropolis, &c. 

Hjppos, a horse. Hippopotamus, hippo- 
drome, hippogriff, &c. 

Holos, the whole. Holocaust, catholic, 
catholicon, &c. 

Homos, like. Homogeneal, homogene- 
ous, homologous, &c. 

Hora, an hour. Horary, horologe, horo- 
scope, &c. 

Horos, a boundary. Horizon, horizontal, 
aphorism, &c. 

Hudor, water. Hydraulics, hydrocepha- 
lus, hydrogen, hydrographer, liydrophobia, 
hydrostatics, dropsy (for hydropsy), hydra, 
hydrodynamics, &c. 

Hughos, moist. Hygrometer, hygroscope, 
hygroscopic, &c. 

Humen, the god of marriage. Hymen, 
hymeneal, Arc. 

Huji.vos, a sacred song. Hymnic, hymn, 
anthem, &c. 

Ichnos, a, footstep, a track. Ichneumon, 
ichnography, <tec. 

Ichthus, a fish. Ichthyology, ichthyo- | 
phagist, &c. 

Idea, a mental image. See Eido. 

Idios, peculiar. Idiom, idiomatic, idio- 
syncrasy, idiocy, idiot, idiotic, &c. 

Idolon, an image or idol. See Eido. 

Ikon, an image or picture. Iconoclast, 
iconoclastic, &c. 

Isos, equal. Isosceles, isothermal, &c. 

Kaio ikausoi, to burn. Caustic, cauter- 
ize, holocaust, &<;. 

Kakos, bad. Cacodemon, cacoethes, &c, 

Kalos, beautiful. Caligraphy, kaleidc- | 
scope, &c. I 



Kalupto, to cover, to conceal. Apoca- 
lypse, apocalyptical, &c. 

Kanon, &rule. Canon, canonical, canoni- 
cals, canonize, &c. 

Kathairo, to cleanse. Cathartic, &c. 

Kexos, empty. Cenotaph, &e. 

Kentron, a goad, a point, the centre. 
Centre, centrical, &c. 

KephAle. the head. Cephalic, hydro- 
cephalus, &c. 

Kkras, a horn. Rhinoceros, &c. 

Kj.Eros, a lot. Cleric, clergy, clerk. &lc. 

Kijhtax, a ladder. Climax, climacteric, 
anticlimax, &c. 

Klino, to bend, to incline. Cliuic, 
clinical, &c. 

Koinos, common. Cenobite, epicene. 

Kolon, a limb, a member ; also, one of 
the intestines. Colon, colic, &c. 

Komos, a jovial meeting. Comic, comical, 
comedy, &c. 

Koneo, to run rapidly so as to raise dust, 
to move about briskly, to serve or attend 
upon another. Deacon, archdeacon, sub- 
deacon, &c. 

Konos, a cone. Conic, conical, &c. 

Kopto, to cut. Apocope, syncope, syn- 
copate, chop, &LQ. 

Kosmos, order, ornament ; also, the 
world. Cosmetic, cosmetical, cosmogony, 
cosmography, microcosm, &c. 

Kranion, the skull. Cranium, cranio- 
logy, craniologist, &c. 

Krasis, temperament, constitution. Idio- 
syncrasy, &e. 

Kratos, power. Aristocracy, autocracy, 
democracy, &c. 

Krino. to judge : kritSs, a judge, a. 
critic. Critic, hypocrisy, &c. 

Krupto, to hide. Crypt, apocrypha, &c. 

Kuklos, a circle. Cycle, epicycle, cycle* 
pcedia, encyclical, &c. 

Kulindros, v. roller. Cylinder, cylindri- 
cal, &c. 

Kuon, a dog. Cynic, cynical, cynical- 
ness, cynosure, &c. 

Labo (lambano), to take. Astrolabe, 
syllable, syllabus, &c. 

Laos, the people. Lay. laity, laic, &c. 

Latria, service, worship. Idolater, ido- 
latry, &c. 

Lego, to say. Lexicon, lexicography, 
dialect, prolegomena, &c. 

Leipo, to leave out. Eclipse, ecliptic, 
ellipse, elliptical, &c. 

Lethe, forgetfulness, death. Lethe, leth- 
argy, lethargical, &c. 

Lithos, a stone. Lithography, lithotomy, 
aerolite, chrysolite, &c. 

Logos, a word, a discourse, reason, sci- 
ence. Logic, logarithm, logomachy, ana- 
logy, anthology, apology, astrology, chrono- 
logy, demonology, doxology, etymology, ge- 
nealogy, geology, meteorology, mineralogy, 
mythology, ornithology, osteology, patho- 
logy, philology, phrenology, physiology, tau- 
tology, theology, zoology, apologue, cata- 
logue, decalogue, dialogue, eclogue, epi- 
logue, monologue, prologue, syllogism, &c. 

Luo (tuso), to loose. Analyse, paralysis, 
paralyse, palsy, &o. 



Ixxxiv 



DERIVATION. 



MachE, a battle. Logomachy, nauma- 
chy, sciomachy, &c. 

Mania, madness. Mania, maniac, biblio- 
mania, &c. 

Manteia, prophecy, divination. Chiro- 
mancy, necromancy, &c. 

Martur, a witness, a martyr. Martyr, 
martyrdom, &c. 

MathSma, learning. Mathematics, ma- 
thematician, philomath, &c. 

Matos, ■movement, motion. Automaton, 
automatical, &c. 

Mechanao, to contrive, to invent. Me- 
chanics, mechanism, &c. 

Melas imelan), black. Melancholy, &c. 

Melos, a song. Melody, melodious, me- 
lodrama, philomel, &c. 

Metaxaon, a metal. Metal, metallic, 
metallurgy, &c. 

Metecra, luminous bodies in the air or 
sky. Meteor, meteoric, meteorology, &c. 

Meter, a mother. Metropolis, &c. 

Metro*, a measure. Meter, metre, me- 
trical, barometer, chronometer, diameter, 
gasometer, geometry, hexameter, microme- 
ter, pantometer, pedometer, perimeter, sym- 
metry, thermometer, trigonometry, &c. 

Mikros, small. Microcosm, microscope, 
microscopic, &e. 

Mimos, an imitator, a buffoon. Mimic, 
mime, pantomime, &c. 

Misos, hatred. Misanthropy, misoga- 
mist, &g. 

Mneo imnao, mneso), to remind, to re- 
member. Mnemonics, amnesty, ccc. 

Monos, alone. Monk, monarch, monody, 
monogamist, monogram, monologue, mono- 
poly, monosyllable, monotone, monotony, &e. 

Morphe, shape, form. Metamorphose, 
metamorphosis, &c 

Murios, ten thousand. Myriad. &c. 

Naus, a ship: Nautes, a sailor. Nau- 
machy, nausea,* nautical, aeronaut, Argonaut, 
Argonautic, &c. 

Nekros, dead. Necromancy. &c. 

Neos, new. Neophyte, Naples {Nea-po- 
lis), &c. 

Nesos, an island. Chersonesus, Pelopo- 
nesus, Polynesia, &c. 

No-mos. a law. Nomothetic, Deuteronomy, 
gastronomy, Antinomjanism, astronomy, &c. 

Nosos, a disease. Nosology, &c. 

Ode, a song. Ode, palinode, comedy, 
melody, monody, parody, prosody, psalmody, 
riiapsody, &c. 

Odos, a way. Episode, exodus, method, 
period, synod, <fcc. 

Oikos, a house. Economy, antceci, dio- 
cese, parochial, parish, &c. 

OlIgos. feio. Oligarchy, &c. 

Osiaeos, like, regular. Anomaly, &c. 

On6ma, a name. Anonymous, metonymy, 
patronymic, synonymous, &c. 

OptOiuai, to see. Optic, optics, optical, 
optician, synopsis, &c. 

ORAjviA,'the thing seen, a sight. Cosmo- 
rama, diorama, panorama, &c. 

Organon, an instrument. Organ, or- 
ganic, organize, inorganic, &c. 

* Xansea is, properly, sea sickness. 



Orkos, an oath. Exorcise, &c. 

Ornis (ornithos), a bird. Ornithology, 
ornithologist, &c. 

OrphAnos, bereft of parents. Orphan. 
orphanage, &c. 

Orthos, straight, right. Orthodox, or- 
thography, orthoepy, &c. 

Osteon, a bone. Osteology, osteologist 
periosteum, &c. 

Ostrakon, a shell. Ostracism, oyster, &c. 

Ouranos, heaven. Uranus, ouranogra- 
phy, &c. 

Onus, sharp, acid. Oxalic, oxide, pa- 
roxysm, <fcc. 

Pais (paidos), a boy : Patdeia, instruc- 
tion. Pedagogue, cyclopaedia, &c. 

Papas, a father. Papa, papal, papacy, 
1 Pope, &c. 

Pas (pantos), all. Panacea, pandect, 
panegyric, panoply, panorama, pantheon, 
pantomime, &c. 

Pascha, the passover. Paschal. &c. 

Pateo, to tread. Peripatetic, patrol, &c 

Pathos, feeling. Pathetic, pathology, 
apathy, sympathy, &c. 

Pente, five. Pentachord, pentagon, &c. 

Petalon, a leaf. Petal, petalous, ape- 
talous, bipetalous, &c. 

Petra, a rock. Peter, saltpetre, petrify, 
petrifaction, petroleum, &c. 

Phago, to eat. Anthropophagi, ichthy- 
ophagist, sarcophagus, &c. 

Phaino, to shine, to appear. Phantasm, 
phase, fantasy, fancy, epiphany. 

Phariuakon, a drug. Pharmacy, phar- 
maceutic, pharmacopoeia, &c. 

PhSmi, to say, to speak. Blaspheme, em- 
phasis, emphatic, prophet, &c. 

Phero, to carry. Metaphor, periphery, 
phosphorus, &c. 

Philos, one who loves. Philanthropy, 
philology, philosophy, Philadelphia, &c. 

Phobos, fear. Hydrophobia" &c. 

Phone, voice. Phonic, cacophony, eu- 
phony, symphony, &c. 

Phos ( photos ), light. Phosphorus, &c. 

Phrasis, a phrase, a saying. Phrase, an- 
tiphrasis, metaphrase, paraphrase, &c. 

Phren, the mind. Phrenetic, phreno- 
logy, frantic, &c. 

Phthegma, a saying. Apophthegm or 
apothegm, &c. 

Phthongos, a sound. Diphthong, triph- 
thong, &C. 

Phulacterion, a preservative. Phylac- 
ter or phylactery, &c. 

Phullon, a leaf. Aphyllous, monophyl- 
lous, &c. 

Phusis, nature. Physic, physics, meta- 
physics, philology, &c. 

Photon, a plant. Zoophyte, zoophyto- 
logy, neophyte, &c. 

Plane, wandering. Planet, planetary, 
planetarium, &c. 

Plasso, to form in clay. Plastic, plaster, 
cataplasm, &c. 

Pleo, to fill. Pleonastic, pleonasm, &c. 
Plethos, fulness. Plethora, plethoric, &c. 

Plesso (plexo), to strike. Apoplexy, &c. 

Pneuma (pneumatos), air, breath. Pueu« 
matic3, pneumatology, &c. 



LATIN A>TD GREEK ROOTS. 



Ixxxv 



Poieo, to make. Poem, poet, pharmaco- 
poeia, prosopopoeia, &e. 

Poeemos, war. Polemics, polemical, &c. 

Poleo, to sett. Monopoly, bibliopolist, 
pharmacopolist, &c. 

Polts, a city. Police, policy, politics, me- 
tropolis. Acropolis, Heliopolis, Adriarzople, 
Constantinople, Naples, &c. See Neos. 

Polus, many. Polyanthus, polygamy, 
polyglot, Polynesia, polysyllable. &c. 

Poros. a pore, a passage. Pore, porous, 
emporium, &e. 

Potamos, a river. Hippopotamus, Meso- 
potamia, &c. 

Pous ipodos), a, foot. Antipodes, polypus, 
tripod, &c. 

Pkaktos, done : Prasso, to do. Practise, 
practice, praxis, impracticable, &c. 

Presbuteros. elder. Presbyter, &c. 

Protos, first. Protocol, protomartyr, 
prototype, prothonotary, &c. 

Psallo, tc sing, to play. Psalm, psalm- 
ody, psalter, &c. 

Pseitdos, false. Pseudo-prophet, &e. 

Psyche, breath, the soul. Psychology, 
Psyrhe, metempsychosis, &c. 

Pto.ma, a fail. Symptom, &c. 

Per, fire. Pyre, pyramid, pyrotechnist, 
empyrean, fire, &c. 

Rhapto, to sew or stitch together. Rhap- 
sodist, rhapsody, &c. 

Rheo, to flow. Rhetoric, rheum, catarrh, 
diarrhoea, hemorrhage. &c. 

Rhin", the nose. Rhinoceros, &c. 

Rhodon, a rose. Rhododendron, &c. 

Rhuthmos, measured time, harmony. 
Rhythm, rhyme, &c. 

Sarx, flesh. Sarcasm, sarcophagus, sar- 
sophagy, &c. 

Schede, a small scroll. Schedule, &e. 

Schema, a plan, a design. Scheme, 
schemer, &c. 

Schisma, a division. Schism, schismatic, 
schismatical, &c. 

Sxxos, corn, bread. Parasite, &o. 

SkandAxon, a stumbling-block, offence, 
disgrace. Scandal, scandalous, &c. 

Skene, a tent, the stage. Scene, scenic, 
scenery, &c. 

Skeptomai, to consider, to doubt. Scep- 
tic, sceptical, &c. 

Skia, a shadow. Ascii, &c. 

Skopeo, to view. Scope, kaleidoscope, 
microscope, telescope, episcopacy, bishop, &.c. 

Sophia, wisdom. Sophist, sophism, so- 
phistry, sophisticate, philosophy, unsophis- 
ticated, &c. 

Spao, to draw: Spasma, a drawing or 
contraction. Spasm, spasmodic, &c. 

Sperma, seed: Speiro, to sow. Sperm, 
spermatic, spermaceti, &c. 

Sphaira, a globe. Sphere, spheric, sphe- 
roid, atmosphere, hemisphere, &c. 

Splen', the milt or spleen. Spleen, sple- 
netic, &c. 

Spongia, a. sponge. Sponge, &c. 

Stasis, a standing. Statics, statistics, 
apostasy, apostate, ecstasy, hydrostatics, sys- 
tem, die. 

Steleo, to send. Apostle, diastole, epis- 
tle peristaltic, systole, &c. 



Stenos, short, narrow. Stenography, &d 

Stereos, firm, solid. Stereotype, &c. 

Stichos. a rank, a line, a verse. Acrostic, 
distich, &c. 

Stigma, a brand, a mark of infamy. Stig- 
ma, stigmatize. <fec. 

Stoa, a porch. Stoic* stoical, &c. 

Stoma, the mouth. Stomach, stomachic, 
i stomacher, Chrysostom, &c. 

Stratos. an army. Scratagem. &c. 

Strophe, a turning. Strophe, apos- 
trophe, &c. 

Stulos, a pillar or column; a style or 
sharp-pointed instrument for waiting with. 
Style, stiletto, peutastyle, &c. 

Sulk, plunder, spoil. Asylum, Arc. " 

Taphos, a tomb. Epitaph, cenotaph, &c. 

Tasso itaxoi, to put in order, to arrange. 
Tactics, tactician, syntax, &c. 

Tactos, the same. Tautology, &c. 

Techne, an art. Technical, polytechnic. 
Tecton, an artist, a builder. Architect, &c. 

Tele, afar. Telegraph, telescope, &c. 

Teuchos, any thing made, a vessel, a 
book. Pentateuch, &c. 

ThanAtos, death. Euthanasia, &c. 

Thauma, a wonder. Thaumaturgy, &c. 

Theaomai, to see. Theorem, theoretic, 
theorist, &c. Theatron, a theatre. The- 
atre, amphitheatre, &c. 

There, a place where any thing is depo- 
sited, a store. Apothecary, bibliotheke, &c. 

Theos, God. Thearchy, theocracy, the- 
ology, apotheosis, atheism, atheist, panthe- 
ist, pantheon, polytheism, Theophilus, Ti- 
motheus or Timothy, &c. 

Therme, heat. Thermometer, isother- 
mal, Thermopylae, &c. 

Thronos, a seat. Throne, dethrone, &c. 

Timao, to honor, to fear. Timotheus, &c. 

Tithemi, to put or place: Thesis, a, plac- 
ing. Theme, thesis, anathema, antithesis, 
epenthesis, epithet, hypothesis, hypothetic, 
metathesis, nomothetic, parenthesis, paren- 
thetic, synthesis, synthetic, &c. 

Tome, a cutting, a section, a division. 
Tome, atom, anatomy, epitome, lithotomy, 
phlebotomy, &c. 

Tonos, tension or stretching, a tone or 
sound. Tone, tonic, tune, barytone, mono- 
tone, semitone, &c. 

Topos, a. place. Topic, topography, Uto- 
pian, &o. 

Tragos, a goat. Tragedy, tragic, &c. 

Trapeza, a table, a quadrilateral figure. 
Trapezium, trapezoid, &c. 

Trophe, food, nourishment. Atrophy, &c. 

Tropos, a turning. Trope, tropic, tropi- 
cal, heliotrope, &c. 

Tupos, an impression, a mark, a type. 
Type, typical, typify, typography, archetype, 
prototype, stereotype, &c. 

Turannos, a ruler, a king, a despot. 
Tyrant, tyranny, tyrannize, &c. 

XSros, dry. Xerophagy, &c. 

Xulox, wood. Xylography, &c. 

ZElos, ardour, zeal. Zeal, zealous, &c. 

Zoon, an animal. Zodiac, zoology, &c. 



» Zeno.the founder of the Stoic philosophy, 
in a porch in Athena. 



LATIN AND GREEK WORDS AND PHRASES 
EXPLAINED. 



jk fortiori. With stronger reason- 

A mensa et thoro. From bed and board. 

A posteriori. From a posterior reason ; from 

the effect to the cause. 
A priori. From a prior reason ; from the 

cause to the effect. 
Ab initio (in-ish'-i-o). From the beginning. 
Ad arbit'rium. At pleasure. 
Ad captan'dum vulgus. To catch the rabble. 
Adden'dum; pi. Adden'da. To be added; 

additions ; an appendix. 
Ad eun'deni. To the same ; to a like degree. 
Ad Graecas kalendas. Never — the Greeks 

having no kalends. 
A.d infinitum. To infinity ; without end. 
Ad libitum. At pleasure. 
Ad referen'dum. To be referred to again ; 

for further consideration. 
Ad valorem. In proportion to the value. 
Afflatus. Divine inspiration. 
Agen'da. Things to be done. 
Alga. A kind of sea-weed. 
Alias. Otherwise. 
Alibi. Elsewhere. 
Alma Mater. A benign mother; a term 

applied to the university where one wa9 

educated. 
Ana, Gr. A word used in the prescriptions 

of physicians, denoting in like quantity ; 

equally. 
An'adiplo"sis, Gr. Reduplication (applied 

to that form of speech in which the words 

that end one verse or sentence, also begin 

the next). 
Anath'6ma, Gr. An ecclesiastical curse. 
Anno Domini. In the year of our Lord. 
Anno MiHidi. In the year of the world. 
Ante meridiem (A. M.) Before noon. 
Anthropoph'agi, Gr. Man-eaters; cannibals. 
Apex ; pi. Apices. The top or angular 

point : the top of any thing. 
Aqua (a'-kwa). Water. 
Aqua-fortis. Nitric acid. 
Aqua-tinta. A kind of engraving imitating 

drawings made with Indian ink or bistre. 
Aqua-vitas. Eau-de-vie or brandy. 
Arcana imperii. State secrets. 
Argumentum ad hom'Inem. An argument 

to the man; an argument which derives 

strength from its personal application. 
Argumentum baoullnum. The argument of 

the cudgel ; club law. 
Armlger. One bearing arms ; a gentleman. 
Asafoetida (as-sa-fet'-i-da). A fetid gum- 
resin brought from the East Indies. 
Assumpsit. In law, a voluntary promise, 

by which a person takes on himself to per- 
form for, or pay to another; the action 

founded on it. 
Audi al'teram partem. Hear the other side. 
Bona fide. In good faith. 
Boreas. The north wind. 
Brutum fulmen. A harmless thunderbolt. 
Ca?teris paribus. The rest being alike ; other 

circumstances being equal. 
Cao'6o"thes. A bad hahit or custom. 



Cac'6e"thes loquen'di. An itch for speaking. 

Camera obscura. Refer to the Dictionary. 

Capias. A writ of execution ; literally, take. 

Caput morttium. The worthless remains. 

Caret. This mark (a), to denote that some- 
thing has been omitted. 

Caveat. A kind of process in law to stop 
proceedings ; a caution ; a hint. 

Certiorari (cer'-she-o-ra"-ri). A writ from a 
superior court to the officers of an inferior 
one, commanding them to certify or return 
the records of a cause before them, to the 
end that the party may have sure and 
speedy justice. 

Chiragra (ki-ra'-gra), Gr. Gout in the hand. 

Cognomen. A surname ; a family name. 

Cognovit. In law, an acknowledgment ©f 
the plaintiff's claim, by which judgment is 
entered without trial. 

Commen'dam. The holding of a vacant 
benefice till a pastor is supplied ; so nam- 
ed, as being commended to the oareof the 
holder. 

Compages (com-pa'-ges). A system or struc- 
ture of many parts united. 

Com'pos men'tis. Of sound mind. 

Con'tra. Against; contrary to. 

Cor'nu co'pias. The horn of plenty. 

Corrigen'da. Words to be corrected. 

Cui bono ? To what good will it tend. 

Cum privilegio. With privilege. 

Curren'te calamo. With a running pen. 

Custos rotulo'rum. Keeper of the rolls. 

Data. Things granted. 

De facto. In fact or reality. 

Deficit. A want or deficiency. 

Dei gratia. By the grace of God. 

De jure (joo'-ry). By law or right. 

Dele. Blot out or erase. 

Deliquium. A melting or dissolution in the 
air ; syncope or fainting. 

Delta. The Greek letter A ; a triangular 
tract of land towards the mouth of a river. 

De mor'ttiis nil nisi bonum. Of the dead 
say nothing except what is good. 

De novo. Anew : over again. 

Deo volente (D. V.) God willing. 

Desideratum ; pi. Desiderata. A thing or 
things desired or wanted. 

Desunt csetera. The remainder is wanted. 

Dexter. The right hand. 

Dictum. A positive assertion. 

Diluvium. A deposit of superficial loam, 
sand, &c, caused by a deluge. 

Distringas. A writ for distraining. 

Div'ide ct impera. Divide and govern. 

Draco. A dragon ; a constellation. 

Dramatis personam. The characters in a play. 

Dulia, Gr. An inferior kind of worship. 

Duo. Two ; a song for two performers. 

Duodecimo (du-o-dess'-e-mo). Applied to a 
book having 12 leaves to the sheet. 

Durante placlto. During pleasure. 

DurantS vita. During life. 

Ec'ce homo. Behold the man. 
i Ec'ce sigimm. Behold the sign. 



LATIN AND GREEK WORDS AND PHRASES. 



Ixxxvii 



Elegit. A writ of execution ; so called from j 
words implying that the plaintiff hath \ 
chosen it. 

Emeritus. Originally applied to a soldier 
who had srrved his full time, and who was 
in consequence entitled to his discharge. 

E pluribus unum. One from many— the 
motto of the United States. 

Equilibrium. Equality of weight. 

Ergo. Therefore. 

Erratum; pi., Errata. A mistake, or mis- 
takes in printing. 

Est modus in rebus. There is a medium in 
every thing. 

Esto perpetua. May it last for ever. 

Etcastgra. And the rest; abridged thus (&c). 

Ex cathedra. From the chair. 

Excerpta. Extracts from a work. 

Ex concesso. From what has been conceded. 

Exempli gratia {e. g.) For example. 

Exeunt omnes. They ail go off. 

Exit. He goes off; departure. 

Ex nihilo nihil fit. From nothing, nothing 
can come. 

Ex officio. Officially. 

Ex parte. On one side. 

Ex post facto. From something done after- 
wards — as a law applied to an offence 
which was committed before the law was 
made. 

Ex tempore. Without premeditation. 

Exuviae. Cast skins of animals. 

Facetiae (fa-cee'-she-ey). Humorous compo- 
sitions ; witticisms. 

Fac simile (fack-sim'-e-ly). An exact copy. 

Felo de se. A murderer of one's self. 

Fiat experimentum in corp6re vili. Let 
the experiment be made on a worthless 
body. 

Fiat justitia, ruat coelum. Let justice be 
done, though the heavens should fall. 

Fieri facias (fi/-e-ri-fa"-she-ass). A writ to 
the sheriff to levy debt or damages. 

Flagrante bello. During hostilities. 

Flagrante delicto. During the commission 
of the crime. 

Fortiter in re. With firmness in acting. 

Genera (jen'-gr-a). The plural of Genus. 

Gutta serena (a serene drop). A supposed 
drop or speck, clear or invisible to outward 
appearance, but obstructing vision, and 
producing blindness. 

Habeas corpus. A writ directing a gaoler to 
have or produce the body of a prisoner be- 
fore the court, and to certify the cause of 
his detainer. 

Haud passibus asquis. Not with equal steps. 

Hortus siccus (a dry garden). A collection of 
specimens of plants dried and preserved. 

Ibidem. In the same place. 

Idem. The same. 

Id est. That is ; abbreviated into i. e. 

Ignis fattius. Will-o'-the-Wisp ; literally, 
a false fire. 

Impe'rium in imperio. A government with- 
in a government. 

Imprimatur. Let it be printed. 

Imprimis. In the first place. 

Impromptu. Without premeditation. 

Index expurgatorius 1a purifying index). A 
list of prohibited books. 



In forma pauperis. As a pauper. 

In foro conscientia?. Before the tribunal of 
conscience. 

Infra dignitatem. Beneath one's dignity. 

In limine. At the outset. 

In posse. In possible existence. 

In propria persona. In person. 

In re. In the matter or business of. 

Instanter. Instantly. 

Instar omnium. An example which may 
suffice for all. 

Interim. In the meantime. 

Interregnum. The period between two reigns. 

In terrorem. As a warning. 

In toto. Entirely; wholly. 

In transitu. In passing. 

In vino Veritas. There is truth in wine. 

Invita Minerva (Minerva being unwilling!. 
Without the aid of genius. 

Ipse dixit. Mere assertion. 

Ipso facto. By the fact itself. 

Item. Also ; an article in a bill or account. 

Jure divino. By divine right. 

Jure humane. By human law. 

Jus gentium. The law of nations. 

Labor omnia vincit. Labor overcomes every 
thing. 

Lapsus lingua?. A slip of the tongue. 

Laus Deo. Praise be to God. 

Lex talionis. The law of retaliation. 

Libra. A balance ; a sign of the zodiac. 

Lignum vita? (literally, the wood of life). 
Guaicum, a very hard wood. 

Lit'fira scripta manet. What is written re- 
mains. 

Litera'tim. Letter by letter ; literally. 

Lusus naturse. A freak of nature ; an ano- 
malous or deformed offspring. 

Magna Charta (kartai. The great charter. 

Malum in se. An evil in itself. 

Malum prohibitum. A thing evil, because 
forbidden. 

Manda'mus. In law, a writ from a supe- 
rior court; literally, we command. 

Manes. Departed spirits. 

Materia med'Ica. Substance used in th.8 
preparation of medicine. 

Maximum. The greatest. 

Memento mori. Remember death. 

Memorabilia. Things to be remembered. 

Meum et tuum. Mine and thine, 

Min'imum. The least. 

Mit'tlmus (we send). A warrant for com- 
mitting to prison. 

Modus operandi. The mode or manner of 
operating. 

Multum in parvo. Much in little. 

Necro'sis, Gr. Mortification or dcadness. 

Nem'ine contradicentg (nem. con.) None 
opposing. 

Ne plus ultra. No farther; the utmost 
point. 

Ne quid nimis. Too much of one thing ia 
good for nothing. 

Ne sutor ultra creptdam. The shoemaker 
should not go beyond his last; persons 
should attend to their own business. 

Nisi prius (unless before). A writ begin- 
ning with these words. 

Nolens volens. Willing or not, 

Non compos mentis. Out of one's senses. 



IxxxTiii 



LATIN AND GREEK WORDS AND PHRASES. 



Non obstante. In law, notwithstanding any- 
thing to the contrary. 
Nos'citur ex sociis. One is known by his 
associates. 

Nota bene (N. B.l Mark well or attentively. 

Omnibus. For all. 

Onus probandi. The burden of proof. 

Otalgia, Gr. The ear ache. 

Otium cum dignitate. Leisure or retirement 
with dignity. 

Paraselene, Gr. A mock moon — that which 
is beside or near the moon. 

Passim. Everywhere. 

Pecca'vi. I have sinned. 

Pendente lite. While the suit is pending. 

Per cent (centum). By the hundred. 

Per fas et nefas. Through right and wrong. 

Per saltum. By a leap. 

Per se. By itself. 

Pinxit. Painted it. 

Pleura. A thin membrane which covers 
the inside of the thorax. 

Posse comita'tus. The civil force of the 
county. 

Post meridiem (P. M.) After mid-day. 

Postula'ta. Things required. 

Praecipe (pre'-cip-y). A writ commanding 
the defendant to redress the injury, or 
stand the suit. 

Prima facie. On or at the first view. 

Primitise (pri-mish'-e-e). The first fruits 
which were offered to the gods. 

Primum mobile. The first mover ; the 
mainspring. 

Princip'ia. First principles. 

Prmcipiis obsta. Oppose beginnings. 

Pro aris et focis. For our altars and firesides. 

Probatum est. It has been proved. 

Pro bono publico. For the public good. 

Pro et con (contra). For and against. 

Pro forma. For form's sake. 

Pro hac vice. For the occasion. 

Pro temp6re. For this time. 

I'anica fides. Punic or Carthaginian faith; 
the Roman name for treachery. 

Quadragesima. Lent — so called because it 
contains forty days. 

Qusere (kwee'ry). Literally, inquire ; aruark 
of inquiry or doubt ; a query. 

Quantum libct. As much as is pleasing. 

Quantum suff Icit. As much as is sufficient. 

Quid nunc ? (what now ?) A newsmonger. 

Quid pro quo. Something for something; 
tit for tat. 

Qui tarn. An action at the suit of an in- 
former against a person who has infringed 
some statute. The words mean, who as 
well as ; that is, as well for the king as 
himself, between whom the penalty is to 
be divided. 

Quod erat demonstrandum, or Q. E. D. That 
which was to be proved. 

Quondam. Formerly. 

Quot homines tot sententiae. So many men, 
so many opinions. 

Recipe (res3'-e-py). The first word of a phy- 
sician's prescription, and hence the pre- 
scription itself. Take thou, \3 the literal 
meaning. 

Re infecta. Without accomplishing the 
matter. 



Requiescat in pa'c§. May he rest in peace. 

Respice finem. Look to the end. 

Resurgam. I shall rise again. 

Scandalum magnatum. Scandal against the 
nobility. 

Scilicet (sc.) To wit ; namely. 

Sci're facias. Cause it to be known. 

Semper idem. Always the same. 

Seria'tim. In regular order. 

Sic passim. So everywhere. 

Silent leges inter arma. Laws are silent in 
the midst of arms. 
j Sine die. Without fixing a day 
I Sine qua non. Without which it cannot ; 

an indispensable condition. 
I Sphacelus (sfass'-e-lus), Gr. Gangrene. 
I Stacte (stack'-ty), Gr. The gum which dis- 
tils from the myrrh-tree. 

Statu quo. In the state in which it was. 
i Sua cuique voluptas. Every one has his own 

pleasure. 
I Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re. Gentle in 
manner, but firm in acting. 

Sub poena. Under a penalty. 

Sub silentio. In silence. 

Sui generis. The only one of the kind ; 
singular. 

Summum bonum. The chief good. 

Suum cuique. Let every one have his own. 

Tabula rasa. A smooth tablet ; a mere 
blank. 

Tsedium vitas. Weariness of life ; ennui. 

Te Dcuui. A hymn of thanksgiving; so 
called from the two first words. 

Tempura mutantur. Times are changed. 

Totidem verbis. In just so many words. 

Toties quoties. As often as. 

Toto cttlo. By the whole heavens ; as far as 
the poles asunder. 

Tria juncta in uno. Three joined in one. 

Ultima ratio regum. The last reason of 
kinsrs. that is, war. 

Ultimuslult.) The last. 

Una voce. With one voice. 

Utile dulci. The useful with the agreeable. 

Vacuum. An empty space. 

Vade mecum. Come with me ; a com- 
panion. 

Vas victis ! Alas for the vanquished ! 

Variorum. With notes of various commen- 
tntors. 

Venienti occurrite morbo. Meet the disease 
in the beginning. 

Verbatim. Word for word. 
i Vermes. Worms. 
! Veron'ica. A true image. 
j Versus. In law, against. 

Veto [I forbid). A prohibition. 
J Via. By the way of. 
! Viaticum. Provisions for a journey. 

Vice. In the stead or room of. 

Vice versa. The reverse. 

Vide. See ; refer to. 

Vi et armis. By main force. 

Vis inertias. The force or property of inani- 
mate matter. 

Viva voce. Orally; by word of mouth. 

Vivat Regina ! Long live the Qveen ! 

Viz. (videlicet.) To wit. 

Vox et praeterea nihil. Voice (or sound) 
and nothing more. 



FRENCH, &c, WORDS AND PHRASES, PRONOUNCED* 
AND EXPLAINED. 



Abattoir (a-bat-twai / ). A general or public 

slaughter-house. 
Abbe (ab'-bey). An abbot; an ecclesiastic. 
Accouchement (ac-coosh'-m5ngh A lying-in. 
Accoucheur (ac-cooshur'). A man midwife. 
Aide-de-camp (aid'-deh-cong). A military 

officer attending a general. 
A-la-mode (ah-la-mode). In the fashion. 
Alguazil (al'-ga-zeel). A Spanish officer of 
justice ; a constable. 

Allemande (al-le-mand'). A kind of Ger- 
man dance ; a figure in dancing. 

Amateur (ahm-at-ehr). A lorer of any art 
or science, not a professor ; a virtuoso. 

Amende (a-mongd'h A fine byway of re- 
compense ; amends made in any way. 

Antique (an-teek'). Ancient; old-fashioned. 

Apropos (a-pro-po'). To the purpose ; by- 
the-bye. 

Au pis aller (o-pee-zah'-lai). At the worst. 

Badinage (bad"-e-nazb/). Light or playful 
discourse. 

Bagatelle (ba-ga-tel'). A trifle. 

Banquette (bang-ket'). A small bank be- 
hind a parapet, to stand on when firing at 
the enemy. 

Bateau (ba-to'). A long, light boat. 

Beaux esprits (boz-es-pree'). Men of wit. 

Beau-ideal (bo-ee-day'-al). The ideal ex- 
cellence existing only in the imagination. 

Beau inonde (bo-mond). The gay or fa- 
shionable world. 

Bella-don'na, It. The deadly nightshade; 
literally, fair lady — so called, it is said, 
because its juice is used as a cosmetic by 
Italian ladies. 

Belle (bell). A fine or fashionable lady. 

Belles-lettres (bell-lettr). Polite literature. 

Billet doux (bil-le-doo'). A love letter. 

Bon jour (bohn-zhur). Good day. 

Bonne bouche (bun-boosh). A delicious mor- 
sel ; a titbit. 

Bon ton (bohn-tong). In high fashion. 

Bon vivant (bohn-veev'-ahn). A high liver ; 
a choice spirit. 

Bourgeois (boor'-zhwaw}. A burgess or 
citizen , citizen-like. 

Bravura (bra-voo'-ra). A Bong of difficult 
execution; difficult; brilliant. 

Burletta, It. A musical farce. 

Cachet (kah-shay). A seal ; a private state 
letter. 

Caden'za, It. In music, the fall or modula- 
tion of the voice. 

Caique (ca-eek'). The skiff of a galley. 

Caisson (cais-son'). See the Dictionary. 

Calibre (ca-lee'-br). The capacity or com- 
pass of the mind or intellect. 

Cantata, It. A poem set to music. 

Caotitchouc (coo'-chook). Indian rubber. 

Cap-a-pie (cap-ah-pee). From head to foot. 



* It is v4^ difficult, and in some eases impossible, 
to give, with the sounds of our letters, the true French 
pronunciation. The pronunciations given here, there- 
fore, are in some cases to be considered as mere ap- 
Broxlmations. — See Observation 89, page xxiii. 



Capiiccio (ca-pree'-chol, It. A loose irre- 
gular species of musical composition. 

Cap'riole, It. A leap without advancing. 

Carte blanche (cart-blongsh). Refer to the 
Dictionary. 

Cartouche (car-toosh'l. A case to hold pow- 
der and balls. 

Chamade (sha-mad'). See the Dictionary. 

Champetre (shahn-paytr'). Rural. 

Champignon (sham-pin'-yon). A small spe- 
cies of mushroom. 

Chanson (chawng-soang.) A song. 

Chapeau (shap'-po). A hat. 

Charge d'affaires (shar'-jay-daf-fair). An am- 
bassador of second rank. 

Chateau (shah-to'). A castle. 

Chef d'eeuvre (shay-doovr). A masterpiece. 

Chiaro-oscuro (ke-ar'-o-os-coo'-ro),7^. Lights 
and shades in painting. 

Cicerone (tchee-tchai-ro-ny^, It. A guide 
or conductor ; one who orator ixes in his 
descriptions. 

Cicisbeo (tche-tchis-bay'-o), It. A gallant 
tending a lady. 

Ci-devant (see-de-vangi. Formerly. 

Clique (cleek). A party or gang. 

Cogniac (cone-yack). Brandy, properly from 
the town so called. 

Comme il faut (com-ee-fo'). As it should 
be ; quite the thing. 

Con amore, It. With love ; gladly. 

Conge d'elire (con-jay-dai-leer). Permis- 
sion to elect. 

Connoisseur (con-a-sehr). A skilful judge. 

Contour (con-toor'). The outline of a figure. 

Corregidor (cor-red'-je-dor), Sp. The chief 
magistrate in a Spanish town. 

Cotillon (co-til'-yoang). Abrisk, lively dance. 

Coup de grace (coo-deh-grass'). The finish- 
ing blow. 

Coup d'etat (coo-deh-tah). A bold measure 
on the part of the state ; a master-stroke 
of policy. 

Coup de main (coo-deh-mahng). A sudden 
or bold enterprise. 

Coup d'ceil (coo-deuhl'). A glance of the eye. 

Coute que coute (coot-ke-coot). Cost what 
it will. 
j Da capo, It. Again, or repeat from the 
beginning. 

Debouch (de-boosh'). See the Dictionary. 

Debris (de-bree). Broken remains. 

Dejeumr a la fourchette (de-zheu-ne-ah- 
lah-foor-shayt). A breakfast with meats, 
fowls, &c. ; a public breakfast. 

Denouement (de-noo-mong'). The winding 
up; an explanation. 

Depot (deh-p6). A store or magazine. 

Dernier ressort (dairn-yair-res-sor). The last 
shift or resource. 

Dieu et mon droit (Dieu-ai-mohn-drwau). 
God and my right. 

Doloro'so, It. In music, soft and pathetic. 

Domicile fdom-e-seel). An abode. 

Double entendre (doo'-bl-6ng-tong' / -dr). A 
phrase with a double meaning. 



sc 



FRENCH AND ITALIAN WORDS AND PHRASES. 



Echelon (esh'-e-long). See the Dictionary. 
Eclaireissement (ec-lair'-cis-mong). A clear- 
ing up or explanation of an affair. 
Elc-ve (ai-lave). One brought up by an- 
other ; a pupil. 
Embonpoint (ahn-bon-pwawn). In good con- 
dition. 
Ennui (ong-wee'l. Wearisomeness, lassitude. 
Ensemble (6ng-song'-bl!. The whole taken 

together. 
Entree (ong-tray). Entrance. 
Entremets (ong'-tr-may/. One of the small 

dishes set between the principal ones at 

dinner. 
En tie nous (6ng'-tr-noo). Between ourselves. 
Entrepot (ong-tr-po'). A warehouse or 

magazine. 
Esprit de corps (es-pree-deh-core). The 

spirit of the body or party. 
Expose' (ecks-po'-zy). An exposition. 
Famille (fa-mecl'). Family; "enfamille," 

in the family way. 
Fant.occinni ( fan'-to-tche"-ne), It. Puppets. 
Faux pas (fo-pah). A false step. 
Femme couverte (fam-coo-vairt). In law, a 

protected or married woman. 
Femme sole. A single woman; a spinster. 
Fete (fate). A feast or festival. 
Feu de joie (feii-de-zhwaw). A discharge of 

fire-arms ; a rejoicing. 
Fiile-de-chambre ifeel-deh-sham-br). A 

chamber-maid. 
Finale ifee-nah'-ly), It. The end; the close. 
Fleur-de-lis (flehr-deh-lee). The flower of 

the lily. 
Forte (fur-tay), It. In music, a direction to 

.sing or play with force or spirit. 
Fortissimo, It. In music, very loud. 
Gaucherie (gosh-re). Awkwardness. 
Gendarmes tjang-darmi. Soldiers, police. 
Grisette i.gree-zet'). Literally, a young 

woman dressed in gray, that is, homely 

stuff; a tradesman's wife or daughter; a 

shop-girl. 
Gusto, It. The relish of any thing ; liking. 
Harico (har'-e-co). A kind of ragout. 
Honnisoit qui mal y pense (ho-ne-swaw-kee- 

mahl-e-pahns). Evil to him that evil 

thinks. 
Hors de combat (hor-deh-cohn-bah). Dis- 
abled. 
Hotel-Dieu lo-tel'-deuh). An hospital. 
Ich dien (ik-deen). I servo. 
Inc6gnite. Incog. ; in disguise. 
In petto. In the breast or mind ; in reserve. 
Je ne sais quoi (je-ne-say-kwaw'K I know 

not what. 
Jet d'eau izhai-do'). An ornamental water- 
spout or fountain. 
Jeu de mots (zbeu-de-moO. Play upon 

words. 
Jeu d'esprit (zheu-dcs-pree). Play of wit ; 

a witticism. 
Levee (lev'-ay). A morning visit. 
Liqueur (le-quehr). A cordial. 
Mademoiselle imad'-em-wa-zel"). A young 

unmarried lady ; Miss. 
Maitre d'hotel tniaytr-do-tel'). A hotel 

keeper or manager. 
Mal-a-propos (mal-ap-ro-po'). Out of time ; 

unseasonably, unbecoming. 



! Malaria, It. Noxious exhalations. 

j Malicho (mal'-it-cho). The corruption of a 

Spanish word signifying mischief. 
I Mauvaise honte imo-vais-hont). False or 

unbecoming modesty. 
i Menage iman-azh'). See the Dictionary. 

Messieurs (mess- vers I. Gentlemen; used as 
j the plural of Mr. 

Monsieur (mo'-seu). Sir, Mr., a gentleman. 
! Naivete (nah-eev-tay'). Ingenuousness, sim* 
1 plicity. 

j Niaiserie (nre-ais-re). Silliness. 
j Nom-de-guerre mong-deh-gair'). An a3» 

sumed name. 
I Nonchalance mohn-shah-lahnce). Coolness, 
j indifference. 

I On dit (ohn-dee). A flying report. 
i Outre (oo-tray'). Extraordinary, eccentric. 
| Parole (par-oie). Word of honour 
j Pas (pah). Precedence ; literally, a step. 
Patois ipat-waw). Provincialism. 
Penchant (pan-sh?.hn) . A leaning or in* 

clination towards. 
Petit 'pet'-ty,. Small, little. 
Petit-maitre ipet'ty may'tr). A little mas- 
ter ; a fop. 
Plateau pla-to'). See the Dictionary. 
Protege i protegee, fem.) (pro-tay-jay). One 

that is patronized and protected. 
Qui va la? ikee-vah-la). Who goes there ? 
Qui vive (kee-veev 7 ). On the alert. 
Ragout (rah-g6o). A highly-seasoned dish. 
Rencontre irahn-cohntr'). An unexpected 

meeting ; an encounter. 
Restaurateur (re-stor-ah-tehr / ). A tavern 

keeper. 
Reveille (re-vail'-yai). See the Dictionary. 
Rouge irooge). Red paint. 
Ruse de guerre Iroos-deh-gair'). A trick o» 

stratagem of war. 
Sang froid (sahn-frwaw). Coolness. 
Sans (sang). Without. 
Sans-culottes (sang-cu-lot'). The tag-rag; 

the rabble. 
Saucisse (so-ceesO. See the Dictionary. 
Savant (sar'-ang). A learned man. 
Sobriquet (so-bre-kay). A nickname. 
Soi-disant (swaw-dee-zang). Self-styled, 

pretended. 
Soiree iswaw'-ry). An evening party. 
Souvenir (soov-neer'). Remembrance. 
Table-d'hote (tabl-dote). An ordinary at 

which the master of the hotel presides. 
Tartuffe (tar'-toof). See the Dictionary. 
Tete-a-tete (tait-ah-tait). Head to head; a 

private conversation. 
Tirade (tee-rad'). A long in vective speech. 
Ton itoang). The fashion; the mode. 
Torso, It. The trunk of a statue. 
Tour (toor). A journey. 
Toutensemble (too-tahn-sahnbl). The whole. 
Va!et-de-chambre (val-e-deh-skanibr). A 

footman. 
Vetturino ivet-too-ee'n-o), It. The owner or 

driver of an Italian travelling carriage. 
Vignette iveen-yet'). See the Dictionary. 
Vis-a-vis iveez-ah-vee). Face to^jace. 
Vive la bagatelle iveev-la-bag-a-teT). Sue- 
cess to trifles. 
Vivu le roi (veev-ler-waw). Long live the 
king. 



DICTIONARY 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



ABO 



A, the first letter of the alphabet. The form 
of the indefinite article before a consonant, 
or a Towel sounded like a consonant ; as, 
a unit, a eulogy, a ewer; many a one (in 
■which case the vowel o is sounded as if to 
were prefixed). The proper meaning of a 
(or an ■ is one ; as, A bird in the hand is 
worth two in the bush ; but it usually 
means any one of the kind or class ; as, He 
caught a bird. — See An and The. In ex- 
pressions like the following, a has the force 
of to, on, or at ; as, afield, ashore, oside, 
a hunting, a building. It also seems to 
hare a signification denoting proportion ; 
as, twenty pounds a year ; ten a penny ; 
eight miles an hour; but in such cases a 
preposition, as in or for, is understood. 

Aback', ad. backwards or back : la sea term). 

Ab'acus, s. a square table or tablet for count- 
ing ; the uppermost member of a column : 
(in architecture). 

Abaft', ad. towards the after part or stern of 
a ship : (a sea term). 

Abai'sance, s. a bow; a mark of respect. 

A ba'lienate, v. to alienate from : :a law term). 

A ban'don, v. to give up ; to forsake. 

Aban'doned, p. and a. forsaken ; lost to vir- 
tue, irrecoverably wicked. 

Abandonment, *. the act of abandoning. 

Aba'se, v. to debase or bring low, to degrade. 

A ba'sement, s. the state of being brought low. 

A bash', v. to make ashamed, to confuse. 

A bash'ment, *. the state of being ashamed. 

A ba'te, v. to lessen ; to lower in price. 

Aba'tement, s. the act of abating ; the sum 
or quantity abated; a discount or allow- 
ance. In law, a plea in abatement is that 
the suit of the plaintiff may cease for the 
time being. 

Ab'ba, s. a Syriac word for father. 

A b'bacy, s. office or possessions of an abbot. 

AVbess, *. the head or governess of a nunnery. 

Ab'bey, s. a monastery ; a convent. 

Ab'bot, s. the head or chief of a monastery. 

Abbreviate, i». to abridge or shorten. 

Abbreviation, a. the act of abridging ; a con- 
traction. 



Ab'dicate, v. to give up, to resign. 

Abdication, s. the act of giving up ; resigna- 
tion of a crown. 

Abdo'men, *. the lower venter or belly. 

Abdora'inal, a. pertaining to the abdomen. 

Abdu'ce, v . to draw or bring from. 

Abdu'cent, a. drawing from or back. 

Abduc'tion, s. the act of drawing from ; car- 
rying away a person by force. 

Abductor, t. any muscle that contracts. 

Abeceda'rian, s. a teacher of the ABC, of 
alphabet. 

A-bed', ad. in bed, en the bed. 

Aberra'tion, 3. a wandering ; change ci thi 
place of a star or plan«t. 

Abet', v. to set on or encourage ; to aid. 

Abet'ment, *. the act of abetting. 

Abet'ter. Abet'tor, s. one who abets. 

Abey'ance, s. property wot yet in possession ; 
an expectancy : (a law term . 

Abhor', v. to detest, to loathe, to abominate. 

Abhorrence, *. detestation, great hatred. 

Abhor 'rent, a. odious ; contrary or foreign to. 

Abi'de, v. to dwell; to continue in ; to endure. 

Abi'dance, *. continuance, stay. 

Abi'ding, p and a. continuing, staying. 

Abil'ities, s. mental powers or endowments. 

Abil'ity, s. power, skill, capacity. 

Ab'ject, a. mean, worthless, contemptible. 

Ab'jeotness, jr. meanness of mind, servility, 
baseness. 

Abju're, v to cast off or renounce upon oath, 
to forswear, to abandon. 

Abjura'tion, *. the act of abjuring. 

A b'lativo, a. taking from ; the sixth case in 
Latin nouns. 

A'ble, a. powerful, strong; skilful, clever. 

A'ble-bodied, a. strong of bv.dy, robust. 

A'bly, ad. with ability. 

Ab'luont, a. having the power of cleansing. 

Abln'tion, s. the act of cleansing; a purifi- 
cation. 

Abo'ard, ad. in or on board a ship. 

Abo'de, f. a habitation or dwelling-place. 

Abol'ish. v. to annul ; to destroy. 

Aboli"tion, Abol'ishment, *. the act of abol 
ishing. 

B. 



ABO 

AboIi"ticmist, s. one who seeks to abolish. 
Abominable, a. execrable, detestable, hate- 
ful, loathsome. 

Abonilnableness, s. hatefulness, odiousness. 
Abominably, ad. hatefully, odiously. 

Abomina'tion, s. detestation ; pollution. 

Abori"ginal, a. primitive, pristine. 

Abori"gines, s. the first or original inhabi- 
tants of a country. 

Abortion, s. untimely birth, miscarriage. 

Abor'tive, a. untimely, premature. 

Aborliveness, s. the state of abortion. 

Abound', v. to have or be in great plenty. 

About', prep, round, encircling ; near to ; 
concerning ; engaged in : ad. circularly ; 
nearly. "To bring about" is to bring to 
the point desired : " To go about a thing " 
is to prepare to do it. 

Abov'e, prep, higher in place or power : ad. 
overhead, in the air ; in heaven. 

Abov'eboard, ad. openly, fairly. 

Abov'e-mentioned, a. mentioned before. 

Abracadab'ra, s. a superstitious charm against 
agues. 

Abra'de, v. to rub or scrape off ; to wear away. 

Abra'sion, s. the act of rubbing off. 

Abreast', ad. close together, side by side. 

Abrid'ge, v. to contract, to shorten. 

Abridg'mcnt, J. a larger work contracted into 
a smaller compass ; a summary. 

Abroad', ad. without doors ; in foreign coun- 
tries ; widely spread. 

«.b'rogate, v. to annul, to abolish, to repeal. 

Abrogation, s. the act of annulling. 

Abrupt', a. broken ; craggy ; sudden ; uncon- 
nected. 

Abrup'tion. s. a sudden breaking off. 

Abruptly, ad. suddenly; unseasonably. 

Abruptness, s. an abrupt manner. 

Ab'secss, s. a tumour containing matter. 

Abscind', v. to cut off. 

Abseis'sion, s. the act of cutting off. 

Abscond', v. to hide one's self. 

Ab'sent, a. not present ; inattentive or absent 
in mind. 

Absent', v. to keep away, to withdraw. 

Ab'sence, J. the state of being absent. 

Absentee', s. one who is habitually absent 
from his country, or from his business. 

Absenteeism, s. the act or state of being ab- 
sent from one's country. 

Absin'thian, a. of the nature of wormwood. 

Absolv'e, v. to free from ; to clear ; to acquit. 

Absolv'er, s. one who absolves. 

Ab'solute, a. unlimited ; arbitrary. 

Absolutely, ad. unconditionally ;. positively. 

Absoluteness, s. freedom from limits , des- 
potism. 

Absolution, s. the act of absolving. 

Ab'sonant. a. discordant ; absurd. 

Absorb', v. to suck up, to imbibe. 

Absorb'ed, p. sucked up ; immersed in. 

Absor'bent, s. a medicine that absorbs hu- 
mours. 

Absorp'tion, 5. the act of sucking up. 

A bstain', v. to refrain from ; to forbear. 

Abste'miuus, a. temperate, abstinent. 

Abste'miously, ad. temperately, soberly. 

Ahate'miousmess, s. sobriety, temperance. 

Absterge, v. to cleanse by wiping. 

Abstergent, a. having a cleansing quality. 



acq 

Abstersive, a. having a cleansing qua];.-. 

Ab'stinence, s. a refraining from ; fasting. 

Ab'stinent, a. practising abstinence. 

Abstinently, ad. temperately. 

Abstract', v. to draw from, to separate, to 
abridge. 

Ab'stract, s. an abridgment ot epitome : a. 
separate ; existing in the mind only. 

Abstract ed'ness, s. the state of being ab- 
stracted. 

Abstrac'tion, s. the act of abstracting ; ab- 
sence of mmd. 

Abstractly, ad. in an abstract manner. 

Abstru'se, s. hidden, obscure, difficult. 

Abstru'sely, ad. obscurely, not plainly. 

Abstru'seness, s. obscurity ; difficulty. 

Absurd', a. unreasonable ; inconsistent. 

Absurdity, s. that which is absurd ; fully. 

Absurdly, ad. unreasonably, foolishly. 

Abundance, s. great plenty, exuberance. 

Abund'ant, a. plentiful, exuberant. 

Abund antly, ad. plentifully, liberally. 

Abu'se, s. the ill use of any thing ; unjust 
reproach. 

Abu'se, v. to ill use ; to reproach rudely. 

Abu'sive, a. giving abuse. 

Abu'sively, ad. in an abusive manner. 

Abu'siveness, s. uncivil language ; rudeness. 

Abut', v, to end at ; to meet or join. 

Abut'ment, *. that which abuts or borders 
upon. 

Abyss', s. a fathomless depth or gulph. 

Aca'cia, s. the name of a tree ; a drug. 

Acad'emy, s. a school where the arts and 
sciences are taught ; a society for the pro- 
motion of science or art. 

Academi'cian, s. a member of an academy. 

Academic, Academical, a. belonging to an 
academy. 

Acan'thus, s. a prickly shrub. 

Acatalec'tic, s. a verse having the complete 
number of feet. 

Acce'de, v. to comply with, to agree to. 

Accel'erate, v. to increase motion or speed. 

Accel eralion, s. the act of increasing speed. 

Accel 'erative, a. that which increases motioD 
or speed. 

Ac'cent, s. a peculiar tone in speaking or 
pronouncing ; stress or force given to a 
particular syllable in a word ; a mark by 
which The accent is denoted. 

Accent', v. to give or mark the accent. 

Accent'ual, a. relating to accent. 

Acceutua'tion, 5. due placing of the accent. 

Accept', v. to receive, to take, to admit. 

Acceptable, a. likely to be accepted, agree- 
able. 

Acccpt'ableness, s. the quality of being ac- 
ceptable. 

Accept/ably, ad. in an acceptable manner. 

Acceptance, & the act of receiving. In bills 
of exchange, it is an admission that value 
has been received, and consequently an 
undertaking to pay the amount when due. 

Accepta'tion, s. reception ; the received 
meaning of words. 

Accept'er, s. the person that accepts. 

Access', s. admission to a place or person. 

Ae'cessary, a. joined to; additional; con- 
tributing. 

Accessible, a. that which may be approached. 



ACC 

Accession, j. the act of coming to ; addition 

or increase. 
Aceesslonal, a. additional. 
Accessorial, a. pertaining to an accessory. 
Ao'cessory, s. an abettor or accomplice. 
Ac'cidence, s. the rudiments of grammar. 
Ac'cident, s. casualty ; an unforeseen event. 
Accidental, a. casual ; happening by chance ; 

not essential. 
Accident 'ally, ad. casually, fortuitously. 
Aecipltrine, a. rapacious, like a hawk. 
Acclaim', Aeclama'tion, s. shout of applause; 

praise ; exultation. 
Acclarn'atory, a. pertaining to applause. 
Accli'mated, a. inured to the climate. 
Acclivity, s. the ascent of a hill. 
Accola'de, s. a ceremony in making a knight. 
Accom'modate, v. to supply with conveni- 
ences of any kind ; to adapt, to adjust. 
Accom'modating, a. disposed to agree or 
comply with the will of another ; obliging. 
Accommodation, s. provision of conveni- 
ences ; reconciliation ; adjustment. 
Accom'paniment, s. that which accompanies; 
the instrumental parts which accompany 
the vocal in music. 
Accom'pany, v. to associate with, to join with. 
Accom'pliee, s. a partner, an associate. 
Accom'plish, v. to complete ; to execute ; to 

obtain. 
Accom'plishable, a. capable of being accom- 
plished. 
Accomplished, p. and a. completed; elegant. 
Accomplishment, s. completion, ornament 

of mind or body. 
Accompt', Accorupt'ant, for Account and 

Accountant. 
Accord', s. compact; harmony; union. 
Accord', v. to adjust ; to unite ; to agree with. 
Accordance, s. agreement ; conformity. 
According, prep, agreeably to ; in proportion. 
Accordingly, ad. agreeably ; conformably. 
Accost, v. to address ; to salute. 
Accost'able, a. easy of access ; familiar. 
Accou'ehement, s. a delivery or lying-in. 
Accou'cheur, s. a man mid-wife. 
Account', v. to compute; to answer for; to 
esteem or hold in opinion ; to assign the 
causes. 
Account', s. a computation ; narration ; esti- 
mation. 
Accountability, s. liability to give account. 
Account'able, a. liable to account, responsible. 
Account'ableness, s. the being accountable. 
Account'-book, s. a book of accounts. 
Account'ant, s. one who keeps accounts. 
Account'aiUship, s. office of an accountant. 
Accounting, s. the act of adjusting accounts. 
Accou'tre, v. to equip, to dress, to furnish. 
Accou'trements, s.pl. equipments; trappings. 
Accredit, v. to give trust or confidence to ; 

to countenance. 
Accredited, p. and a. received as having a 

title to credit ; trusted; believed. 
Accru'e, v. to arise from ; to be added to. 
Accu'mulate, v. to pile or heap up ; to in- 
crease. 
Accumulation, s. a heaping up ; a heap. 
Accu'm ulative, a. endued with the quality 

of collecting or increasing. 
Accu'm ulator, s. a gatherer together. 



3 



ACR 



Ac'curacy, Ac'curateness, s. exactness ; cor- 
rectness. 

Ac'curate, a. very exact ; done with care. 

Ac'curately, ad. without error ; nicely. 

Accur'sed, p. and a. that which is doomed 
to misery ; execrable, hateful, detestable. 

Accu'sable, a. that may be accused ; culpable. 

Accu'sant, s. he who accuses another. 

Aceusa'tion, j. charge, impeachment. 

Accusative, a. a term in Latin grammar ap- 
plied to the fourth case of nouns : in 
English it corresponds to the objective 
case. 

Accu'satory, a. that which produces or con- 
tains an accusation. 

Accu'se, v. to charge with a crime. 

Accu'sed, s. one charged with a crime. 

Accu'ser, s. one who prefers a complaint. 

Accus'tom, v. to habituate ; to inure. 

Accus'tomcd, p. and a. habituated, used. 

Ace, s. a unit on cards or dice ; a trifle. 

Acel'dama, s. [Heb. i a field of blood. 

Aceph'alous, a. without a head. 

Acerbity, s. a sourness ; severity. 

Acerva'tion, s. the act of heaping together. 

Aces'cent, a. tending to sourness. 

Acctlc-acid, s. vinegar in a particularly con- 
centrated state. 

Ace'tous, a. having a sour quality. 

Ace'tum, s. vinegar. 

Ache, s. a continued pain : v. to be in pain. 

Achier'able, a. that may be achieved. 

Achio've, v. to perform ; to obtain. 

Achievement, s. a deed, a performance ; the 
escutcheons, or ensigns armorial. 

A'ching, s. a continued pain ; uneasiness. 

Achromatic, a. contrived to remedy aberra- 
tions and colours in telescopes. 
Ac'ld, a. sour, sharp : g. an acid substance. 
Acid'ulate, v. to make slightly acid. 

Acid'ulous, a. sourish ; of a pungent flavour. 
Acknowl'edge, v. to own or admit the 

knowledge of; to confess as a fault. 
Acknowledgment, s. concession ; gratitude. 
Ac'me, s. the height or crisis of any thing. 
Acol'othist, Ac'olyte, s. a deacon. 
Ac'onite, s. wolfsbane ; poison. 
A'corn, s. the seed or fruit of the oak. 
Acous'tic, a. that which relates to hearing. 
Acous'tics, s. the doctrine of sounds; medi- 
cines used to assist the hearing. 
Acquaint', v. to make familiar with ; to in- 
form ; to make known. 
Acquaint'ance, s. familiarity; an associate; 

a person with whom we are acquainted. 
Aequaint'ed, a. familiar ; well known to. 
Aequies'ce, v. to yield, submit, comply. 
Acquies'cence, Acquies'cency, s. compliance. 
Acquies'cent, a. easy ; submitting. 
Acquirable, a. that may be had, or attained. 
Acqui're, v. to get, to attain, to gain. 
Acquirement, s. an attainment. 
Acquisition, s. acquirement, attainment. 
Acquisitiveness, s. desiro to acquire. 
Acquit', v. to discharge ; set free ; absolve. 
Acquitment, s. the act of discharging. 
Acquit'tal, s. deliverance from an offence. 
Aequit'tanee, s. a discharge from debt. 
A'cro, s. 4S40 square yards of land. 
A'cred, a. possessing acres of land. 
Ac'rid, a. having a hot biting taste ; bitter. 
B2 



ACIi 



ABM 



Acrimo'nious, a. abounding with acrimony. 
Acrimo'niously, ad. angrily, with acrimony. 
Ac'rimony, s. sharpness: severity of temper. 
Acron'ycal, a. rising when the sun sets, or 

setting with the sun. 
Acrop'olis, j. a citadel ; the Athenian citadel. 
Across', ad. athwart, laid over any thing. 
Acros'tic, s. a kind of poem, in which the 

first letter of each line forms a name. 
Act, v. to do, to perform ; to imitate : s. a 

deed, an exploit ; part of a play. 
A ct'ing, s. the act of performing. 
Ac'tion, s. the state of motion ; gesture in 

speaking ; a deed ; a battle ; a law-suit. 
Ac'tionable, a. liable to a process of law. 
Ac'tionary, Ac'tionist, s. one that has a share 

in the stocks or public funds. 
Action-taking, a. litigious ; fond of law. 
Active, a. nimble, agile, quick, busy. 
Actively, ad. nimbly, briskly, quickly. 
Activeness, Activity, s. nimbleness. 
Actor, s. one that performs ; a stage player. 
Ae'trcss, s. a female stage player. 
Actual, a. real ; certain ; not speculative. 
Actuality, Ac'tualness, s. real existence. 
Ac'tually, ad. in act, iu effect, really. 
.AC'tuary, s. a registrar, or clerk of a court. 
Acu'leated, a. having a point. 
Ac'tuate, v. to put into action ; to move. 
Ac'tuate, Ac'tuated, p. and a. put into action. 
Acu'men, s. quickness of intellect. 
Acu'minated, a. ending in a sharp point. 
Acu'minous, a. sharp, pointed. 
Acupunc'ture, s> a method of bleeding by 

making small punctures. 
Acute, a. sharp, keen, subtle, ingenious ; 

an accent marked thus ('). 
Acu'tely, ad. sharply, keenly, ingeniously. 
Acuteness, s. sharpness, subtleness. 
Ad'age, j. a proverb ; a common saying. 
Ada'gio, s. (in music) a term for slow time. 
Ad'amant, j. a diamond ; a loadstone. 
Adamante'an, a. very hard, impenetrable. 
Adamantine, a. made of adamant ; hard. 
Adam's-apple, s. a prominent part of the 

throat. 
Adapt', v. to fit, to suit> to proportion. 
Adaptability, s. the capability of adjustment. 
Adapt'able, a. fitted, capable of adaptation. 
Adapta'tion, Adap'tion, s. the act of fitting. 
Add, v. to join to, to increase, to sum up. 
Add'ible, a. that may be added. 
Addeem', v. to account, to reckon. 
Adden'da, *. pi. additions made to any thing. 
Adden'dum,*.addition or appendix to a work. 
A d'der, s. a venomous serpent ; a viper. 
Adder's-grass, s. the name of a plant. 
Addor's-tongue, s. the name of an herb. 
Addibil'ity, I. the possibility of being added. 
Addict', v. to devote, to accustom. 
Addi"tion, s. an adding ; a rule in arithmetic. 
Additional, a. added, something added. 
Additionally, ad. in addition. 
Addi"tionary, a. that may be added. 
Ad'dle, Ad'dled, a. ban-en, empty ; usually 

applied to such eggs as are Totten. 
Ad 'die-headed, Ad'dle-pated, a. having bar- 
ren brains, weak, silly. 
Addooin', v to adjudge. 
Addor'sed, a. (in heraldry) back to back. 
Address', v to speak or apply to ; to direct 



to ; to prepare for any action : s. a peti- 
tion ; direction ; mode of behaviour. 
Addresser, s. the person that addresses. 

Addu'ce, v. to bring forward; to allege. 

Addu'cent, a. leading to, contracting. 

Addu'cible, a. that may be brought forward. 

Adduction, 5. the act of adducing. 

Adduc'tive, a. that brings forward. 

Adductor, s. any muscle that contracts. 

Ademption, s. revocation, privation. 

Adept', s. one well versed in an art: a 
skilled, thoroughly versed. 

Ad'equacy, Ad'equateness, s. sufficiency. 

Ad'equately, ad. in an adequate manner. 

Ad'equate, a. proportionate, equal to. 

Adhe re, v. to stick ; to remain fixed. 

Adhe'rence, Adhe'rency, s. fidelity ; tenacity. 

Adhe'rent, a. united with ; sticking. 

Adhe'rent, Adhe'rer, s. a follower; partisan. 

Adhe'rently, adv. in an adherent manner. 

Adhe'sion, s. the act of sticking to something. 

Adhe'sive, a. sticking ; tenacious. 

Adhe'sively, ad. in an adhesive manner. 

Adhe'siveness, s. stickiness ; tenacity. 

Adieu', ad. a word expressive of good wishes, 
used at parting with a friend, or in con- 
cluding a letter; farewell. 

Adit, j. a passage under ground for miners. 

Adja'cent, a. lying close to, contiguous. 

Adject', v. to add to, to put to. 

Ad'jective, s. a word added to qualify a noun. 

Ad'jective^, ad. as an adjective. 

Adjoin', t. to join or unite. 

Adjoining, p. and a. being close to, near to. 

Adjourn', v. to put off, to defer. 

Adjourn'ment, *. putting off to another day. 

Adjud'ge, v. to decree, to pass sentence. 

Adju'dicate, v. to determine by law. 

Adjudication, A djudglnent, s. act of judging: 

Ad'junct, s. something joined to another • 
a. united with, joined to. 

Adjura'tion, *. the act of adjuring. 

Adju're, v. to impose an oath, to charge 
solemnly. 

Adiust', v. to regulate ; to put in order ; to 
settle. 

Adjusting, Adjust'ment, s. the act of regu- 
lating. 

Adjus'tive, a. capable of being adjusted. 

Ad'jutancy, s. the office of an adjutant. 

Ad'jutant, s. a military officer, whose duty 
is to assist the major. 

Adminicle, *. a help ; support. 

Administer, v. to give, to supply ; to per- 
form the office of an administrator. 

Administration, s. the act of administering ; 
the persons collectively who are intrusted 
with the affairs of government. 

Administrative, a. that which administers, 
or by which one administers. 

Administra'tor, s. masc. Administratrix, s 
fern, one who manages the affairs of a per- 
son dying intestate. 

Administra'torship, s. office of administrator. 

Ad'mirableness. s. the state or quality of 
being admirable. 

A d'mirable, a.to be admired ; good, excellent. 

Ad'mirably, ad. wonderfully, excellently. 

Ad'miral, s. the chief commander of a fleet. 

Ad'miralty, *. the office for naval affairs. 

Admiration, s. act of admiring ; wonder 






ADM 

Adrui're, v. to regard with wonder and love ; 

to esteem. 
Adnii'rer, s. one that admires ; a lover. 

Admi'ringly, ad. in an admiring manner. 

Admissibility, s. quality of being admissible. 

Admis'sible, a. that may be admitted. 

Admis"sion, s. access ; the state of being ad- 
mitted ; allowance of an argument. 

Admit', v. to grant entrance ; to allow. 

Admit'table, a. that may be admitted. 

Admittance, s. the act of admitting ; per- 
mission to enter ; entrance. 

Admix', v. to mingle or mix with. 

Admixlure, s. the substance of bodies mixed. 

Admonish, v. to warn, to reprove. 

Admon'isher, s. an adviser, a reprover. 

Admoni"tion, s. reproof, advice, counsel. 

Admon'itive, a. that admonishes. 

Admon'itor, s. one who admonishes. 

Admon'itory, a. warning, admonishing. 

Adnas'cent, a. growing upon something else. 

Ad'noun, s. an adjective. 

Adnu'bilated, a. clouded, darkened. 

Ado', *. trouble, confusion, bustle. 

Adoles'cence, Adoles'cency, s. prime of youth. 

Adoies'cent, a. advancing to manhood. 

Adopt', v. to take a son or daughter by 
choice, who was not so by birth ; to take 
or assume as one's own. 

Adop'tion, s. the making that our own which 
does not naturally belong to us. 

Adoptive, a. capable of being adopted. 

Ado'rable, a. worthy of adoration ; divine. 

Ado'rableness,*. quality of exciting adoration. 

Adora'tion, s. divine worship ; homage. 

A do're, v. to worship ; to honour highly. 

Ado'rer, s. one who adores ; a worshipper. 

Adorn', v. to dress, decorate, embellish. 

Adorn'ment, Adorn'ing, s. embellishment. 

Adow'n, prep, down ; towards the ground. 

Adread', ad. in a state of fear. 

Adrift, ad. floating at random. 

Adroit', a. dexterous, skilful, active. 

Adroit'ly, ad. dexterously, nimbly, skilfully. 

Adroit'ness, s. dexterity, skill, activity. 

Adry^, a. thirsty, desirous to drink. 

Adsciti"tious, a. borrowed, added. 

Adstric'tion, s. the act of binding together. 

Adula'tion, s. high compliment, flattery. 

Ad'ulator, s. a flatterer. 

Ad'ulatory, a. flattering, highly compli- 
mental. 

Adult', s. a person arrived at maturity: a. 

grown up. 
Aclul'terate, v. to corrupt, to debase: a. cor- 
rupted, debased. 

AduJtera'tion, s. the state of being adulter- 
ated ; mixture with some foreign body. 

Adul'terer, s. a person guilty of adultery. 
Adul'teress, s. a woman guilty of adultery. 
Adul'terously, ad. in an adulterous maimer. 

(Adul'tery, s. violation of the marriage bed. 
Adum'brate, v. to shadow out faintly. 
Adumbra'tion, s. a slight sketch or outline. 
Adun'cous, Adun'que, a. crooked, hooked 
Adust', Adust'ed, a. burnt up, scorched. 
Adus'tion, s. act of burning, or drying. 
Adva'nce, v. to bring forward; to improve; 

to propose; to move onwards. 
Adva'nce, s. progression ; improvement. 
Adva'nce men t, s. preferment ; progression. 



AFA 

Advantage, s. superiority ; benefit ; gain : v. 

to benefit ; to improve ; to promote. 
Advanta'geous, a. convenient ; profitable. 
Advanta'geously, ad. conveniently, profit- 
ably. 
Advanta'geousness, s. usefulness, profit. 
Ad'vent, s. the name of one of the holy sea- 
sons, signifying the coming of our Saviour; 
four weeks before Christmas. 
Adventitious, a. accidental, not natural. 
Adventf'tiously, ad. accidentally. 
Adven'ture, v. to try the chance ; to dare J 

s. an accident ; an enterprise ; hazard. 
Adven'turer, s. one who hazards a chance. 
Adven'turous, a. courageous, daring, enter- 
prising. 
Adven'turousness, s. quality of being adven- 
turous. 
Adven'turously, ad. boldly, hazardously. 
Ad'verb, s. that part of speech which is put 
with a verb, &c. to qualify or modify the 
meaning. 
Adver'bial, a. that relates to adverbs. 
Adver'biaily, ad. in manner of an adverb. 
Ad'versary, s. an antagonist, enemy. 
Adver'sative, a. implying opposition. 
Ad'verse, a. contrary to ; calamitous. 
Ad'versely, ad. oppositely ; unfortunately. 
Ad'verseness, s. opposition ; misfortune. 
Adver'sity, s. misery, calamity, affliction. 
Advert', v. to turn or attend to ; to regard. 
Adver'tence, Adver'tency, s. attention to. 
Adver'tent, a. attentive ; heedful. 
Adverti'se, v. to givo public notice. 
Advertisement, ^.public notice ; information. 
Adverti'ser, v. one who gives public notice. 
Advi'ce, s. counsel, instruction, intelligence. 
Advi'sable, a. prudent, fit to be advised. 
Advi'sableness, s. fitness ; propriety. 
Advi'se, v. to counsel, to inform. 
Advi'sed, p. and a. informed, performed 

with deliberation. 
Advi'sedly, ad. deliberately ; prudently. 
Advi'ser, s. one who advises ; a counsellor. 
Ad'vocacy, s. the act of pleading ; support. 
Advocate, s. a pleader ; an intercessor : v . 

to plead, to support, to defend. 
Advowee', s. he that has the right of ad- 

vowson. 
Advow'son, s. a right to present to a benefice. 
Ad'ytum, s. the inner part of a temple ; a 

vestry. 
Adze, s. an edged tool used by coopers. 
JE'dile, s. a Roman magistrate, appointed to 

inspect all buildings. 
iE'gis, s. a shield ; the shield of Minerva. 
-iEne'id, s. the heroic poem of Virgil. 
/Eo'lian, a. belonging to the wind. 
A'erate, v. to combine with fixed air. 
Ae'rial, a. belonging to the air ; high. 
A'erolite, s. a meteoric stone. 
Aerol'ogy, s. the theory of the air. 
Aerom'cter, s. machine for weighing air. 
A'eronaut, s. one who sails through the air. 
Aeronau'tio, a. sailing through the air. 
Aeronau'tics, s. the art of aerial suspension. 
Aerostatics, s. the science of sustaining 

bodies suspended in the air. 
^E'thiops-mineral, s. quicksilver and sulphm 

ground together to a black powder. 
Afar 7 , ad. from a great distance, remotely. 



AFE 

Afea'rd, a. afraid, terrified. 

Affability, s. condescension ; courteousness. 

Affable, a. easy of manners, benign, mild. 

Affableness, s. condescension ; civility. 

Affably, ad. civilly, courteously. 

Affair 7 , j. transaction, business, concern. 

Affect', v. to produce an effect upon ; to 

move the passions ; to aim at or aspire to. 
Affecta'tion, s. making an artificial show. 
Affect'ed, a. conceited ; moved. 
Affect'edly, ad. hypocritically, conceitedly. 
Affect'edness, s. the state of being affected. 
Affecting, p. and a. moving the feelings. 
Affecting] y, ad. in an affecting manner. 
Affec'tion, s. love, kindness, zeal. 
Affec'tionate, a. warm, loving, benevolent. 
Affec'tionately, ad. tenderly, benevolently. 
Affec'tionateness, s. fondness ; tenderness. 
Affec'tioned, a. affected ; mentally disposed. 
Affective, a. that affects ; moving. 
Affectively, ad. in an impressive manner. 
Affettuo'so, a. [Ital.] in music) tenderly. 
Affi'ance, s. a contract ; confidence in the 

divine promises : v. to betroth, to bind. 
Affida'vit, s. a written declaration on oath. 
Affilia'tion, s. the adoption of a child. 
Affinity, s. relation by marriage ; attraction. 
Affirm', v. to declare confidently. 
Affirm' able, a. that may be affirmed. 
Affirma'tion, *. declaration, confirmation. 
Affirm 'ative, a. that affirms ; that can or may 

be affirmed ; positive : s. that which con- 
tains an affirmation. 
Affirm'atively, ad. positively, absolutely. 
Affix', v. to unite, to subjoin. 
Affix, s. a particle united to the end of a 

word. 
Affla'tus, s. the communication of the power 

or spirit of prophecy ; a vapour ; breath. 
Afflict/, v. to grieve, trouble, torment. 
Afflicfedness, s. the state of affliction. 
Afnicfer, s. one who afflicts. 
Afflict' ingly, ad. in an afflicting manner. 
Affliction, s. sorrow, misery, calamity. 
Afflictive, a. painful, tormenting. 
Affluence, A f fluency, s. riches, plenty, 

abundance. 
Affluent, a. wealthy, abundant, exuberant. 
Affluently, ad. in an affluent manner. 
Afflux, Af fluxion, s. the act of flowing; that 

which flows from one place to another. 
Affo'rd, v. to yield, or produce ; to grant ; to 

be able to bear expenses. 
Affray', v. to fright, to terrify : s. a quarrel, 

disturbance, tumult. 
Affri'ght, v. to alarm, terrify. 
Affri'ght, s. terror, fear. 
Affri'ghtful, a. terrible ; dreadful. 
Affront', s. outrage, insult, disgrace : v. to 

insult, to offend, to provoke. 
Affronfive, a. abusive, injurious. 
AAV, v. to betroth ; to put trust in. 
Afield', ad. to or in the field. 
Afloat', ad. borne up by water ; floating. 
Afoot', ad. on foot ; in action, in motion. 
Afo're, prep, before, sooner in time. 
Afo'rehand, ad. previously prepared. 
Afo'rementioned, a. mentioned before. 
Afo'renamed, a. before named. 
Afo'resaid, a. said before. 
Afc'retime, ad. in time past. 



3 AGI 

Afraid', a. struck with fear, terrified. 
Afresh', ad. anew, again, once more. 
Afric, African, a. pertaining to Africa. 
Aft, ad. abaft ; towards the stern : (a sea 

term). 
After, prep, behind : ad. following another ; 
in pursuit of; in imitation of; in succeed- 
ing time. 
Aftcract, s. a subsequent act. 
Afterages, «•. succeeding ages. 
Afterolap, s. an event happening after an 

affair is supposed to be at an end. 
Aftercourse, s. future course. 
Aftercrop, s. the second crop. 
Af terhours, s. the hours after business hours. 
Afterlife, s. the remainder of life. 
Aftermath, s. the second crop of grass. 
Afternoon', s. time from noon to evening. 
Afterpains, s. pains after birth. 
Afterpart, s. the latter part. 
Afterpiece, s. a farce, or any smaller enter- 
tainment, after the play. 
Afterstate, s. the future state. 
A f terthought, s. reflection after the act. 
Af tertimes, s. succeeding times. 
Afterwards, ad. in subsequent time. 
Afterwise, a. wise too late. 
Afterwit, s. wisdom that come3 too late. 
Af terwrath, s. anger when the provocatioa 

seems past. 
A'ga, s. a Turkish military officer of rank. 
Again', ad. once more ; in return. 
Against', prep, in opposition to ; to the hurt of. 
Aga'pe, ad. staring with surprise. 
Aga'st, Agha'st, a. struck with terror. 
Ag'ate, s. a semi-pellucid precious stone. 
Ag'atized, a. marked like an agate. 
Age, s. any period of time ; a hundred years ; 

generation of men ; maturity. 
A'ged, a. advanced in years: s. old persons. 
A'gency, s. management of another's affairs, 
Agen'da, s. church service ; memorandum- 
book. 
A'gent, s. a deputy : a. acting upon. 
A'gentship, s. the office of an agent. 
Agglom'erate, v. to gather up in a ball. 
Agglomera'tion, s. a mass, a heap. 
Agglu'tinate, v. to unite together by adhe- 
sion. 
Agglutina'tion, s. union, cohesion. 
Ag'grandize, v. to enlarge, to exalt. 
Aggran'dizement, s. the state of being ex- 
alted or preferred ; great advancement. 
Ag'grandizcr, s. he that aggrandizes. 
Ag'gravate, v. to make worse ; to provoke. 
Aggravation, s. the act of exciting to anger. 
Ag'gregate, a. framed by the collection of 
sundry parts into one mass : s. the result 
of the conjunction of many particulars: 
v. to add or heap together. 
Ag'gregateiy, ad. collectively ; taken in mass. 
Aggregation, s. the state of being collected. 
Aggress', v. to assault or injure first. 
Aggres'sion, s. the first act of injury. 
Aggres'sive, a. making the first attack. 
Aggress'or, ,s. one who first assaults another. 
Aggrie'vance, s. hardship, wrong, injury. 
Aggrie've, v. to injure, to harass. 
Aggrie'ved, p. and a. afflicted, injured. 
A"gile, a. nimble, ready, active. 
A"gileness, Agility, s. activity, speed. 



AGI 



ALE 



A'gio, s. the difference between the value of , 

hank-notes and the current money. 
Agist', v. to let cattle feed in pasture grounds 

at so much per week. 
Agist'ment, s. feeding of cattle in a common 

pasture for a fixed price. 
A"gitate, v. to put in motion ; to discuss. 
Agita'tion, s. the act of shaking any thing ; 

perturbation of the mind ; discussion. 
A"gitativo, a. having the power to agitate. 
A'gitator, s. one that agitates. 
Agluti"tion, s. difficulty of swallowing. 
Agni"tion, s. an acknowledgment. 
Agnomen, s. a name given to any one on 

account of some action or circumstance. 
Ago', ad. iu past time : as, long ago. 
Agog 7 , ad. in a state of desire. 
Ago'ing, ad. in action, moving. 
Ago'ne, ad. ago ; past. 

Agonist'ic, Agonist'ical, a. relating to prize- 
lighting, or athletic contests. 
Ag'onize, v. to be in extreme pain. 
Agoni'zingly, ad. painfully feeling. 
Ag'ony, s. anguish, pangs of death. 
Agra'rian, a. relating to fields or grounds, or 

to the equal division of lands. 
A gree', v. to accord, to concur, to settle. 
Agreeabil'ity, s. easiness of disposition. 
Agree'able, a. conformable to ; pleasing. 
Agree'ableness, s. the quality of pleasing. 
Agreo'ably, ad. consistently ; pleasingly. 
Agree'ingly, ad. in conformity with. 
Agree'ment, s. concord ; compact ; bargain. 
Agres'tical, Agres'tial, a. rude ; belonging 

to the fields. 
Agricultural, a. relating to agriculture. 
Ag'riculture, s. tillage, husbandry. 
Agriculturist, s. one skilled in agriculture. 
Aground', ad. run ashore ; stranded. 
A'gue, s. an intermitting fever, with cold fits. 
A'gue-fit, s. the paroxysm of an ague. 
A'guish, a. having the qualities of an ague. 
Ah, int. denoting pity, surprise, joy, &c. 
Aha', int. a word of triumph and scorn. 
Ahead', ad. farther on ; precipitantly. 
Ahoy', int. a word used to hail or call to 

persons at a distance : (a sea term). 
Aid, v. to succour, to help, to relievo. 
Aid'-de-camp, s. military officer attending 

on a general to convey orders, &o. 
Ai'gret, s. a species of heron. 
Ai'gulet, s. a point of gold at the end of a 

fringe. 
Ail, v. to be sick or in pain : s. a 
Ail'ing, a. disordered, sickly. 
Ail'ment, s. pain, disease, affliction. 
Aim, v. to direct towards a mark, to 

*. direction, endeavour, design. 
Aim'less. a. without aim. 
Air, s. tho fluid which we breathe ; 

wind ; a tune or melody ; the mien of a 

person : v. to exposo to the air ; to warm. 
Ah/halloo'ii, s. See Balloon. 
AirTjladder, s. a vesiclo filled with air. 
Air'born, a. born of the air; fanciful. 
Ai/brjilt, a. built in the air ; imaginary. 
Air'drawn, a. painted in air ; visionary. 
Air'.nn, *. a gun charged with air. 
Air'ily, ad. gaily, merrily, briskly. 
Airiness, s. exposure to the air ; gayety. 
Air'ing, *. a short excursion to enjoy the air. 



Air'poise, s. an instrument for weighing tie 
air. 

Air'pump, s. an air-extracting machine. 

Air'shafr,, s. a passage for the air into mines. 

Air'tight, a. impervious to the air. 

Air'y, a. belonging to the air ; gay, sprightly. 

Aisle, Aile, 5. the wing or side of a church. 

Ajar', ad. partly opened. 

Akin', a. related to ; resembling ; alike. 

Al'abaster, s. a kind of soft white marble l 
a. made of or belonging to alabaster. 

Alack', int. alas, an expression of sorrow. 

Alack'aday, int. a familiar word of sorrow. 

Alac'rity, s. cheerfulness, briskness, readi- 
ness. 

Alamo'de, ad. [Fr.] according to the fashion. 

Alarm', v. to surprise ; to call to arms. 

Alarm', s. a notice of danger ; sudden terror. 

Aiarm'-bell, s. the bell that is rung at the 
approach of an enemy. 

Alarm'ing, a. producing alarm ; frightful. 

Alarm'ingly, ad. in an alarming manner. 

Alarm'ist, s. one who excites an alarm. 

Alarm'-watch, s. a watch that strikes the 
hour by regulated movement. 

Alar'um, s. an alarm-bell ; a clock. 

Alas', int. denoting pity or grief. 

Alb, a whito linen vestment worn by priests. 

Al'batross, s. a large south sea bird. 

Albe'it, ad. although, notwithstanding. 

Albes'cent, a. becoming white ; whitish. 

Albigen'ses, s. a sect of Protestants, so called 
from Albi, in Languedoe, in France. 

Albi'no, s. a white descendant of black pa- 
rents ; a negro whose skin turns white. 

Albugin'eous, a. like the white of an ogg. 

Albugo, s. a disease in the eye, in which the 
cornea contracts a whiteness. 

Al'bum, s. a blank book for the insertion of 
autographs, &c. 

Albu'men, s. tho white of an egg. 

Alburn'um, s. the soft white part of wood. 

Alcaid', s. in Barbary, the governor of a 
oastle ; in Spain, the judge of a city. 

Alchym'io, Alchym'ical, a. relating to al- 
chymy. 

Al'chymist, S. a professor of alchymy. 

Al'chymy, *. occult chemistry or the pre- 
tended science of the transmutation of 
metals ; a mixed metal so called. 

Al'cohol, s. the substance of any body re- 
duced into a fine impalpable powder; a 
pure rectified spirit. 

Alcoholic, a. partaking of alcohol. 

Alcoholiza'tion, s. act of rectifying spirits. 

Ai'coholize, v. to convert into alcohol. 

Alco'ran. [See Alkoran]. 

Alco've, s. an arbour ; a recess in a chamber. 

Aldebaran', s. a star in the constellation 
Taurus. 

Al'der, s. a tree resembling the hazel. 

A l'derman, j. a magistrateofatown corporate. 

Ale, s. a fermented malt liquor. 

A'lebrewer, s. one who brews ale. 

Aleo', ad. on the side opposite to that against 
which the wind blows : (a sea term). 

A'lefed, a. fed with ale. 

Al'egar, s. sour ale. 

A'lehouso, j. a house where malt liquor is 
sold ; a public-house. 

Alem'bie, *. a vessel used in distilling. 



ALE 



8 - 



ALM 



Alength', ad. at full 

Aler?, a. watchful, vigilant, brisk. 

Alert'ness, s. sprightliness, briskness. 

Alexan'drian, a. pertaining to Alexandria. 

Alexan'driue, s. a verse of twelve syllables : 
(first used in a French poem called Alex- 
ander.) 

Algebra, s. a peculiar kind of arithmetic 

Algebraic, Algebraical, a. pertaining to 
the science of algebra. 

Algebraically, ad. by means of algebra. 

Algebraist, *. one well versed in algebra. 

Al'gid, a. cold, chill. 

Alguazil', s. a Spanish bailiff or constable. 

A 'lias, [Lat.] ad. otherwise : s. in law, a writ. 

Al'ibi, [Lat.] s. elsewhere ; in another place. 

A'lien, s. a foreigner ; a stranger : a. foreign, 
estranged, averse to. 

Alienable, a. that may be transferred. 

Alienate, v. to transfer to another ; to with- 
draw the affections : a. estranged. 

Aliena'tion, s. the act of transferring ; change 
of affection ; mental derangement. 

Ali'ght, v. to descend, to dismount. 

Ali'ke, ad. with resemblance ; equally. 

Ailment, s. nutriment, food, support. 

Alimen'tal, a. nutritive, nourishing. 

Alimen'tary, a. belonging to food. 

Alimony, 5. the allowance to a married wo- 
man when separated from her husband. 

Aliquant, a. a portion of a number, which, 
however repeated, will never make up the 
number required ; as, 3 is an aliquant of 
10. thrice 3 being 9, and 1 wanted. 

Aliquot, s. any portion of a given number 
which, being multiplied, will amount to 
that given number exactly ; as, 3 is an ali- 
quot part of 12. 

Ali've, a. existing, active, sprightly. 

Al'kali, s. a salt which neutralizes acids. 

Al'kaline, a. having the quality of alkali. 

Al'kalize, v. to render alkaline. 

Al'koran,j.the book of the Mahometan creed. 

All, a. the whole of: s. the whole number 
or quantity ; every one : ad. wholly, com- 
pletely. 

All, in composition, is used adverbially, to 
extend the meaning of, or give force to, a 
word ; as all-beauteous, all-destroying, &c. 
In some words it becomes completely in- 
corporated, and drops an I ; as in almost, 
also, alone, &c. 

Alia, Allah, s. (with Mahometans) God. 

Allay', v. to compose, to pacify. 

Allay 7 , s. formerly any baser metal mixed 
with a superior kind ; now written Alloy. 

Allegation, Alle"gement, s. affirmation ; a 
plea. 

Alle"ge, v. to declare, to maintain, to plead. 

Al.le"geable, a. that which may be alleged. 

Alle'giance, s. duty of subjects to government. 

Allegorical, a. not real ; not literal. 

Allegorlcally, ad. after an allegorical manner. 

Allegorize, v. to turn into allegory. 
Allegory, s. in rhetoric, a figurative manner 
of speech, in which something other is in- 
tended, than is written or said. 

Allegret'to, ad. less quick than allegro. 
Alle'gro, ad. sprightly, quick, (in music). 
Allelu'jah, s. a word signifying praise God. 
Alle'viate, v. to make light, to ease, to soften. 



Allevia'tion, s. that by which any pain is 
lessened, or any fault extenuated. 

Alley, s. any narrow passage or walk. 

All-fools'-day, 5. the first of April. 

All-fours, s. a low game at cards. 

Allhallows, ,s. the term near All Saints. 

Alli'ance, s. relation by marriage or kindred ; 
a league with foreign powers. 

Allies', s. pi. states which have entered into 
a league for their mutual defence. 

Alliga'tion, s. the act of tying together ; one 
of the rules of arithmetic. 

Alligator, s. the American crocodile. 

Allitera'tion, 5. the beginning two or more 
words with the same letter. 

All iterative, a. beginning with the same 
letter. 

Alloca'tion, s. act of placing or adding to. 

Allocu'tion, s. the act of speaking to another. 

Allo'dial, a. independent of any superior. 

Allo'dium, s. a possession held in one's own 
right without paying rent or service to any 
superior. 

Allot', v. to give by lot ; to distribute ; gTant. 

Allot'ment, s. the part allotted to any one. 

Allow 7 , v. to admit or acknowledge ; to per- 
mit, yield, or grant ; to make an abate- 
ment in selling. 

Allow'able, a. that may be permitted, lawful. 

Allow'ablen-2ss, s. lawfulness. 

Allow'ably, ad. with claim of allowance. 

Allow'ance, s. indulgence, sanction, licence ; 
a deduction ; a stipend. 

Alloy', s. baser metal mixed in coinage ; the 
evil that is mixed with good. 

Alloy 7 , v. to reduce the purity of a metal ; 
to debase by mixture. 

Alloy'age, s. the act of alloying metals. 

All-souls'-day, s. the day on which supplica- 
tions are made for all souls by the Church 
of Rome ; the second of November. 

All'spiee, s. Jamaica pepper or pimenta. 

Allu'de, v. to hint at, to insinuate, refer to. 

Allu're, v. to entice, to decoy, to wheedle. 

Allu'rement, s. enticement, temptation. 

Allu'rer, s. he that allures or entices. 

Allulingly, ad. in an enticing manner. 

Allu'sion, s. reference, hint, application. 

Allusive, a. hinting at something. 

Allu'sively, ad. in an allusive manner. 

Allu'siveness, s. the quality of being allusive. 

Allu'via, s. small islands thrown up by the 
current of a river. 

Allu'vial, a. carried by water and deposited. 

Allu'vion, Allu'vium, s. earth carried by the 
motion of water and deposited. 

Ally', v. to unite by friendship or kindred : 
s. a friend, a confederate, a relation. 

Al'manac, s. an annual calendar. 

Almigh'tiness, 5. omnipotence. 

Almigh'ty, a. of unlimited power, omnipo- 
tent: s. the Divine Being ; God. 

Al'mond, s. the fruit of the almond-tree. 

Al'monds, s. the two glands of the throat ; the 
tonsils, improperly called almonds of the 
ears. 

Al'moner, s. the officer of a prince employed 
in the distribution of alms or charity. 

Al'monry, s. the place where alms are given. 

Almo'st, ad. nearly, near, well nigh. 

Alms, s. any thing given to the poor. 



ALM 



A MB 



Alms'-basket, s. the basket in which provi- j 

sions are put to be given away. 
Alms'dced, 5. an act of charity. 
Alms'giver, s. one who gives alms. 
Aims'house, *. a free dwelling for the poor. 
Al'oe, s. a plant, of which there are several 
species, African, Asiatic, and American ; 
the medicinal gum of the plant. 
Aloft', ad. <>n high ; in the air ; above. 
Alo'ne, a. single, without company, solitary. 
Along 7 , ad. at length ; onward ; forward. 
Alongside, ad. by the side of. 
Aloof, ad. at a distance but in view of. 
Alou'd, ad. loudly, with much noise. 
Alpaca, s. a quadruped ; the paca. 
Alpha, s. the first letter in the Greek alpha- 
bet, answering to our A ; it is therefore 
used to signify the first or highest. 
Al'phabet, s. the letters of any language. 
Alphabetical, a. in the order of the alphabet. 
Alphabetically, ad. in an alphabetical man- 
ner or order. 
Al'pine.a. relating to the Alps; mountainous. 
Al'pine, s. the mountain strawberry. 
Alixad'y, ad. now, at this time ; so soon. 
Al'so, ad. likewise ; in the same manner. 
Alt, Al'to, s. the higher part of the gamut. 
AL'tar, s. the place where offerings to heaven 
are laid ; the table in Christian churches 
where the communion is administered. 
A 1'tar-piece, s. a painting over the altar. 
/J'ter, v. to change, to reform, to vary. 
Al'tcrable, a. that which may be altered. 
Al'terant, a. that which produces a change. 
Alteration, s. the act of altering or changing. 
Al'terative, a. having the quality of altering : 
s. a medicine that gradually ,'altersor) im- 
proves the constitution, but has no imme- 
diate operation. 
Al'tercate, v. to wrangle ; to contend with. 
Alterca'tion, s. debate, strife, controversy, 

wrangling. 
Altera ate, a. by turns, one after another : 
v. to perform alternately ; to change reci- 
procally. 
Alternation, Altem'ity, s. reciprocal succes- 
sion ; alternate performance. 
Alternative, s. the choice given of one of 
two things : a. that may be chosen or not. 
Alternatively, ad. by turns ; reciprocally. 
Althou'gh, conj. notwithstanding, however. 
Altim'etry, s. the art of measuring heights. 
Al'titude, j. height ; elevation of a heavenly 

body above the horizon. 
Altogether, ad. completely, entirely. 
Al'to-relievo, *. ptal.] that kind of relief in 
sculpture which projects as much as the 
life or reality. 
Al'um, s. a mineral salt of an acid taste. 
Arum-earth, s. a blackish brown mineral. 
Al'umine, Alu'mina, s. a kind of clay, the 

basis of common alum. 
Alu'minous, a. consisting of alum. 
Alu'minuni, s. the name given to the (sup- 
posed) metallic base of alumina. 
Al'umstone, s. a stone used in surgery. 
Al'umwater, tf.water impregnated with alum. 
Al'umworks, 5. apparatus for making alum. 
Al'vine, a. pertaining to the abdomen. 
Amabtl'ity, s. loveliness ; power of pleasing. 
Amain', ad. with vehemence, fiercely. 



Amal'gam, s. a mixture of metals; a com- 
pound. 
Amal'gamate, v. to mis or unite metals. 
Amalgama'tion, s. act of mixing metals. 
Amanuen'sis, s. a clerk or secretary, whe 

writes what another dictates. 
Am'aranth, s. the name of a plant ; in poetry, 

an imaginary flower that never fades. 
Amaran' thine, a. unfading, never deoaying. 
Amass', v. to heap up, to accumulate. 
Amass'ment, s. an accumulation, a heap. 
Amateur', s. a virtuoso ; a lover of the arts. 
Am'ativeness, s. a term in phrenology, in- 
dicative of a propensity to love. 

Amato'rial, a. relating to love. 

Am'atory, a. relating to or causing love. 

Amauro'sis, s. a dimness of sight causing an 
appearance of flies or dust before the eyes. 

Aina'ze, v. to surprise, astonish, confuse: s. 
astonishment ; confusion. 

A ma zedly,ad. confusedly, with amazement. 

Ama'zedness, s. state of being amazed. 

Ama'zement, s. wonder ; apprehension ; fear. 

Ama'zing, a. wonderful, astonishing. 

Ama'zingly, ad. astonishingly, wonderfully. 

Am'azon, s. a warlike woman ; the Amazons 
were a race of women famous for valour. 

Amazo'nian, a. like an Amazon. 

Amba'ges, s. [Lat.] circumlocutions. 

Amba'gious, A mba"gitory,a. circumlocutory 

Ambassador, s. a person sent as the repre- 
sentative of a prince or state on any pub- 
lic business to a foreign country. 

Arn'ber, s. a yellow semi-transparent gum 
of a resinous taste : a. like amber. 

Am'bergris, s. a fragrant drug, used as a 
perfume and a cordial. 

Am'ber-seed,*.musk seed, resemblingmillet. 

Am'ber-tree, s. a fragrant evergreen shrub. 

Ambidex'ter, *. a person that can use both 
hands alike ; one who is equally good to 
act on either side ; a double-dealer. 

Ambidex'trous, a. double-dealing, deceitful. 

Am'bient, a. compassing, surrounding ; par- 
ticularly applied to the air, which sur- 
rounds all bodies. 

Ambiguity, s. obscurity of words ; double 
meaning ; uncertainty of signification. 

Ambig'uous, a. doubtful, mysterious 

Ambig'uously, ad. in a doubtful manaer. 

Ambig'uousness, s. uncertainty of meaning. 

Ambi"tion, s. an inordinate desire of prefer- 
ment, honour, or power ; great pride. 

Ambi"tious, a. aspiring, proud, vain. 

Ambi"tiously, ad. in an ambitious manner. 

Am'ble, v. to move easily, to pace, to trip 
s, a pace between a walk and a trot. 

Am'bler, s. an ambling horse ; a pacer. 

Ani'bling,a.moving easily; pacing trippingly 

Am'blingly, ad. with an ambling movement. 

Ambro'sia, s. the name of a plant ; in poeti- 
cal language, the food of the gods. 

Ambro'siac, a. delicious, like ambrosia. 

Ambro'sial, Ambro'sian, a. possessing the 
qualities of ambrosia ; fragrant, delicious. 

Am'bulatory, s. a place for walking : a. aov 
stationary ; moving about. 

Ambusca'de, S. a private post to surprise ai) 
enemy. 

Am'bush, s. a concealed station to watch 
from, or lie in wait for. 

BX 



AME 



10 



ANA 



Am'cl, s. the matter used for enamelling. 

Ameliorate, v. to improve, to make better. 

Amelioration, s. improvement. 

Amen', ad. may it be so ; verily. 

Ame'nal'le, a. liable to be brought to ac- 
count, responsible ; manageable. 

Amend', v. to reform, grow better, correct. 

Amend'able, a. that may be amended. 

Ainen'de, s. [Fr.] a fine in the -way of re- 
compense ; amends made in any way. 

Amend'ing, s. the act of correcting. 

Amend'mcnt, s. a reformation of life ; a 
change for the better; recovery of health. 

Amend's, s. pi. recompense; compensation. 

Amen'ity, J. pleasantness, agrceablcness. 

Amer'ce, v. to punish by fine or penalty. 

Amer'ceable, a. liable to amercement. 

Amercement, s. a pecuniary fine. 

American, s. a native of America : a. per- 
taining to America. 

Amer'icanism, s. an American idiom. 

Am'ethyst, s. a violet-coloured precious stone. 

Amclhyst'ine, a. resembling an amethyst. 

A'miable, a. lovely, pleasing, charming. 

A'miablencss, s. agreeableness, loveliness. 

A'miably, ad. in an amiable manner. 

Am'ianth, Amianth'us, s. an incombustible 
mineral substance, somewhat resembling 
flax. 

Am'icable, a. friendly, kind, peaceable. 

Am'icableness, s. friendliness; goodwill. 

Am'icably, ad. in a friendly way. 

Am'icc, s. the undermost part of a priest's 
shoulder-cloth, or alb. 

Amid', A midst', prep, in the middle, amongst. 

Amiss', ad. faultily, improperly. 

Am'ity, s. friendship, love, harmony. 

Ammo'nia, s. a gaseous substance in modern 
chymistry, formed from hydrogen & azote. 

Ammo'niae, s. the name of an Indian gum : 
sal ammoniac is a volatile salt, popularly 
called hartshorn. 

Ammoni'acal, a. having the properties of am- 
monia or ammoniac. 

Am'monite, 5. the cornu ammonis or serpent- 
stone, a fossil shell. 

Ammo'nium, s. the metallic base of ammonia. 

Ammunition, s. military stores. 

Am'nesty, s. an act of general pardon. 

Amo'nium, s. a hot spicy sort of fruit. 

Among', Amongst', prep, mingled with. 

Am'orous, a. disposed to love, enamoured. 

Am'orously, ad. lovingly, fondly, kindly. 

Am'orousness. s. fondness, lovingncss. 

Amort', ad. depressed, spiritless. 

Amor'tisement, 5. the right of transferring 
lands to mortmain ; that is, to some com- 
munity that never is to cease. 

Amou'nt, v. to rise in value, to increase : 
s. the sum total, whole result. 

Amour', s. an affair of gallantry. 

Amphib'ious, a. that which partakes of two 
natures, so as to live on land or in water. 

Amphib'iousness, s. being able to live in dif- 
ferent elements. 

Amphib'ia, s. animals living either in water 
or on land. 

Amphictyon'ic, a. relating to the council of 
Amphictyons or Grecian deputies. 

Amphisbae'na, s. a serpent which is said to 
move with either end foremost. 



Amphis'cii, s. those people who inhabit the 
torrid zone, whose shadows fall both ways, 
that is, northward in one part of the year, 
and southward in the other. See Ascii. 

Amphitho'atre, s. a building in a circular 
form, with seats all round. 

Am'phora, s. a jug with a double ear. 

Am'ple, a. large, wide, liberal, diffusive. 

Am'pleness, s. largeness, extent, liberality. 

Amplification, s. enlargement, extension. 

Am'plify, v. to enlarge, to exaggerate. 

Am'plitude, s. extent, largeness, capacity. 

Am'ply, ad. largely, liberally, copiously. 

Am'putate, v. to cut off a limb. 

Amputa'tion, 5. a cutting off part of the body. 

Am'ulet, s. a charm hung about the neck tc 
prevent evil or mischance. 

Amu'se, v. to entertain, to divert, to deceive. 

Amu'sement, s. a pastime or entertainment. 

Amu'sing, a. entertaining, pleasing. 

Amu'singly, ad. in an amusing manner. 

Amu'sive, a. having the power of amusing. 

Amu'sively, ad in an amusive manner. 

An, the form of the indefinite article before 
a vowel, or an h inute, as an acorn, <rahour. 
In some casus, an is used before h sounded, 
as, an historical event ; but in such words 
the accent is on the second syllable. It has 
the same meaning as A. which see. 

Ana', s. a termination annexed to the names 
of authors to denote a collection of their 
remarkable sayings ; as Johnson \ana. 

Anabap'tism, s. the doctrine of Anabaptists. 

Anabap'tist, s. one of a religious sect who 
assert that baptism is improper till the 
person is of an age to answer for himself. 

Anabaptis'tical, a. relating to Anabaptists. 

Anabapti'ze, v. to rebaptize. 

Anac'horet, Anacliorite, s. a hermit. 

Anaeh'ronism, s. an error in computing time. 

Anachronistic, a. containingan anachronism. 

Anacon'da, s. a Ceylon serpent ; a boa. 

Anacreon'tic, a. relating to Anacreon : s. a 
poem after the manner of Anacreon. 

An'agram, s. a transposition of letters or 
words so as to form other words. 

Anagrammat'ical, a. forming an anagram. 

Anagrammat'ically, ad. like an anagram. 

Anagram'matist, s. a composer of anagrams, 

Anagram'matize, v. to make anagrams. 

Analo"gical, a. used by way of analogy. 

Analogically, ad. in an analogous manneT; 

Ar.al'ogous, a. having relation. 

Analogously, ad. in an analogous manner. 

Anal'ogy, s. resemblance, proportion. 

Anal'ysis, s. a separation of a compound into 
the parts of which it is formed. 

An'alyst, s. one who analyzes a thing. 

Analyt'ie, Analyt'ical, a. pertaining to an- 
alysis ; resolving into first principles. 

Analyt'ical] y, ad. in such a manner as sepa- 
rates compounds into simples. 

An'alyze, v. to reduce to primitive parts. 

Analy'zer, s. one who analyzes. 

An'apest, s. (in poetry) a foot consisting oi 
three syllables, two short and one long. 

An'arch. s. an author of confusion. 

Anai / chial, Anar'chic, a. confused; without 
government or rule. 

An'archist, s. a subverter of settled or regular 
government. 



ANA 



11 



An'archy, *. a want of government; disorder, 

confusion, chaos, tumult. 
Anas'trophe, s. a figure whereby words that 

should have preceded are postponed. 
Anath'ema, s. an ecclesiastical curse. 
Anath'ematize, v. to pronounce accursed by 

ecclesiastical authority. 
Anath'ematizer, s. he who pronounces an 

anathema. 
Anatom'ical, a. relating to anatomy. 
Anatomically, ad. in an anatomical manner. 
Anat'omist, s. one skilled in anatomy. 
Anat'omize, v. to dissect ; to lay open. 
Anat'omy, s. the art of dissecting animals. 
An'cestor, s. a forefather, a predecessor. 
Anccs'tral, a. relating to or claimed from 

ancestors. 
An'chor, s. an iron instrument, which, being 

fixed in the ground, by means of the cable, 

keeps a ship from driving : v. to cast or 

drop the anchor, to fix on. 
An'chorable, a. fit for anchorage. 
An'chorage, s. ground for anchoring in. 
An'choress. s. a female recluse. 
An'choret, An'choritc, s. a reeluso. 
An'chor-smith, s. a maker of anchors. 
Ancho'vy, s. a small sea-fish pickled. 
An'cientncss, s. antiquity. 
An'cient, a. old, of old iimo, long since. 
An'cicnt, s. the bearer of a flag, an ensign. 
An'cieutly, ad. formerly, in old times. 
An'cients, s. pi. men who lived in old times. 
An'eillary, a. subservient to ; assisting. 
And, conj. the particle by which sentences 

or terms arc joined. 
Amdan'te, [Ital.] ad. a direction in music to 

play moderately slow. 
And'iron, s. one of the irons fixed to the end 

of a fire-grate, in which the spit turns. 
Andro"gynous, a. partaking of both sexes ; 

hermaphroditical. 
An'ecdote, s. a biographical incident. 
Anecdot'ical, a. relating to anecdotes. 
Ane'lo, v. to give extreme unction. 
Anem'one, Ancm'ony, s. the wind-flower. 
Anemom'eter, s. an instrument to measure 

the strength or velocity of the wind. 
Anent', prep, concerning ; about. 
An'eurism, s. a disease of, or wound in, an 

artery, by which it becomes dilated. 
Aneuris'mal, a. pertaining to an aneurism. 
Anew 7 , ad. over again, repeatedly. 
A'ngel, s. a messenger; a celestial spirit ; a 

heavenly being ; a gold coin worth about 

10*. : a. resembling angels, angelical. 
Angelic, Angelical, rt.hcavenly,liko an angel. 
Angel'ica, s. the name of a plant. 
Angelically, ad. like an angel. 
An'gcr, s. resentment, rage, displeasure: 

v . to provoke, to enrage. 
An'gerly, ad. in an angry manner. 
Angi'na, s. inflammation of the throat. 
Angiol'ogy, s. the science which treats of ar- 
teries and other vessels of the body. 
An'gle, s. a point where two lines meet : v. 

to fish with a rod and lino. 
An'gler, s. he who fishes with a rod and line. 
An'gles, s. a people of Germany who invaded 

England, and from whom it derives its 

name. 
An'glican, a. English. 



ANN 

An'glicise, v. to convert into English. 

An'glicism, s. an idiom or expression pe- 
culiar to the English language. 

Angling, s. the art of fishing with a rod. 

Anglo-Nor'man, a. relating to the English 
Normans. 

Anglo-Sax'on, a. relating to the English 
Saxons. 

An'gred, p. and a. provoked, made angry. 

An'grily, ad. in an angry manner. 

An'gry, a. provoked, enraged ; inflamed. 

An'guish, s. excessive pain of mind or body. 

An'gular, a. having corners or angles. 

Angularity, s. quality of being angular. 

An'gularly, ad. with angles or corners. 

An'gulated, a. formed with angles. 

An'gulous, a. hooked ; angular. 

Anhela'tion, s. the act of panting. 

An'ile, a. doting, old womanish. 

Anility, s. female dotage. 

Anlma, s. the breath, the principle of life. 

Animadver'sion, s. observation ; reproof. 

Animadvert', v. to turn the mind to ; to cen- 
sure ; to remark or criticise. 

Animal, 5. a body endued with life : a. be- 
longing to animals. 

Animal'cular, Animal'euline, a. belonging 
to, or of the nature of an animalcule. 

Animalcule, s. a very small animal. 

Animate, a. living, possessing life: v. to 
quicken, to make alive. 

Animated, a. lively, brisk, vigorous. 

Anima'tion, s. the act of animating ; the 
state of being enlivened. 

Animator, s. that which gives life. 

Animosity, s. aversion, hatred, malignity. 

An'ise, s. an annual plant, a species of parsley. 

Anlsc-sced, s. the seed of the anise. 

An'ker, *. a liquid measure often gallons. 

An'kle, s. the joint between the foot and leg. 

An'kle-bone, *. the bone of the ankle. 

An'nalist, s. a writer of annals. 

An'nalize, v. to write annals, to record. 

An'nals, s. pi. histories digested into years. 

Anneal', v. to temper glass or metal by heat. 

Annealing, s. the art of tempering glass ; 
the rendering hard metal malleable. 

Annex 7 , v. to unite, to join, to connect. 

Annexa'tion, s. conjunction ; addition. 

Anncx'ment, s. the thing annexed. 

Annihilate, v. to annul, to destroy. 

Annihila'tion, s. the act of destroying. 

Anniversary, s. an annual or yearly festival 
or commemoration : a. annual. 

Annotate, v. to make annotations. 

Annota'tion, tf..an explanation, a note. 

An'notator, s. a commentator, a critic. 

Anrioun'ce, v. to publish, to declare. 

Announcement, s. a declaration ; a notice. 

Announ'cer, s. a declarer ; a proclaimer. 

Annoy', v. to injure, to molest : s. molesta- 
tion, trouble. 

Annoy'ance, s. that which vexes or annoys. 

Annoying, a. troublesome. 

An'nual, a. that which comes once a year. 

Animal . s. a plant that lives but one year; 
a publication designed for the year. 

An'nually, ad. year by year ; yearly. 

Annuitant, s. one who has an annuity. 

Annuity, s. a yearly allowance for life. 

Annul', v. to abrogate, to abolish, to repeal. 



ANN 

An'milar, a. having the form of a ring. 
An'nularly, ad. in an annular manner. 
An'nulary, a. in the form of rings. 
An'nulated, a. furnished with rings or helts. 
An'nulet, s. a little ring ; a mark in heraldry ; 

a term in architecture. 
Annul'ment, s. the act of annulling. 
Annu'merate, v. to add to, to include. 
Annumera'tion, s. addition to a number. 
Annun'ciate, v. to relate, to bring tidings. 
Annuncia'tor, s. one who announces. 
Annuncia'tion-day, s. the day celebrated by 
the cburch in commemoration of the an- 
gel's salutation of the Virgin Mary. 
An'odyne, a. mitigating pain, assuaging: s. 

any medicine that assuages pain. 
Anoint', v. to rub with oil, to consecrate. 
Anoint'ed, s. the Christ, or Saviour, em- 
phatically called the Lord's anointed. 
Anoint'ing, Anoint'ment, s. the being 

anointed. 
Anom'aly, s. irregularity ; deviation from 

rule. 
Anomalis'tic, Anomalis'tical, a. irregular. 
Anom'alous, a. irregular, out of rule. 
Anom'alously, ad. irregularly. 
Anon', ad. quickly, soon, shortly. 
Anon'ymous, a. nameless ; wanting a name. 
Anon'ymously, ad. without a name. 
Ano"ther, a. not the same ; one more. 
An'swer, v. to reply to ; to resolve : s. a reply, 

a confutation, a solution. 
An'swerable, a. that to which a reply may 

be made ; responsible. 
An'swerableness, s. quality of being answer- 
able. 
An'swerably, ad. suitably. 
Ant, s. an emmet, a pismire. 
Antagonist, s. an opponent, an adversary. 
Antagonism, s. a contest, opposition. 
Antagonistic, a. contending as an antagonist. 
Ant'-bear, s. an animal that feeds on ants. 
Antal'gic, a. endued with the power of mi- 
tigating pain ; anodyne. 
Antarc'tic, a. relating to the southern pole. 
Ante, [Lat.] a particle signifying before. 
Ant'-eater, s. an insect which feeds upon ants. 
Antece'dence, s. the act of going before. 
Anteee'dent, a. going before, preceding : s. 
that which goes before ; the noun to 
which the relative is subjoined. 
Anteco'dently, ad. previously. 
Anteces'sor, s. one who goes before another. 
An'techamber, s. the chamber adjoining, or 

leading to the chief apartments. 
An'tedate, v. to date before the time. 
Antedilu'vian, a. existing before the deluge : 

s. one who lived before the flood. 
An'telope, s. a horned animal ; the gazelle. 
Antemerid'ian, a. before noon, morning. 
Antemun'dane, a. before the creation of the 

world. 
Anten'na?, s. the horns or feelers of insects. 
Antenup'tial, a. being before marriage. 
Autepas'chal, a. before Easter. 
An'tepast, s. anticipation, foretaste. 
Antepenult', Antepenul'timate, s. the last 

syllable but two in any word. 
A ntepilep'tic, a. good against convulsions. 
Anterior, a. going before, previous, prior. 
Anteriority, t. priority in time or situation. 



12 



ANT 



An'teroom, s. the room leading to the prin- 
cipal apartment. 
An'them, s. a holy song or divine hymn. 
An'ther, s. (in botany) the point or top of 

the stamen, containing the pollen. 
AntTiill, s. a little mound of earth raised 

by ants. 
Antholo"gical, a. relating to anthology. 
Anthol'ogy, s. a collection of flowers, or poenis. 
An'thracite, s. a lustrous kind of coal. 
Anthropoph'agi, s. pi. cannibals, men-eaters. 
Anti, [Gr.] a particle signifying against. 
Anti-a"cid, s. an alkali: a. alkaline. 
An'tic, a. odd, whimsical : s. a buffoon ; ho 

who makes antics. 
An'tichrist, s. an adversary to Christianity. 
Antichris'tian, a. opposite to Christianity. 
Anticipate, v. to be beforehand with ; t© 

preclude. 
Anticipation, s. the act of taking up some- 
thing before its time ; prevention. 
Anti"cipatory, a. taking up before the time. 
An'ticly, ad. drolly, with odd gestures. 
Anticli'max, s. a sentence in which the last 

part is lower than the first. 
Anticosmet'ic, a. destructive of beauty : * 

any preparation which injures beauty. 
Antido'tal, a. that which counteracts poison. 
An'tidotc, s. a medicine to expel poison. 
Antimagiste'rial, a. opposed to magistrates. 
Antiministe'rial, a. opposed to ministers. 
Antiministe'rialist.5. one who is in opposition 

to the existing ministry. 
Antimonarc'hical, a. against monarchy. 
Antimo'nial, a. made of antimony. 
Antimo'niated, a prepared with antimony. 
An'timony, s. a mineral substance, which 
destroys all metals fused with it but gold. 
Antimu'sical, a. having no taste for music. 
Antino'mianism, s. tenets of Antinomians. 
Antino'mians, s.pl. a religious sect who pre- 
fer faith to practical morality. 
Antipsedobap'tist, s. one who is against in- 
fant baptism. 
Antipathet'ical, a. naturally contrary to ; 

adverse. 
Antip'athy, s. a natural aversion, or dislike. 
Antiph'rasis, s. the use of words in a sense 

opposite to their proper meaning. 
Antip'odes, s. pi. those people, who, living 
exactly on the opposite part of the globe, 
have their feet pointed against ours. 
Antiprelat'ical, a. adverse to prelacy. 
Antiqua'rian, An'tiquary, s. one who studies 

antiquity ; a collector of ancient things. 
Antiqua'rian, a. pertaining to antiquity. 
Antiqua'rianism, s. love of antiquities. 
An'tiquated, a. old ; obsolete ; old-fashioned. 
An'tiquateness, s. the state of being old or 

obsolete. 
Anti'que, a. ancient, old-fashioned, odd: s. 

a piece of antiquity, a relic. 
Anti'queness, s. an appearance of antiquity. 
Anti"quity, 5. time past long ago ; ancient- 

ness ; the people of old times. 
Antisabbata'rian, s. one of a sect so called. 
Antis'cii, s.pl. people who live under the 
same meridian, but different sides of the 
equator, being equally distant. 
Antiscorbu'tic, Antiscorbu'tical, a. good 
against the scurvy. 



ANT 

Antiscorbutics, *. remedies for the scurvy. 
Antiserip'turist, s. one who denies revelation. 
Antisep'tic, s a medicine to prevent putre- 
faction : a. preventive of putrefaction. 
Antiso'cial,«. averse to society; misanthropic. 
Antispasmodic, a. good against spasms. 
Antispasmodics, j. medicinesto relieve spasms, 
Antis'trophe, s. the second stanza of an ode. 
Antithesis, s. opposition of words or sen- 
tences ; contrast. 
Antithetical, a. placed in contrast. 
Antitrinita'rianism, s. a denial of the Trinity. 
Antitrinita'rian, s. one who denies the doc- 
trine of the Christian Trinity. 
Au'titype, s that which is represented or 

shadowed out by the type. 
Antityp'ical, a. that which explains the type. 
Ant'ler, s. a branch of a stag's horn. 
Ant'lered, a. furnished with antlers. 
Antce'ci, s. pi. those inhabitants of the globe 
who live under the same longitude and la- 
titude, but in different hemispheres. 
An'tre, s. a cave, a den, a cavern. 
An'vil, s, an iron block which smiths use. 
Anxi'ety, s. perplexity ; solicitude about any 

future event ; uneasiness. 
Anx'ious, a. solicitous, much concerned. 
Anxiously, ad. in an anxious manner. 
Anxlousness, s. the state of being anxious. 
An'y, a. every, whosoever, whatever. 
An'ywise, ad. in any manner. 
Aor'ta, s. the artery which rises immediately 

out of the left ventricle of the heart. 
Apa'co, ad. quickly, speedily, with haste. 
Apart', ad. separately, privately. 
Apartment, s. a part of a house, a room. 
Apathetic, a. having no fueling. 
Ap'athy, s. a want of sensibility. 
Ape, s. a kind of monkey, a mimic : v. to 

imitate ludicrously, to mimic. 
Ape'ak, ad. formed with a point ; so as to 

be up in a point. 
Ap'ennine, a. relating to the Apennines. 
Ap'ennines, s. a chain of high mountains 

running through Italy. 
Apep'sy, s. a loss of natural digestion. 
Ape'rient, a. having the quality of opening : 

s. any opening or laxative medicine. 
Aperitive, a. having the quality of opening 

the bowels. 
Ap'erture, s. an open place, a gap. 
Apet'alous, a. without flower- leaves. 
A'pex, s. the tip or angular point of a thing. 
Aphffir'esis, s. a figure in grammar that takes 
away a letter or syllable from the beginning. 
Aphelion, s. that part of a planet's orbit 

which is the most remote from the sun. 
Aph'orism, s. a maxim, precept, general rule. 
Aph'rodite, Aphrodi'ta, s. (in zoology) a ge- 
nus of tho order of molluscas ; the sea- 
mouse. 
A'piary, s. a place where bees are kept. 
Apie'ce, ad. to each one a share, separately. 
A'pis, s. (in zoology) the bee ; In mythology) 

the sacred ox of tho Egyptians. 
A 'pish, a. like an ape; foppish, silly. 
A'pishly, ad. in an apish manner. 
A'pishness, *. mimicry; foppery. 
Apoc'alypsc, s. a revelation, a vision. 
Apocalyp'tic, Apocalyp'tieal, a. appertaining 
to revelation, or the book so called. 



13 



APP 



Apoc'ope, s. a cutting off the last syllable. 
Apoc'rypha, s. books appended to the Sacred 

Writings, but of doubtful authority. 
Apoc'ryphal, a. not canonical, uncertain. 
Ap'ogee, s. that point in the heavens in 
which the sun or any planet is at its 
greatest distance from the earth. 
Apollyon, s. a destroyer ; Satan. 
Apologetic, Apologetlcal, a. excusing. 
Apol'ogist, s. one who makes an apology. 
Apol'ogize, v. to plead for, to excuse. 
Ap'ologue, s. a moral tale, a fable. 
Apol'ogy, s. a defence, an excuse. 
Apoplec'tic, Apoplec'tical, a. relating to or 

disposed to apoplexy. 
Ap'oplexy, *. a sudden deprivation of all 

sense and motion by a disease. 
Aposiope'sis, s. a form of speech by whicb 
the speaker suddenly suppresses what he 
was about to say. 
Apos'tacy, s. departure from professed prin- 
ciples. 
Apos'tate, s. one who renounces his religion 

or deserts his party : a. false, traitorous. 
Apos'tatize, v. to change one's religion. 
Ap'osteme, Ap'ostume, s. an abscess. 
Apos'tle, s. one sent to preach the gospel. 
Apos'tleship, s. the office of an apostle. 
Apostolical, a. delivered by the apostles. 
Apostollcally, ad. in the mode of the apostles. 
Apos'tropho, s. in grammar, a mark thus (';, 
denoting the omission of a letter or letters ; 
as e'er for ever, can't for cannot. In rhe- 
toric, it is a sudden turning from the per- 
sons present to address the absent or dead. 
Apos'trophic, a. denoting an apostrophe. 
Aposlrophize, v . to address by an apostrophe. 
Apoth'ecary, s. a person who compounds and 

sells medicines. 
Ap'othegm, Ap'othem, Ap'ophthegm, *. a 

remarkable saying ; a valuable maxim. 
Apothegmatlcal, a. like an apothegm. 
Apotheg'matist, s. a collector of apothegms. 
Apotheg'matize, v. to utter apothegms or 

remarkable sayings. 
Apothe'osis, s. deifying one after death. 
Appal', v. to make pale with fear, to terrify. 
Appal'ment, s. impression of fear. 
Ap'panage, s. lands for younger children. 
Appara'tus, s. tools ; furniture ; equipage. 
Appar'el, *. dress, clothing, vestments : v. to 

dress, to deck, to cover. 
Appa'rent, a. plain, evident, certain ; seem- 
ing, not real. 
Appa'rently,rtd.evidently, visibly; seemingly. 
Appari'lion, s. appearance ; a spectre. 
Apparitor, *. the summoner or messenger of 

an ecclesiastical court. 
Appe'al, s. an application for justice ; the 
removal of a cause to a higher court : v. to 
refer to another as judge. 
Appeal'able, a. subject to an appeal. 
Appear', v. to become visible. 
Appear'ance, s. act of appearing ; show ; 

semblance ; not real ; probability. 
Appearing, s. the act of appearing. 
Appeas'abie, a. reconcileable. 
Appease, v. to pacify, to reconcile. 
Appel'lant, s. a challenger; he who appeals. 
Appellate, a. having cognizance of appeals. 
Appella'tion, s. a name, title, term. 



APP 

Appellative, S. a common name as opposed 
to a proper name : a. common, usual. 

Appel'latory, a. containing an appeal. 

Appel'lor, s. a prosecutor ; an appellant. 

Append', v. to hang or join to, to add to. 

Append'ago, s. something added. 

Append'ant, a. hanging to ; annexed: S. a. 
part annexed, an adventitious part. 

Append'ancv, s. a thing annexed by right. 

Appen'dix. s. something appended ; a sup- 
plement or addition. 

Appertain', v. to belong to, to relate to. 

Appertain 'ment, s. that which belongs to. 

Apper'tenanco, s. that which belongs to ; an 
adjunct. 

Apper'tinont, a. belonging or relating to. 

Ap'petcnce, s. a strong or sensual desire. 

Ap'petent, a. very desirous. 

Appetibii'ity, s. quality of being desirable. 

Ap'petible, a. engaging, desirable, good. 

Ap'petite, s. hunger, desire, longing. 

Ap'petitivc, a. that which desires. 

Applaud', v. to extol, praise, commend. 

Applaud'er, s. one who applauds. 

Applau'sc, s. approbation loudly 

Applau'sive, a. indicating approbation 

Ap'ple, s. a common fruit ; pupil of the eye. 

Ap'ple-pie, s. a pie made of apples and paste. 

Ap'ple-saucc, s. sauce made of stewed apples. 

Ap'plo-trec, *. a tree producing apples. 

Appli'ablc, a. that which may be applied. 

Appli'ance, s. the act of applying; that 
which is applied. 

Applicability, Ap'plicablcness, s. fitness to 
be applied. 

Ap'plicable, a. suitable, proper. 

Ap'plicant, s. one who applies for anything. 

Ap'plicate, s. right line drawn across a curve. 

Application, s. the act of applying, study. 

Applicative, Ap'plicatory, a. that applies. 

Ap'plicatorily, ad. in a manner which applies. 

Appli'edly, ad. in a way that may beajiplied. 

Appji'er, *. one that applies. 

Apply', v. to join; to study ; to address. 

Appoint', v. to determine, settle, equip. 

Appoint'cd, p. and a. settled, agreed on, 
chosen, equipped. 

Appointee', s. a person appointed. 

Appoint'er, s. one who appoints. 

Appoint'mcnt, J. a stipulation, salary, post. 

Apportion, v. to divide into just parts. 

Apportionment, s. a dividing into parts. 

Ap'posite, a. suitable, fit, well adapted to. 

Ap'positely, ad. suitably, fitly, timely. 

Apposi"tion, s. the act of adding to ; some- 
thing put in addition. 

Ap'po.sitencss, s. fitness ; suitableness. 

Apprai'se, v. to set a price on goods. 

Appraisement, s. the act of valuing. 

Apprai'scr, s. one who values or appraises. 

Ap'precatory, a. praying for any good. 

Appreciable, a. capable of being estimated. 

Appreciate, v. to estimate, to value. 

Appreciation, s. estimation, valuation. 

Apprehend', v. to lay hold on ; to arrest ; to 
take in or conceive in the mind ; to fear. 

Apprebend'er, s. ono who apprehends; one 
who fears. 

Apprehen'sible,a. which maybe apprehended 

Apprehen'sion, s. fear ; conception ; seizure. 

Apprchen'sive, a. fearful ; sensible. 



14 



AKA 



Apprehen'sively, ad. in an apprehensive 
manner. 

Apprehen'siveness, s. fearfulness. 

Apprentice, *. one bound to a trade : v. to 
bind to, or put under a master. 

Apprenticeship, s. term for an apprentice. 

Appri'ze, v. to inform, acquaint. 

Appro'ach, s. the act of drawing near to : v . 
to draw or bring near to. 

Approaeh'able, a. accessible. 

Approach'ment, s. the act of coming near. 

Approba'tion, s. the act of approving. 

Ap'probativo, Appro'batory, a. approving. 

Appropin'quate, v. to draw nigh to. 

Appropriable, a. what may be appropriated. 

Appropriate, v. to consign to any particular 
use : a. peculiar ; suitable. 

Appro'priateiy, ad. fitly, suitably. 

Appro'priateness, s. peculiar fitness. 

Appropriation, s. the application of some- 
thing to a particular use or purpose. 

Appro'priator, s. one possessed of an appro- 
priated benefice. 

Appro'vable, a. worthy of approbation. 

Appro'val, Appro' vement, s. approbation. 

Appro'vanco, s. approbation. 

Appro've, v. to like or allow of. 

Appro'ved, ja.and a. liked, examined, tried. 

Appro' ver, s. one who, confessing felony of 
himself, accuses another. 

Approximate, a. near to : v . to come near. 

Approxima'tion, s. approach to any thing. 

Appul'se, Appul'sion, s. the act of striking 
against. 

Appul'sive, a. striking against. 

Appur'tcnance, s. that which appertains. 

Appur'tcnant, a. pertaining to, of right. 

A'pricot, s. a wall-fruit of the pium kind. 

A'pril, s. the fourth month of the year. 

A'pron, s. a part of dress worn before to keep 
the other parts clean. 

A'proned, a. wearing an apron. 

Apropo's, ad. [Fr.] opportunely; to the pur- 
pose. 

Ap'sis, s. [pi. Apsides] two extreme points 
in the orbits of planets. 

Apt, a. fit, ready, quick, qualified, inclined. 

Ap'tcra, s. insects without wings. 

Ap'tcral, a. destitute of wings. 

Ap'titude, s. fitness, tendency, disposition. 

Apt'ly, ad. properly, justly, readily, acutely. 

Apt'ness, s. quickness of conception ; fitness. 

A'pus, s. the bird of Paradise ; a constellation. 

Aqua-for'tis, s. a corrosive liquor : nitric acid. 

Aqua-mari'ne, s. a sea-green berry ; beryl. 

Aqua-re'gia, s. an acid for dissolving gold ; 
nitro-muriatic acid. 

Aqua'rius, s. the eleventh sign in the Zodiac. 

Aquat'ic, a. inhabiting the water. 

Aquatin'ta, s. a species of engraving imita- 
ting drawings made with Indian ink. 

Aqua-vi'tae, s. spirits of wine ; brandy. 

A"queduct, s. a conveyance for water. 

A'queous, a. watery, like water, thin. 

A"quiline, a. resembling an eagle ; applied 
to the nose, curved or crooked. 

Ar'ab, Ara'bian, s. a native of Arabia. 

Ar'abcsque, a. in the manner of Arabian 
architecture and sculpture ; ornamental 
foliage. 

Ara'bian, a. pertaining to Arabia. 






ARA 15 



ARM 



Arabic, s. the language of the Arabians : a. 
relating to Arabia. 

Arable, a. fit for tillage or ploughing. 

Ar'balat, Ar'balist, s. a crossbow. 

Ar'biter, $ an umpire to settle a dispute. 

Arbitrable, a. arbitrary, determinable. 

Arbitrament, s. decision, will, choice. 

Arbitrarily, ad. absolutely, without control. 

Arbitrariness, s. tyranny, despotism. 

Arbitrary, a. absolute, despotic, unlimited. 

Ar'bitrate, v. to decide, judge, determine. 

Arbitra'tion, s. determination of a dispute 
by persons mutually chosen by the parties. 

Arbitrator, s. an umpire, a judge. 

Ar'bitress, Ar'bitratrix, s. a female arbiter. 

Arbores'cent, a. growing like a tree. 

Arboret, s. a small tree or shrub. 

Ar'bour, s. a scat shaded with trees, a bower. 

Ar'butus, s. the strawberry- tree. 

Arc, Arch, *. part of a circle. 

Arca'de, s. an arched way. 

Arca'dian, a. pertaining to Arcadia, a moun- 
tainous and pastoral district in Greece. 

Arca'nurn, s. [Lat. Arcana in pl.~] a secret. 

Arch, a. chief; mirthful, waggish, lively. 

Arch, s. part of a circle : v. to make an arch. 

Archa'ic, a. relating to antiquity. 

Archaiol'ogy, s. a discourse on antiquity. 

Archa'ngel, s. an angel of the highest order. 

Archbish'op, s. a chief bishop ; a bishop who 
has jurisdiction over other bishops. 

Archbish'opric, s. the state or jurisdiction of 
an archbishop. 

Archdea'con, s. a bishop's deputy. 

Archdea'conry, Archdea'conship, s. the 
office or jurisdiction of an archdeacon. 

Archdru'id, s. a pontiff of the druids. 
Archdu'cal, a. belonging to an archduke. 
Archduch'ess, s. the wife of an archduke. 
Arehduch'y, Archdu'kcdom, s. the territory 

of an archduke. 
Archdu'ke, s. a sovereign prince, grand duke. 
Arch'ed, p. and a. vaulted, formed like an 

arch. 
Arch-en'emy, s. a chief enemy. 
Archer, s. one who shoots with a bow. 
Ar'chery, s. the use of the bow and arrow. 
Ar'chetype, .?. the original, pattern, model. 
Arch-fel'on, s. the chief of felons. 
Arch-fiend', s. the chief of fiends. 
Arch-her'esy, s. the greatest heresy. 
Arch-her'etic, s. chief heretic. 
Arch-hyp'ocrite, s. a great hypocrite. 
Archiepis'copacy, s. state of an archbishop. 
Archiepis'copal, a. belonging to an arch- 
bishop. 
Archipel'ago, s. any sea which abounds with 
small islands; the most celebrated is situ- 
ated between Asia-Minor and Greece. 
Architect, s. a professor of building. 
Architcctive, a., belonging to architecture. 
Architocton'ic, a. having skill to build. 
Architec'tural, a. relating to architecture. 
Architecture, s. the science of building. 
Architrave, s. the chief beam, being that 
which rests immediately upon the capital, 
and is the lowest of the entablature. 
Archives, s. records ; a place for records. 
Arch'likc, a. built like an arch. 
Arch'ly, ad. jocosely, wittily. 
Arch-ffias/i"cian, s. chief magician. | 



Arch'ness, s. shrewdness ; sly humour, 

Ar'chon, s. a governor of Athens. 

Ar'chonship, s. the office of an archon. 

Arch-reb'el, s. a principal rebel. 

Arch-trai'tor, s. any distinguished traitor. 

Arch-tyrant, s. the principal tyrant. 

Arch-vil'lain, s. an extraordinary villain. 

Arch-vil'lany, s. gTeat villany. 

Arch'wise, ad. in the form of an arch. 

Arc'tic, a. northern, towards the north. 

Arc'tic-circle, that circle at which the north- 
ern frigid zone commences. 

Ar'cuate, a. bent like an arch. 

Arcua'tion, s. an arching, an incurvation. 

Ar'dency, s. warmth, eagerness, zeal. 

Ar'dcnt, a. hot, zealous, affectionate ; fierce. 

Ardently, ad. eagerly, affectionately. 

Ardour, s. heat, fervour, zeal. 

Ar'duousncss, s. height, difficulty. 

Ar'duous, a. difficult, laborious. 

A'rea, s . the superficies ; an open surface. 

Arefac'tion, s. the state of growing dry. 

A'refy, v. to dry, to exhale moisture. 

Are'na, s. the space for combatants in a 
theatre. 

Areop'agus, s. the highest court at Athens. 

Ar'gent, a. silvery, white, shining like silver. 

Ar'gentine, a. having the appearance of silver. 

Ar'gil, s. potters' clay. 

Argilla'ceous, Argil'lous,a. consisting of clay. 
Argonauts, s. the companions of Jason in 

the ship Argo on the voyage to Colchis. 
Ar'gosy, 5. a large merchant ship. 
Argue, v. to reason, to dispute, to debate. 
Ar'guer, s. a reasoner, a disputer. 
Ar'guing, s. reasoning, argumentation. 
Ar'griment, s. a reason alleged ; a contro- 
versy ; the subject of any discourse or 
writing. 
Argumenta'tion, s. the act of reasoning. 
Argumentative, a. replete with argument. 
Argumcn'tatively, ad. by argument. 
Argu'te, a. subtle, witty, sharp, shrill. 
A'ria, s. [Ital.] an air, song, or tune. 
A'rian, s. one of the sect of Arius. 
A'rian, a. belonging to .Arianism. 
A'rian ism, s. the doctrine of Arius. 
Arid, a. dry, parched up, ploughed up. 
Arid'ity, s. dryness ; insensibility in devotion. 
A'ries, s. [Lat.] a ram ; a sign of the zodiac. 
Arict'ta, s. [Ital.] a short air or song. 
Ari'ght, ad. rightly, without mistake. 
Ario'so, a. light and airy, yet grand. 
Ari'se, v. to rise up, to mount up. 
Aristoc'raey, s. a form of government in 
which the supreme power is in the nobles. 
Arist'ocrat, s. a favourer of aristocracy. 
Aristocrat'ie, Aristocrat'ical, a. relating to 

or partaking of aristocracy. 
Aristocrat'ically, a. in an aristocratical man- 

nor, proudly. 
Aristotelian, a. founded on the opinion of 

Aristotle : s. a follower of Aristotle. 
Arith'metic, s. tho science of computation. 
Arithmet'ical, a. according to arithmetic. 
Arithmetically, ad. in an arithmetical man- 
ner, by arithmetic. 
Arithmeti"cian, s. one skilled in arithmetic. 
Ark, s. the vessel in which Noah was pre- 
served from the deluge ; a chest, coffer. 
Arm, s. the iimb from the hand to tho 



ARM 



16 



ASI 



shoulder ; an inlet of the sea : v. to take 
up arms. 

Arma'da, s. a large fleet of ships. 

Armadillo, s. a quadruped peculiar to 
America, covered with hard bony scales. 

Ar'mament, *. a naval force equipped for war. 

Armature, s. armour, weapons. 

Arm'chair, s. a chair with rests for the arms. 

Arm'ful, *. as much as the arm can hold. 

Ar'miger, s.an esquire ; a knight's companion. 

Ar'millary, a. resembling a bracelet. 

Armin'ian, s. a follower of .Arminius : a. 
relating to the sect of Arminius. 

Armin'ianism, s. the doctrine of Arminius. 

Armip'otent, a. mighty in war, brave, bold. 

Ar'mistice, s. a short cessation of hostilities. 

Arm'let, s. a bracelet; a small arm of the sea. 

Ar'morer, s. one who makes or sells arms. 

Armo'rial, a. belonging to the arms or 
escutcheons of a family. 

Ar'morist, s. a person skilled in heraldry. 

Ar'mory, s. a place in which arms are de- 
posited for use ; ensigns armorial. 

Arm'pit, s. the hollow under the shoulder. 

Ar'mour, s. defensive covering. 

Ar'mour-bearer, s. one who carries the ar- 
mour of another. 

Arms, s. warlike weapons ; war in general ; 
the ensigns armorial of a family. 

Ar'mj, s. a large body of armed men. 

Aro'ma, s. the odorous quality of plants. 

Aromat'ic, a. spicy, fragrant. 

Aromat'ics, 5. spices or fragrant drugs. 

Arou'nd, prep, round about, encompassing. 

Arou'se, v. to awake, to raise up, to excite. 

Arow', ad. in a row or line. 

Aroy'nt ! interj. begone ! away ! 

Ar'quebuse, s. a hand-gun, a fusee. 

Arrack', s. a spirit procured by distillation 
out of the cocoa-nut tree ; a kind of punch. 

Arraign, v. to indict, to charge, to accuse. 

Arraignment, s. the act of accusing. 

Anu'uge, v. to set in order, to adjust. 

Aiia'ngemcnt, s. the act of putting in order. 

Ar'rant, a. very bad, notorious. 

Ar'rantly, ad. notoriously, in an ill sense. 

Arias, s. rich tapestry or hangings. 

Array 7 , s. order of battle ; dress : v. to put in 
order, to deck, to dress. 

Arrea'r, Arrearage, s. that part of an ac- 
count which remains unpaid. 

Arrest', v. to seize on ; to obstruct : s. a 
legal caption or seizure of the person. 

Arri'val, s. the act of coming to a place. 

Arri've, v. to come to a place ; to happen. 

Ar'rogance, s. great pride, presumption. 

Ar'rogant, a. haughty, presumptuous. 

Ar'rogantly, ad. haughtily, saucily, proudly. 

Ar'rogate, v. to claim proudly or vainly ; to 
assume. 

Arroga'tion, s. a presumptuous claim. 

Arrond'isement, s. a circuit ; a district. 

Arlow, s. a pointed weapon shot from a bow. 

Arlow-root, s. the starch of an Indian plant. 

Ar'rowy, a. consisting of or like arrows. 

Ar'senal, s. a magazine for military stores. 

Ar'senic, s. a poisonous mineral. 

Ar'son, s. the crime of houseburning. 

Art', s. science, skill, dexterity, cunning. 

Ar'tery, s. a tube which conveys the blood 
from the heart to all parts of the body. 



Arte'rial, a. that which relates to the artery. 
Art'ful, a. cunning, dexterous, artificial. 
Art'fully, ad. cunningly, slily, with art. 
Art' fulness, s. skill ; cunning. 
Ar'tichoke, s. an esculent plant. 
Ar'ticle, s. one of the parts of speech ; a 

condition of a covenant ; a particular or 

item ; a stipulation : ». to draw up or bind 

by articles. 
Artic'ulate, v. to utter words distinctly : a. 

distinct, jointed, divided. 
Artic'ulately, ad. distinctly, clearly. 
Articula'tion, *. a joint or knot ; the act of 

forming words. 
Ar'tifice, s. trick, fraud; art or trade. 
Aitif'icer, s. an artist or manufacturer. 
Artificial, a. made by art, not natural. 
Artificial'ity, s. appearance of art. 
Artificially, ad. artfully ; not naturally. 
Artifi"cialness, s. quality of being artificial. 
Artil'lery, s. weapons of war, cannon. 
Ar'tisan, s. an artist, an inferior tradesman . 
Artist, s. a professor of an art, a skilful man. 
Artless, a. unskilful ; without art or fraud. 
Art'lessly, ad. without art ; naturally. 
Art'lessness, $. want of art ; sincerity. 
Arus'pex, Arus'pice, s. a soothsayer. 
Arus'picy, s. the act of prognosticating by 

inspecting the entrails of the sacrifice. 
As, conj. in the same manner, because. 
Asafat'ida, s. a kind of gum, very useful in 

medicine, but of an offensive smell. 
Asbes'tine, a. of an incombustible quality. 
Asbes'tos, s. a kind of fossil which may be 

split into threads and filaments, and which 

cannot be consumed by fire. 
Ascend', v. to mount, to rise, to move higher, 

to advance in excellence. 
Ascend'able, a. that may be ascended. 
Ascend'ant, s. height, elevation : a. predo- 
minant, superior, overpowering. 
Ascend'ancy, *. influence, superiority. 
Ascen'sion, s. the act of ascending or rising. 
Ascen'sion-rfa!/, s. a festival ten days before 

Whitsuntide, in commemoration of our 

Saviour's ascension into heaven. 
Ascent', s. the rising of a hill, an eminence. 
Ascertain', v. to make certain, to establish. 
Ascertain'able, a. that may be ascertained. 
Asccrtain'ment, s. a fixed rule or standard. 
Ascet'io, s. a hermit, a devout person : a. 

employed in devout exercises ; austere. 
Asceticism, s. the state of an ascetic. 
As'cii, s.pl. those people who, at certain times 

of the year, have no shadow at noon ; 

such are the inhabitants of the torrid zone. 
Asciti'tious, a. supplemental, additional. 
Ascri'bable, a. that which may be ascribed. 
Ascri'be, v. to attribute to, to impute to. 
Ascrip'tion, 5. the act of ascribing. 
Ash, s. a well-known tree so called. 
Asha'med, a. abashed, confounded. 
Ash'-coloured, a. between brown and gray. 
Ash'en, a. made of ash. 
Ash'es, s. the dust of any thing burnt, as of 

wood, coals, &o.;the remains of a dead body, 
Ash'-hole, s. a repository for ashes. 
Asho'rc, ad. on shore, on the land, in saftty. 
Ash- Wednesday, s. the first day of Lent. 
Ash'y, a. pale, a whitish gray like ash-coloui. 
A'sian, a. pertaining to Asia. 



ASI 



17 



AST? 



Asiat'ic, a. belonging to Asia : s. a native of 

any part of Asia. 
Asi'de, ad. to one side, apart from the rest. 
As'inine, a. belonging to an ass. 
Ask, v. to beg, to claim, to question, to 

require. 
Askan'ce, Askant', ad. obliquely, on one side. 
Ask'er, s. an inquirer ; a petitioner. 
Askew 7 , ad. contemptuously ; sideways. 
Aslant', ad. obliquely, on one side. 
Asleep', ad. sleeping, at rest. 
Asp, Asp'en, s. a kind of poplar-tree, tbe 

leaves of which always tremble. 
Asp, Asp'ic, s. a venomous serpent. 
Aspar'agus, s. an esculent plant. 
As'pect, s. look, air, appearance, view. 
As'perate, v. to make rough or uneven. 
Aspera'tion, s. a making rough. 
Asper'ity, s. roughness; harshness of speech. 
As'perous, a. rough, uneven. 
Asper'se, v. to slander, to vilify. 
Asper'ser, s. he who vilifies another. 
Asper'sion, s. a sprinkling ; calumny. 
Asphal'tic, a. gummy, bituminous. 
Asphal'tum, j. a bituminous stone found 

near the ancient Babylon. 
As'phodol, s. a kind of plant, the day-lily. 
Aspi'rant, s. one who aspires to, a candidate. 
As'pirate, s. the mark to denote an aspirated 

pronunciation. 
As'pirate, v. to pronounce fully or strong. 
Aspira'tion, s. an ardent wish or desire ; the 

act of pronouncing with full breath. 
Aspi're, v. to aim at, to desire eagerly. 
Aspi'rement, s. the act of aspiring. 
Aspi'rer, s. one who is ambitious. 
Aspi'ring, s. the desire of something great. 
Asporta'tion, s. a carrying away. 
Asquint', ad. obliquely. 
Ass, s. a beast of burden ; a stupid fellow. 
Assail', v. to attack, to assault ; to address. 
Assail'able, a. that may be attacked. 
Assail'ant, s. one who attacks or invades : a. 

invading or attacking with violence. 
Assail 'er, s. one who attacks. 
Assail'ment, s. attack. 
Assass'in, Assass'inator, s. a secret murderer. 
Assass'inate, v . to murder secretly. 
Assassina'tion, s. act of assassinating. 
Assau'lt, s. attack, hostile onset, storm : v. 

to attack, to invade. 
Assau'ltable, a. capable of assault. 
Assau'lter, s. one who violently assaults. 
Assay 7 , s. trial, examination : v. to try or 

prove as metals. 
Assay'er, s. one who assays metals. 
Assem'blage, s. a collection of persons. 
Assem'ble, v. to meet or call together. 
Assem'bling, a. a meeting together. 
Assem'bly, s. a company assembled, a ball. 
Assent', v. to agree to, to yield : s. consent. 
Assent'er, s. the person who consents. 
Assent'ingly, ad. by agreement. 
Assert', v. to affirm, to maintain, to claim. 
Asser'tion, s. a positive affirmation. 
Assert'ivo, a. positive ; dogmatical. 
Assert'ively, ad. affirmatively. 
Assert'er, s. one who affirms ; a vindicator. 
Assess', v. to charge with any certain sum. 
Assessable, a. that which may be assessed. 
Assessment, *. the act of taxing or assessing. 



Assess'or, s. one who assesses ; an assistant 
in council. 

As'scts, s. pi. goods to discharge a debt. 

Assc/er, Asseverate, v. to affirm solemnly. 

Assevera'tion, s. a solemn affirmation. 

Assidu'ity, s. diligence, close application. 

Assid'uous, a. constant in application. 

Assid'uously, ad. diligently, constantly. 

Assid'uousness, s. constant application. 

Assi'gn, v. to mark out, to make over. 

Assignable, a. that may be assigned. 

Assigna'tion, s. an appointment, the trans- 
ferring any thing to another. 

As'signee, s. one deputed to act for others. 

Assi'gner, s. one who assigus or appoints. 

Assignment, s. an appointment, a transfer. 

Assignor', s. one who transfers an interest. 

Assim'ilate, v. to bring to a likeness. 

Assimila'tion, s. act of assimilating. 

Assim'ilative, a. havingthe power of assimi- 
lating. 

Assist'ant, s. a helper : a. helping. 

Assist', v. to help, to succour, to aid. 

Assistance, s. help, aid, relief, support. 

Assi'ze, v. to fix the weight or price. 

Assi'ze, s. the sitting of judges, twice a year 
in each county, to determine causes. In 
this sense the plural is used, Assizes. 

.Asso'ciate, v. to unite, to join with: s. a 
partner, companion : a. joined with, con- 
federate. 

Associa'tion, s. union, confederacy, partner- 
ship ; an assembly of persons. 

Asso'ciator, s. a confederate ; a companion. 

Assort', v. to range in order, to class. 

Assort'ment, s. a quantity properly arranged. 

Assua'ge, v. to soften, to mitigate, to pacify. 

Assua'gement, s. what mitigates or softens. 

Assua'sive, a. softening, mitigating, mild. 

Assu'me, v. to take, to claim, to arrogate. 

Assu'ming, a. arrogant, haughty. 

Assump'sit, s. a promise (a law term). 

Assump'tion, s. the taking any thing to one's 
self ; the thing supposed ; a postulate. 

Assump'tive, a. that which is assumed. 

Assu'rance, s. confidence ; certainty ; want 
of modesty ; a contract ; security ; firmness. 

Assu're, v. to assert positively, to secure. 

Assu'red, p. and a. convinced ; certain. 

Assu'redly, ad. certainly, undoubtedly. 

Assu'redness, s. certainty, confidence. 

As'ter, s. a genus of plants ; the star-fish. 

As'terisk, s. a mark like a star (*}, serving 
as a reference to a note. 

Aster'n, ad. a sea-term, signifying behind. 

As'teroids, s. the planets discovered by 
Herschell, between the orbits of Mars 
and Jupiter. 

As'thma, s. a disease of the lungs. 

Asthmat'ic, Asthmat'ical, a. troubled with 
an asthma. 

Aston'ish, v. to amaze, to confound. 

Aston'ishing, a. very wonderful ; amazing. 

Aston'ishingly, ad. so as to excite wonder. 

Aston'ishment, s. amazement, surprise. 

Astou'nd, v. to strike with astonishment. 

Astrad'dle, ad. with one's legs across any 
thing. 

As'tral, a. relating to the stars, bright. 

Astray 7 , ad. out of the right way, wrong. 

Astric'tion, *. the act of contracting parts. 



AST 



13 



AUD 



Astric'tive, a. styptic ; of a binding nature. 
Astri'de, ad. with the legs apart. 
Astrin'ge, v. to draw together, to bind. 
Astrin'gency, s. the power of contracting. 
Astrin'gent, a. binding, contracting : s. a 

medicine that binds, or restrains discharges. 
As'trolabe, s. an instrument for taking the 

altitude of the sun or stars at sea. 
Astrol'oger, s. one who pretends to foretel 

events by the aspects, &c. of the stars. 
Astrolo"gic, Astrolo"gical, a. belonging or 

relating to astrology. 
Astrolo"gically, ad.in an astrological manner. 
Astrol'ogy, s. the science of foretelling events 

by the stars, planets, &c. 
Astron'omer, s. one who studies celestial 

bodies. 
Astronom'ic, Astronom'ical, a. belonging to 

astronomy. 
Astronom'ical] y, ad. in an astronomical 

manner. 
Astron'omy, s. the science that teaches the 

knowledge of the heavenly bodies. 
Astu'te, a. cunning ; shrewd, penetrating. 
Astu'teness, s. craft, cunning, subtlety. 
Asun'der, ad. separately, in two parts. 
Asy'lum, s. a refuge, a place of protection. 
At, prep, near to, in, by, on, with. 
At'aghan, s. a small Turkish sabre ; a dagger. 
A'theism, s. the disbelief of a God. 
A'theist, s. a disbeliever in God's existence. 
Atheistic, Atheis'tical, a. impious. 
Atheis'tically, ad. in an atheistic manner. 
Athir'st, ad. dry, thirsty, in want of drink. 
Athle'tEe, tf. pi. public or prize wrestlers of 

Greece and Rome. 
Athlet'ic, a. strong, lusty, bony, vigorous. 
Athwart', ad. across, through ; wrong. 
Atilt', ad. in a raised posture. 
Atlante/an, a. resembling Atlas ; huge. 
Atlan'tic, s. the ocean between Europe and 

America : a. pertaining to the Atlantic 

Ocean. 
Atlan'tides, s. pi. the Pleiades or seven stars. 
At'las, s. a collection of maps ; a mountain 

in Africa. 
At'mosphere, s. the air that encompasses the 

earth on all sides. 
Atmospheric, Atmospherical, a. relating to 

the atmosphere. 
At'om, At'omy, s. an extreme small particle. 
Atom'ic, Atom'ical, a. consisting of atoms. 
Afomism, s. the doctrine of atoms. 
At'omist, s. one who holds the atomical phi- 
losophy, or doctrine of atoms. 
Ato'ne, v . to answer for ; to expiate. 
Ato'r.ement, s. agreement ; expiation. 
Ato'ner, s. he who reconciles. 
Atrabila'rian, Atrabila'rious, a. melancholy. 
Atrabila'riousncss, s. the state of melancholy 

arising from bile. 
Atramen'tal, Atramen'tous, a. inky, black. 
Atro'cious, a. wicked, enormous, heinous. 
Atro'cieusly, ad. very wickedly, heinously. 
Atro'ciousncss, s. enormous wickedness. 
Atro"city, S. horrible wickedness. 
At'rophy, s. a disease in which what is taken 

for food ceases to nourish. 
Attach', v. to seize or lay hold on ; to win 

or gain over ; to fix one's interest. 
Attach/able, a. that maybe attached ortaken. 



Attach'ment, s. adherence, fidelity, regard. 
In a legal sense, a process for taking the 
person or goods by a writ in a civil action. 

Attack', s. an assault on an enemy : v. to 
assault or impugn in any manner. 

Attain', v . to gain, to overtake, to arrive at. 

Attainable, a. that which may be attained. 

Attain'ableness, a. the being attainable. 

Attain'der, s. the act of attainting. 

Attain'ment, s. an acquisition, a quality. 

Attaint', v. to dishonour : s. a stain. 

Attaint'ure, s. legal censure ; imputation. 

Attem'per, v. to mingle, to soften, to regu^ 
late, to proportion. 

Attem'perate, a. suited : v. to attemper. 

Attempt', v. to try, to endeavour : s. an effort. 

Attempt'able, a. liable to attempts. 

Atteropt'er, s. one who attempts or attacks. 

Attend', v. to wait for, or give attendance to; 
to regard with attention ; to accompany. 

Attendance, s. the act of waiting on another. 

Attend'ant, s. one who attends on another : 
a. accompanying as subordinate. 

Attent', a. attentive, intent, regardful. 

Atten'tion, s. the act of attending, close ap- 
plication of the mind to any thing. 

Attentive, a. heedful, regardful, intent. 

Attentively, ad. heedfully. 

Attentlveness, s. state of being attentive. 

Atten'uate, a. endued with the power of di- 
luting : s. a medicine which thins the 
humours ; a diluent. 

Atten'uate, v. to make thin, to dilute. 

Attenua'tion, *. state of being made thin. 

Attest', v. to bear witness of, to invoke. 

Attesta'tion, s. testimony, witness, evidence. 

Attest'er, Attest'or, s. a witness. 

At'tic, a. pertaining to Attica in Greece, 01 
to its chief city, Athens ; and hence 
classical and elegant. 

Attic, *. the garret or upper story of a house. 

Atti're, s. clothes, dress, ornaments : v. to 
dress, to deck, to array. 

At'titude, s. posture, gesture, action. 

Attitu'dinal, a. pertaining to attitude. 

Attor'ney, s. one who is deputed to act for 
another, particularly in matters of law. 

Attorlieyship, s. the office of an attorney. 

Attract', v. draw to ; to entice ; to allure. 

Attractabillty, s. power of attraction. 

Attrac'tion, s. the act or power of attracting. 

Attractive, a. inviting, drawing to, enticing. 

A ttractlvely, ad. with the power of attracting. 

Attractiveness, s. the quality of attraction. 

Attract'or, s. that which, or one who, attracts. 

Attributable, a. that which may be ascribed. 

At'tribute, s. an inherent quality. 

Attrib'ute, v. to impute or ascribe to. 

Attribu'tion, s. the act of attributing. 

Attrib'utive, a. pertaining to or expressing 
an attribute : s. the thing attributed. 

Attri'lion, s. the act of wearing things by 
rubbing ; sorrow for sin. 

Attu'ne, v. to tune, to make musical. 

Au'burn, a. brown, of a fine tan colour. 

Auc'tion, s. a public sale of goods by bidding. 

Auc'tionary, a. belonging to an auction. 

Auctioneer", s. one who sells by auction. 

Auda'cious, a. daring, bold, impudent. 

Auda'ciously, ad. boldly ; impudently. 

Auda'ciousness, Auda"city, s. impudence- 



AUD 



19 



Au'dible, a. that may be distinctly heard. 
Au'dibleness, s. capableness of being beard. 
Au'dibly, ad. so as to be beard. 
Aa'dience, *. an auditory or assemblage of 

persons to bear any thing ; the reception 

or granting a hearing to any one ; an 

interview. 
Au'dit, s. a final account : v. to take a final 

account, to examine, to scrutinize. 
Au'ditor,*. a hearer; an examiner of accounts. 
Au'ditors of the Exchequer, s. pi. officers 

■who settle the Exchequer accounts. 
Au'ditorship, s. the office of auditor. 
Au'ditory, s. an assembly of hearers ; a 

place where lectures are delivered : a. 

pertaining to the organ of hearing. 
Au'ger,*. a carpenter's tool to bore holes with. 
Aught, s. any thing. 

Augment', v. to increase, to add, to enlarge. 
Augmenta'tion, s. the act of increasing. 
Augment'ative, a. having the quality or 

power of augmenting. 
Augment'er, s. one who augments. 
Au'gur, s. a soothsayer or diviner : v. to 

predict by signs ; to guess. 
Au'gury, s. the foretelling of events. 
August', a. majestic, grand, magnificent. 
Au'gust, s. the eighth month of the year. 
Augus'tan, a. pertaining to Augustus. 
Augus'tins, s. monks of the order of St. Au- 

gustin, formerly called Austin Friars. 
August'ness, s. nobleness of look ; dignity. 
Aula rian, s. the member of a hall. 
Au'lic, a. belonging to a royal hall or palace. 
Auln, Aune, s. a French measure ; an ell. 
A unt, s. a father's or mother's sister. 
Au'reate, a. golden. 
Aure'lia, s. the first change of a maggot 

before it becomes a fly ; a chrysalis. 
Aure'ola, s. the circle of rays called a glory. 
Au'ricle, s. the external ear ; two appendages 

of the heart which cover the ventricles and 

resemble ears. 
Auric'ula, s. a flower, called from the shape 

of its leaves bear's ear. 
Auric'ular, a. within hearing, told in secret. 
Auric'ularly, ad. in a secret manner. 
Auri'ga, s. one of the northern constellations. 
Au'rist, s. a curer of disorders in the ear. 
Auro'ra, s. poetically, the dawn of day. 
Auro'ra Borea'lis, s. a luminous meteor, fre- 
quently visible in the northern hemisphere, 

commonly called northern lights. 
Ausculta'tion, s. a hearkening or listening to 

the internal sounds proceeding from the 

region of the breast ; (a medical term.) 
Aus'pice, s. an omen drawn from birds. 
Aus'pices, s. pi. patronage, protection. 
Auspi"cious, a. prosperous, fortunate, happy. 
Auspi"ciously, ad. prosperously, favourably. 
Auspi"ciousness, s. prospeiity, success. 
Auste'rc, a. severe, rigid, harsh, stern. 
Auste'rely, ad. rigidly, severely. 
Auster'ity, *. severity ; harsh discipline. 
Australa'sian, a. belonging to the countries 
south of Asia, comprehending New Hol- 
land,New Guinea, &c. termed Australasia. 
Aus'trian, a. pertaining to the Austrian 

empire : s. a native of Austria. 
Authen'tic, a. genuine, original, true. 
Authentically, ad. in an authentic manner. 



AVO 

Authenticate, v. to establish by proof. 
Authentication, s. the establishing by proof. 
A uthenti"city, s. authority, genuineness. 
Au'thor, s. the writer of a book ; an inventor. 
Au'thoress, *. a female author. 
Authoritative, a. having authority, positive. 
Authoritatively, ad. in an authoritative 

manner ; with due authority. 
Author'itativeness, s. an acting by or appear- 
ance of authority. 
Authority, s. legal power ; influence ; rule ; 

support ; testimony ; credibility. 
Authoriza'tion, s. establishment by authority. 
Au'thorize, v. to give authority, to justify. 
Au'thorship, s. state of being an author. 
Au'to-biog'raphy, s. the life or history of a 

person written by himself. 
Au'tocrat, s. a despotic prince. 
Autocrat'ic, Autocrat'ical, a. absolutely, 

supreme. 
Au'tograph, s. original hand-writing. 
Autograph'ic, Autograph'ical, a. pertaining 

to one's own writing. 
Autom'aton, s. a self-moving machine. 
Au'tumn, s. the third season of the year. 
Autum'nal, a. belonging to autumn. 
Auxiliary, a. assistant : s. a helper. 
Auxiliaries,*. troops assisting another nation. 
Avail', v. to profit, to be of advantage. 
Available, a. profitable, advantageous. 
Avalanche, *. a vast mass of snow sliding 

down a mountain. 
Avan't-courier,*. [Ft.] one despatched beforo 

the rest to notify their approach. 
Avan't -guard, s. the van or front of an army. 
Av'arice, s. covetousness, niggardliness. 
Avari"cious, a. covetous, greedy of gain. 
Ava'st, int. hold ! stop ! enough (a sea term). 
Avatar', s. a change ; the term used to express 

each metamorphosis of an Indian deity. 
Avau'nt, int. begone ! hence ! 
Aven'ge, v. to revenge, to punish. 
Aven'gement, s. vengeance; satisfaction taken. 
Aver/ger, s. a punisher ; revenger. 
A Venue, s. an entrance to a place ; an alley 

or walk of trees leading to a house. 
Aver', v. to affirm as true ; to assert posi- 
tively as true. 
Av'erage, *. the medium number or quantity. 
Av'erage, v. to find or reduce to a medium : 

a. containing a medial proportion. 
Aver'ment, s. a declaration, an affirmation. 
Averrun'cate, v. to root up. 
Aver'se, a. contrary to, not favourable to. 
Aver'scly, ad. unwillingly ; backwardly. 
Aver'senoss, s. unwillingness ; dislike. 
Aver'sion, s. hatred, dislike, antipathy. 
Avert', v. to turn aside, to keep elf. 
Avert'er, s. one that averts. 
A'viary, s. a place enclosed to keep birds in. 
Avid'ity, s. greediness, eagerness. 
Avoca'tion, s. the act of calling off or away; 

the business that calls away. 
Avoid', v. to shun, to escape from. 
Avoid'able, a. that which may be avoided. 
Avoid'ance, s. the act of avoiding. 
Avoid'er,*. one who avoids, shuns, or escapes. 
Avoid'less, a. inevitable ; unavoidable. 
Avoirdupois', s. the weight most commonly 

in use, containing 16 ounces to tho pound. 
Avouch', v. to assert, to affirm, to maintain. 



AVO 



2J 



BAK 



Avouch'er, s. one who avouches or affirms. 

Avouch'nient, s. declaration. 

Avow', v. to declare, to assert, to profess. 

Avow'able, a. that may be avowed. 

Avow'ably, ad. in an avowable manner. 

Avow'al, s. a positive or open declaration. 

Avow'edly, ad. in an open manner. 

Avow'er, s. one who avows or justifies. 

Avul'sed, p. and a. plucked or pulled off. 

Avut'sion, s. pulling one thing from another. 

Await', v. to expect, to wait for, to attend. 

Awa'ke, v. to rouse from sleep, to put into 
new action : a. not sleeping; vigilant, active. 

Awa'ken, v. to rouse from a state of torpidity. 

Award', v. to adjudge, to determine, to give : 
s. a sentence, a determination. 

Awa're, a. vigilant, attentive, cautious. 

Away', ad. absent ; from a place ; begone. 

Awe, s. dread, fear, respect, reverence. 

Awe, v. to strike with fear and reverence. 

Aweath'er, ad. on the weather side ; towards 
the wind 1a sea term). 

Awe-command'ing, a. influencing by awe. 

Awe-inspi'ring, a. impressing with awe. 

Awe-struck, a. impressed with awe. 

Awlul, a. causing awe, or filling with reve- 
rence. 

Aw'fully, ad. in an awful manner. 

Aw' fulness, s. quality of striking with awe. 

Awlii'lc, ad. for some space of time. 

Awk'ward, a. clumsy, inelegant, unpolite. 

Awk'wardly, ad. clumsily, inelegantly. 

Awkwardness, s. inelegance, clumsiness. 

Awl, s. a sharp instrument to make holes. 

Aw'less, a. void of awe or reverence. 
Iwn'ing, s. any covering spread over a ship 
or boat to keep off the heat or wet. 

Awry 7 , ad. obliquely, asquint, unevenly. 

Axe, s. a hatchet. 

Ax'estone, s. a hard mineral found in New 
Zealand, and used by the natives for axes. 

Axil'lar,Axil'Jary,a. belonging to the arm-pit. 

Ax'iom, s. a self-evident truth. 

Axiomatical, a. relating to an axiom. 

Ax'is, s. a line passing directly through the 
centre of any thing that revolves on it. 

Axle, Axle-tree, s. the piece of timber or 
iron on which the wheel revolves. 

Ay, ad. yes ; certainly ; even so. 

Aye, ad. always; forever. 

Az'imuth, s. the arch of the horizon between 
the meridian of the place, and a vertical 
circle passing through the object. 

Azo'te, s. nitrogen, an element in chymistry. 

Azotic, a. of or relating to azote. 

Az'ure, a. of a bright blue colour ; sky- 
coloured : s. the sky. 

B. 

Baa', v. to bleat or cry like a sheep : s. the 
bleating or natural cry of a sheep. 

Ba'al, *. a Canaanitish idol. 

Bab'ble, Bab'bling, s. idle discourse. 

Bab'ble, v. to talk idly, to tell secrets. 

Bab'blement, s . unmeaning words ; prate. 

Bab'bler, s. an idle talker ; a teller of secrets. 

Babe, s. a young child of either sex. 

Ba'bel, s. disorder ; tumult ; confusion. A 
place in Shinar, where the original lan- 
guage of mankind was confounded. 

Baboon', s. a large species of monkey. 



Ba'by. s. a babe, an infant child. 

BaTjykood, s. infancy ; childhood. 

Ba'by-house, s. a toy ; a place for dolls. 

Ba'byish, Ba'bish, a. childish. 

Babylo'nian, s. a native of Babylon : a. per- 
taining to Babylon ; mixed, confused. 

Baccalau'reate, s . the degree of bachelor of 
arts. 

Bac'chanal, e. a devotee to Bacchus, the god 
of wine : a. drunken, revelling. 

Bacchanalian, s. a drunken riotous person : 
a. relating to revelry. 

Bac'chanals, s. drunken revels. 

Bach'elor, s. an unmarried man ; one who 
takes his first degree at the university ; a 
knight of the lowest order. 

Bachelorship, s. the state of a bachelor. 

Back, s. the hinder part of a thing : ad. be- 
hind ; to the place left : v. to second, to 
maintain. 

Back'bite, v. to censure an absent person. 

Back'biter, s. one who slanders secretly. 

Back'biting, s. secret detraction. 

Backbo'ne, s. the bone of the back. 

Backdoor', s. a hinder door ; a private en- 
trance. 

Backgam'mon, s. a game with dice and tables. 

Back'ground, s. ground in the rear, obscurity. 

Back'piece, s. a piece of armour for the back. 

Baek'side, s. the hinder part of any thing. 

Backsli'de, v. to fall off ; to apostatize. 

Backsli'der, s. an apostate. 

Backsli'ding, s. apostacy, transgression. 

Back'stays, s. ropes which keep the masts 
from pitching forward. 

Back'sword, s. a sword with one sharp edge ; 
a stick with a basket handle. 

Back'ward, a. unwilling, dull, sluggish. 

Back'wardly, ad. unwillingly, sluggishly. 

Back'wards, ad. with the back forwards. 
j Backwardness, s. unwillingness ; tardiness. 

Ba'con, s. the flesh of a hog, salted and dried. 

Bad, a. ill, wicked, hurtful, vicious, sick. 
I Badge, s. a mark or token of distinction. 
i Bad'ger, s. a beast resembling a hog and dog: 
v. to worry, to tease, to annoy. 

Badinage, s. [Fr.] light or playful discourse. 

Bad'ly, ad. in a bad manner. 

Bad'ness, s. want of good qualities. 

Baffle, v. to elude, to deceive ; to confound. 

Baffler, s. one that baffles or eludes. 

Bag, s. a sack ; a purse. 

Bagatell'e, s. a thing of no import, a trifle. 

Bag'gagc, s. the luggage of an army ; a term. 
for a worthless woman. 

Bagnio, s. a warm bath ; house of ill-fame. 

Bag'pipe, s. a Scotch musical instrument. 

Bag'piper, s. one that plays on a bagpipe. 

Bail, s. surety given for another's appearance: 
v. to give bail, to admit to bail. 

Bail'able, a. that maybe set at liberty by bail. 

Bailiff, s. an officer who puts in force an 
arrest ; a land steward. 

Bailiwick, s. the jurisdiction of a bailiff. 

Bail'piecc, s. a slip of parchment or paper 
containing a recognizance of bail. 

Bait, s. a temptation ; a refreshment ; a lure : 
v. to bait the hook in angling ; to take 
refreshment on a journey ; to set dogs upon. 

Baize, s. a coarse kind of open cloth. 

Bake, v. to harden by fire ; dress in an oven. 



BAK 



21 



BAE 



Ba'kehouse, s. a place for baking Dread. 
BaTcer, *. he whose trade is to bake. 
Bal'anee, s. a pair of scales ; the difference 

of an account : v. to make equal, to settle ; 

to hesitate, to fluctuate. 
Bal'ancer, *. the person that weighs any 

thing ; one who poises a weight. 
Bal'ancing, s. equilibrium ; poising. 
Bal'cony, s. a small gallery of wood or stone 

on the outside of a house. 
Bald, a. without hair ; inelegant, unadorned. 
Bald'erdash, s. any thing jumbled together 

without judgment ; a jargon of words. 
Bald'Jy, ad. nakedly ; meanly. 
Bald'ness, s. the want of hair ; the loss of 

hair ; meanness of writing ; inelegance. 
Bald'pated, a. destitute of hair on the head. 
Bald'ric, s. a girdle, a belt. 
Bale, j. goods packed for carriage ; misery. 
Bale, v. to lave water out of a boat. 
Balear'ic, a. pertaining to the islands of 

Majorca and Minorca (the Balearic Isles). 
Ba'leful, a. full of misery, sad ; pernicious. 
Bu'lefully, ad. calamitously; perniciously. 
Balis'ter, J. a cross-bow. 
Balk, v. to disappoint, to frustrate. 
Ball, j. any thing round ; a globe ; an en- 
tertainment of dancing. 
Bal'lad, s. a common or trifling song, an air. 
Bal'lad-monger, s. a trader in ballads. 
Bal'lad-singer, s. one whose employment is 

to sing ballads in the streets. 
Bul'last, s. a weight placed in the bottom of 

a ship, to prevent its oversetting : v. to 

keep any thing steady by ballast. 
Bal'lasting, s. the articles used for ballast. 
Bal'let, s. an historical or comic dance. 
Balloo'n, s. a globe made of silk, &c. which, 

being inflated with gas, rises into the air ; 

a large vessel used in chymistry. 
Bal'lot, >v. a ball or ticket used in giving votes ; 

act of so voting : v. to choose by ballot. 
Ea!'lot-box, s. a box for receiving ballots. 
Bal'loting, 5. act of voting by ballot. 
Ealm, s. an odoriferous plant. 
Balm'y, a. soothing, soft ; fragrant, odorife- 
rous. 
Bal'neary, s. a bathing-room, a bath. 
Bal'sani, s. an ointment ; a shrub. 
Balsam'ic, a. mitigating, softening, healing : 

s. a warm, demulcent, oily medicine. 
Bal'uster, s. a small pillar or column. 
Bal'ustered, a. having balusters. 
Balustra'de, *. a row of small pillars. 
Bamboo', s. an Indian cane or large reed. 
Bamboo'zle, v . to trick, to cheat, to deceive. 
Ban, s. a public notice ; a curse, interdiction. 
Eana'na, s. a kind of plantain-tree. 
Band. s. a bandage or tie ; a company : v. 

to bind together, to unite in a troop. 
Band'age, s. a fillet ; a roller for a wound. 
Eandan'a, s. a species of silk handkerchief. 
Band'box, s. a thin slight box. 
Band'elet, * a flat moulding ; a little band. 
Ban'dit, s. a man outlawed ; a robber. 
Bandit'ti, s. pi. outlaws, robbers, plunderers. 
Ban'dog, s. a large dog ; a mastiff. 
Bandoleo'rs, s. pi. small wooden cases, each 

containing a charge of powder, formerly 

appended to the band of a musketeer. 
Band'rol,Ban'nerol, s. alittleflag or streamer. 



Ban'dy, v. to toss to and fro, to eontend-ata 

game : a. crooked : s. a crooked stick. 
Ban'dy-leg, ,?. a crooked leg. 
Ban'dy-legged. a. having crooked legs. 
Bane, s. mischief, ruin, poison : v. to poison, 
Ba'neful, a. poisonous, hurtful. 
Ba'nefully, ad. perniciously, destructively. 
Ba'nefulness, s. destruetiveness. 
Ba'newort, s. the deadly nightshade. 
Bang, s. a blow, a thump : v. to beat. 
Ban'ian, *. one of a sect in India, who 

believe in transmigration, and abstain 

from animal food ; a man's morning gown, 

such as is worn by a Banian ; a tree in 

India. 
Ban'ian-days (a naval expression), those 

days when the men have no meat. 
Ban'ish, v. to exile, to drive away. 
Ban'isher, s. he who exiles another. 
Ban'ishment, s. transportation, exile. 
Ban'ister, s. a corruption of Baluster. 
Bank, s. the side of a river ; a little hill ; a 

shoal in the sea ; a repository for money. 
Bank-bill, Bank-note, j. a promissory note 
for money to be paid by a banking company. 
Bank'er, s. one who keeps a bank. 
Bank'ing, s. a trading in money. 
Bank'rupt, s. one who, being unable to pay 

creditors, surrenders his effects : a. insol- 
vent, unable to pay debts. 
Bankruptcy, s. the state of a bankrupt. 
Bank-stock, s. shares in the stock of a bank. 
Ban'ner, s. a military standard or flag. 
Ban'nered, a. furnished with banners. 
Ban'neret, s. a knight created in the field oi 

battle ; a little banner. 
Ban'nock, s. a loaf or cake of oatmeal. 
Ban'quet, s. a sumptuous feast. 
Ban'quet, v. to feast ; to regale. 
Ban'qucter, s. a feaster ; ho that makes feasts. 
Ban'queting, s. the act of feasting. 
Ban'shee, s. an Irish fairy or spirit. 
Bantam, s. a small fowl with feathered legs, 

probably first brought from Bantam, a 

kingdom in Java. 
Ban'ter, v. to rally, play upon : s. ridicule. 
Bant'ling, s. a young child, an infant. 
Bap'tism, s. the first sacrament of the 

Christian church ; sprinkling or immersion. 
Baptis'mal, a. relating to baptism. 
Bap'tist, s. one who christens ; an anabaptist. 
Baptis'tical, a. relating to baptism. 
Bap'tistry, 5. a font, or place for baptizing at. 
Bapti'ze, v. to christen. 
Bapti'zer, s. one who baptizes or christens. 
Bar, v. to secure, or fasten any thing with a 

bar ; to hinder or obstuct. 
Bar, s. a long piece of wood or iron ; the 

place assigned for lawyers to plead ; the 

place at which criminals stand during trial ; 

a hindrance ; an enclosed place in a tavern; 

a term in music. 
Barb, s. a Barbary horse ; a heard ; the 

points which stand backward in an arrow : 

v . to jag arrows with hooks ; to furnish 

horses with armour. 
Bar'bacan, s. a fortification before the walls 

of a town ; an opening in the wall for guns. 
Barba'rian, s. a rude uncivilized person, a 

savage : a. uncivilized, rude. 
Barbar'ic, a. foreign, far-fetched. 



BAB 



52 



BAS 



Bar'barisni, s. ignorance, inhumanity ; an 
uncouth manner of speaking or writing. 

Barbarity, ,?. inhumanity, cruelty. 

Barbarize, v. to render barbarous. 

Bar'barous, a. rude, uncivilized, ignorant, 
inhuman, cruel ; unacquainted with arts. 

Bar'barously, ad. ignorantly; cruelly. 

Bar'barousncss, s. rudeness ; impurity of 
language. 

Bar'becue, s. a hog dressed whole with spices. 

Bar'becue, v. to dress whole on a gridiron. 

Barb'ed, p. and a. bearded or jagged with 
hooks ; armed. 

Bar'bel, s. a kind of fish with barbs. 

Bar'ber, 5. one whose trade is to shave. 

Barberry, s. the name of a prickly shrub. 

Bard, s. a minstrel ; a poet. 

Bard'ic, a. relating to the bards or poets. 

Bare, a. naked, unadorned : v. to strip. 

Ba'reboned, a. having the bones bare. 

Ba'refaccd, a. shameless, impudent. 

Barefa'cedness, s. effrontery ; assurance. 

Ba'refoot, Barefoot'c-d, a. without shoes. 

Barehead'ed, a, having the head uncovered. 

Ba'rely, ad. nakedly; openly; merely. 

Ba'reness, s. nakedness; poverty ; indigence. 

Bar'gain, s. a contract or agreement ; a thing 
bought or sold ; a cheap purchase : v. to 
make a contract. 

Bargainer, s. he who makes a bargain. 

Bargaining, s. the act of making a bargain. 

Barge, s. a large boat for pleasure or trade. 

Bar'geman, s. the manager of a barge. 

Bar'gem aster, s. the owner of a barge. 

Baril'la, s. a plant cultivated in Spain for its 
ashes, from which the purest kind of min- 
eral alkali is obtained. 

Bark, s. the rind of a tree ; a small ship : v. 
to make a noise like a dog or wolf ; to 
clamour at ; to strip tree3 of tlieir bark. 

Bark'er, s. one that barks or clamours. 

Barley, a. consisting of bark. 

Bar 'ley, s. corn used for making malt. 

Barney-brake, s. a kind of rural play. 

Bar 'ley-corn, s. a grain of barley ; in mea- 
surement, the third part of an inch. 

Bar'ley-mow, s. where barley is stowed. 

Barley-sugar, s. sugar boiled in a decoction 
of barley. 

Bar'ley-water, s. a soft and lubricating drink 
made of barley without the rind. 

Barm, s. yeast, used to make drink ferment. 

Ba/maid, s. a female waiter at an inn. 

Barm'y, a. containing barm. 

Barn, s. a storehouse for corn, <fcc. 

Bar'nacle, s. shell-fish which adheres to wood, 
&c. in the water ; a bird like a goose, fa- 
bulously said to grow on trees ; an iron 
instrument to hoid a horse by the nose 
during an operation of farriery. 

Barom'eter, s. an instrument for indicating 
the state of the atmosphere and weather. 

Baromet'rical, a. relating to a barometer. 

Baromet'rically, ad. by means of a barometer. 

Bai^on, s. a rank in nobility next to a vis- 
count ; two sirloins of beef not cut asunder. 

Bar'onage, s. the dignity of a baron. 

Bar'one.js, s. a baron's wife. 

Ear onet. s. the lowest title that is hereditary, 
next in rank to a baron. 

Baronetage, *. the whole body of baronets. 



Baro'nial, a. relating to a baron or barony. 
Bar'ony, s. the possessions of a baron . 
Barou'che, s. a four-wheeled open coach. 
Bar 'rack, s. a building to quarter soldiers in. 
Bar'rack-master, s. the officer who has the 

superintendence of soldiers' barracks. 
Bar'rator, s. an encourager of lawsuits. 
Bar'ratry, s. foul practice in law ; a fraud 

committed by seamen on merchants' good3 

entrusted to their care. 
Barrel, *. a round wooden vessel ; the hol- 
low tube of a gun ; a cylinder. 
Barren, a. unfruitful, unmeaning, dull. 
Bar'rcnness, s. sterility, want of invention. 
Barriea'de, v. to secure a place, to fortify. 
Barrica'de, Barrica'do, 5. a fortification, an 

obstruction, a bar to prevent admittance. 
Barrier, s. a boundary, a defence. 
Barrister, s. a pleader at the bar,an advocate. 
Barlow, s. a small hand or wheel carriage ; 

a small mound of earth under which bodies 

were anciently deposited ; a hog. 
Barler, v. to give one commodity in exchange 

for another : s. traffic by exchanging. 
Bar'terer, s. he that exchanges goods. 
Bar'tery, s. exchange of commodities. 
Bary'tes, Bary'ta, s . a very ponderous earth. 
Bar'ytone, s. a grave deep sound ; a male 

voice, the tone of which is between the 

base and the tenor. 
Basalt', Basp.lt'es, *. a grayish black mineral 

or stone, never found in layers, but upright 
Basalt'ic, a. relating to or formed of basaltes. 
Bas'anite, s. black jasper, a kind of slate. 
Base, s* the foundation of any thing ; a rustio 

play ; the pedestal of a statue : a. vile, 

mean, low ; metal below the standard ; in 

music, deep, grave : v. to found or estab- 
lish on a base. 
Ba'se-born, a. of illegitimate parentage. 
Ba'seless, a. without foundation. 
Ba'sely, ad. in a base mnnner ; meanly. 
Ba'se-minded, a. mean-spirited. 
Ba'se-mindedness, s. meanness of spirit. 
Ba'sement, s. base or foundation ; the ground 

floor. 
Ba'seness, s. vileness, meanness. 
Ba'senet, s. a helmet or headpiece. 
Bashaw', s. a Turkish Pacha or viceroy. 
Bash'ful, a. timid, modest, coy, shamefaced. 
Bash'fully, ad. modestly, timorously. 
Bash'fulness, *. appearance of modesty. 
Bas'il, s. the slope of a joiner's tool ; a kind 

of leather. 
Bas'ilic, s. a large hall or church. 
Basii'ica, .?. the middle vein of the arm. 
Basil'ic, Basil'ical, a. belonging to the basilic 

vein. 
Basil'icon, s. a kind of ointment. 
Bas'ilisk, s. a crested serpent, a cockatrice, 

said to lull by looking ; apiece of ordnance. 
Ba's!n, s. a small vessel to hold water : a dock 

where ships float in safety ; a small pond. 
Ba'sis, s. the foundation of any thing ; the 

foot, the pedestal. 
Bask', v. to lie in the heat of the sun or fire. 
Bas'ket, s. a vessel made of twigs or rushes, 
Bass, s. a mat used to kneel en in churches; 

a. in music, deep-toned. 
Bas'sct. s. a certain game at cards. 
Bassoon', s. a musical wind instrument. 



BAS 



23 



BEA 



list, s. a performer on the bassoon. 

Bass-relie'f, or Bas'so-relie'vo, s. raised work. 

Bass-vi'ol, s. a musical instrument. 

Bas'tard, s. a child born out of wedlock: a. 
illegitimate ; spurious ; not genuine. 

Bas'tardism, s. the state of a bastard. 

Bas'tardize, v. to declare a child illegitimate. 

Bas'tardy, s. an unlawful state of birth. 

Baste, v. to beat ; to drip butter on meat 
whilst roasting ; to sew slightly. 

Basti'le, s, a prison, a dungeon, a gaol. 

Bastina'de, Bastina'do, s. act of beating with 
a cudgel ; a Turkish punishment for beat- 
ing an offender on the soles of his feet : v. 
to give the bastinado. 

Ba'sting, s. act of beating with a stick. 

Bas'tion, s. a huge mass of earth standing 
out from a rampart ; a bulwark. 

Bat, s. a club to strike a ball with ; a winged 
animal somewhat resembling a mouse. 

Batch, s. the quantity of bread baked at 
once. 

Bate, v. an abbreviation of Abate. 

Bateau', s. [Fr.] a long light boat. 

Bath, s. a place to bathe in ; bathing. 

Bathe, v. to wash in a bath ; to soften. 

Ba'ther, s. one who bathes. 

Ba'thing, s. immersion in water. 

Ba'thos, s. anticlimax or sinking in poetry. 

Ba'ting, prep, abating, except. 

Bat'on, Batoon', s. a staff ; a marshal's 
truncheon. 

Batta'lia, s. battle array, order of battle. 

Battal'ion, s. a body of foot soldiers, from 500 
to 800 men ; a division of an army. 

Bat'ten, v. to fatten : s. a broad thin scant- 
ling of wood : v. to form with battens. 

Bat'ter, s. a mixture of flour, eggs, milk, 
&c. : v. to beat, to beat down ; to wear 
with beating, to wear out with service. 

Bat'tering-ram, s. a military engine, formerly 
used to batter down walls. 

Bat'tery, s. a raised work on which cannons 
are mounted ; in law, a violent assault. 

Bat'tle, s. a tight: v. to contend in right. 

Battle-array', s. a form or order of battle. 

Bat'tle-axe, j. a weapon like an axe ; a bill. 

Bat'tle-door, s. aflat instrument used to strike 
shuttlecocks with. 

Bat'tlement, s. a wall with embrasures; a 
breastwork. 

Baubee', s. (in Scotland) a halfpenny. 

Bau'ble, s. a trifle, a trinket, a plaything. 

Bawd, s. a procurer, or procuress. 

Bawd'y, a. unchaste, foul, lewd. 

Bawd'ry, s. obsceneness or lewdness. 

Bawl, v. to call or cry out, to speak loud. 

Bawl'cr, s. one who makes an outcry. 

Bawl'ing, s. the act of loudly calling. 

Bay, s. a geographical term ; a species of the 
laurel-tree ; a stand made by one surround- 
ed by enemies : a. brown approaching to 
chestnut-colour : v. to bark as a dog, to 
bark at. 

Bay'ard, s. a bay horse. 

Ba/onet, s. a dagger fixed to a musket : v. 
to stab with a bayonet. 

Bays, s. an honorary crown or garland. 

Bay'-salt, s. salt made from sea-water ex- 
posed to the sun, so named from its colour. 

Bay'-trce, *. the female laurel. 



Bay-window, s. a window jutting outward. 

Bazaar 7 , Bazar 7 , j. an eastern market. 

Bdel'lium, s. an aromatic gum. 

Be, v. to exist, to have existence. 

Beach, s. the sea-shore, the strand, the coast. 

Bea'con, J. something on an eminence, where 
signs are made to direct seamen. 

Bead,*, a little ball strung with others, with, 
which necklaces and rosaries are made. 

Bea'dle, s. an inferior officer in a parish, 
university, or court. 

Bea'dleship, s. the office of a beadle. 

Bead'roll, s. a list of those to be prayed for. 

Beads'man, s. he who prays for another ; a 
monk. 

Bea'gle, s. a small kind of hunting ddg. 

Beak, s. the bill of a bird ; any point like a 
beak. 

Bcak'ed, a. having a beak ; pointed. 

Beak'er, s. a cup with a spout formed like 
the beak of a bird. 

Beam, s. the main piece of timber which 
supports a building ; the balance of a pan 
of scales ; the pole of a chariot ; a ray of 
light : v. to emit rays or beams. 

Beam'less, a. emitting no ray of light. 

Beam'y, a. radiant ; shining ; resplendent. 

Bean, s. a well-known kind of pulse. 

Bear, s. a rough, savage animal ; a rude un- 
polished man ; the name of two constella- 
tions, called the greater and lesser bear. 

Bear, v. to carry a load, to support, to endure 
or suffer ; to bring forth. 

Bear'-baiting, s. baiting bears with dogs. 

Beard, s. hair which grows on the chin and 
lips ; the barb of an arrow or hook : v. to 
take by the beard ; to oppose to the face. 

Be'arded, a. having a beard ; barbed. 

Be'ardless, a. having no beard ; youthful. 

Bear'er, j. a person employed as the carrier 
of any thing ; a supporter. 

Bear'-garden, s. any place of tumult. 

Bear'ing, s. the situation of any place, both 
as to distance and direction ; gesture or 
carriage. 

Bear'ish, a. having the qualities of a bear. 

Bear'like, a. resembling a bear ; rude. 

Bear'sfoot, s. a plant, a species of hellebore. 

Beast, s. an irrational animal : a brutal man. 

Beast'ly, a. nasty, filthy, obscene. 

Beast'lincss, s. brutality, filthiness. 

Beat, v. to strike ; to conquer ; to throb : s. 
a stroke ; a pulsation. 

Be'ater, s. one who beats or strikes. 

Beat'en, a. bruised, trodden. 

Beatific, Beatifical, a. blissful, heavenly. 

Beatifically, ad. blissfully. 

Beatitica'tion, s. the act of pronouncing a 
dead person beatified. 

Beat'ify, v. to bless with celestial enjoyment. 

Bea'ting, s. correction by blows. 

Beat'itude, s. blessedness, happiness, felicity. 

Beau, s. a fop, a man of dress ; an admirer. 

Bcau'idcal, s. [Fr.] ideal excellence or per- 
fection. 

Beau'i.sh, a. foppish ; dressed showily. 

Beau-monde, s. [Fr.] the fashionable world. 

Beau'tcous, a. fair, elegant, beautiful. 

Beau'teously, ad. in a beauteous manner. 

Beau'teousness, s. loveliness to the sight. 

Beau'tificr, s, that which beautifies. 



BE A 



24 



EEL 



Beau'tiful, a. fair, elegant, pleasing. 
Beau'tifulness, s. beauty, elegance. 
Beau'tifully. ad. in a beautiful manner. 
Beau'tify, v . to adorn, to embellish. 
Beau'ty, s. that assemblage of graces which 

pleases the eye ; a beautiful person. 
Beau'ty-spot, s. a small black patch. 
Bea'ver, s. an amphibious animal, valuable 

for its fur ; a hat made of its fur ; the part 

of a helmet which covers the face. 
Bea'vered, a. wearing a beaver. 
Becafi'co, s. a small bird, the fig-eater. 
Becalm', v. to keep in a calm ; to quiet. 
Becau'se, conj. for ; for this reason. 
Bechan'ce, v. to befall ; to happen. 
Becharm', v. to captivate. 
Beck, s. a sign with the hand or head, a nod. 
Beck'on, v. to make a sign with the hand. 
Becom'e, v. to be fit, to be suitable to the 

person ; to enter into some state. 
Becom'ing. a. suitable, graceful, pleasing. 
Becom'ingly, ad. in a becoming manner. 
Becom'ingness, s. propriety, suitableness. 
Becrip'ple, v. to make lame. 
Bed, s. something to sleep on ; a division in 

a garden in which seeds are sown ; the 

channel of a river ; a layer, a stratum. 
Bed, v to place in a bed ; to cohabit. 
Bedab'ble, v. to besprinkle, to wet. 
Bedrag'gle, v. to trail in the dirt. 
Bedaub', v . to daub, to besmear. 
Bedaz'zle, v. to make the sight dim by too 

brilliant a light. 
Bed'cbamber, s. a room to sleep in. 
Bed'clothes, s. the coverings of a bed. 
Bed'ding, s. the materials belonging to a bed. 
Bedeck', v. to deck, to adorn, to embellish. 
Bedew 7 , v. to moisten gently as with dew. 
Bed'fellow, s. one lying in the same bed. 
Bed'-hangings, s.pl. the curtains to a bed. 
Bedi'gbt, v . to adorn ; to dress. 
Bedim', v. to make dim. 
Bediz'en, v. to dress out gaily. 
Bedlam, s. an hospital for lunatics. 
Bed'lamite, s. a madman, a noisy person. 
Bed'maker, s. a person whose office it is to 

make the beds, as in the universities. 
Bed'post, #. the post of a bedstead. 
Bedrench', v. to drench ; to saturate. 
Bed'rid, Bed'ridden, a. confined to bed by 

sickness or old age. 
Bed'room, s. a bedchamber. 
Bedrop', v. to besprinkle. 
Bed'side, s. the side of the bed. 
Bcd'stead, s. the frame which supports a bed. 
Bed'time, *. the hour of rest. 
Bee, *. an insect which produces honey. 
Beech, s. a forest tree. 

Beech'en, a. consisting of the wood of beech. 
Beech'mast, t. the nuts of the beech. 
Beech'-oil, *. oil expressed from beech-nuts. 
Bee'-eater, s. a bird that feeds upon bees. 
Beef, s. the ilesh of the ox, bull, or cow. 
Beef-eater, t. a yeoman of the guard. 
Beef-steak, s. a slice of beef for broiling. 
Beo'hive, s. a box or case for holding bees. 
Been, p. See Be. 

Beer, s. a liquor made of malt and hops. 
Beet, 3. the name of a garden plant. 
Boe'tle, s. an insect ; a large heavy mallet. 
Bee' tie, v. to hang or project over. 



Bee'tle-browed, a. having a prominent brow. 

Bee'tle-headed, a. dull, stupid. 

Beeves, s. pi. black cattle, oxen. 

Befall', v. to happen, to come to pass. 

Befit', v. to be suitable to, to suit. 

Befool', v. to make a fool of. 

Befo're, prep, farther onward ; in front of; in 
presence of; superior to : ad. sooner than ; 
previously. 

Befo'rehand, ad. in a state of anticipation. 

Befo'retime, ad. formerly, of old time. 

Befoul', v. to soil, to dirty, to make foul. 

Befriend', v. co favour, to be kind to. 

Befrin'ge, v. to decorate with fringes. 

Beg. v. to ask alms, to entreat, to petition. 

Beget', v. to generate, to produce. 

Beg'gar, j. one who lives by begging : v. to 
reduce to beggary, to impoverish. 

Beggarly, a. in want, stingy : ad. meanly. 

Beg'gary, s. gTeat want, indigence, poverty. 

Begilt', a. gilded over. 

Begin', v. to enter upon, to commence. 

Begin'ner, s. one that begins ; a novice. 

Begin'ning, s. the first original or cause ; the 
first part ; the rudiments or first ground. 

Begird', v: to gird, bind round, shut up. 

Begnaw 7 , v. to eat away, to corrode. 

Begon'e, int. get away ! go hence ! 

Begrea'se, v. to soil with grease. 

Begri'me, v. to soil, to dirty with soot. 

Begrud'ge, v. to envy the possession of. 

Begui'le, v. to cheat, to impose on ; to amuse, 
to deceive pleasingly. 

Begui'ler, s. one who beguiles. 

Behalf, *. favor, support, vindication. 

Beha've, v. to demean, to act, to conduct. 

Beha'viour, *. conduct, course of life. 

Behead', v. to kill by cutting off the head. 

Be'hemoth, $. an animal described in Job, 
supposed to be the hippopotamus. 

Behest', *. a command, order, precept. 

Behi'nd, prep, at the back of, following an- 
other, remaining after another : ad. back- 
wards ; in the rear. 

Behindhand, ad. late in time ; in arrears. 

Behold, v. to look upon : int. see ! lo ! 

Beho'lden, a. obliged, bound in gratitude. 

Beho'lder, s. a spectator. 

Behoof, s. profit, advantage, benefit. 

Behoofable, a. fit, profitable, useful. 

Behoo've, Beho've, v. to be fit, to become. 

Be'ing, s. existence ; a particular state or 
condition ; the person existing. 

Bela'bour, v. to beat soundly, to thump. 

Bela'ced, p. and a. covered with lace. 

Bela'ted, a. benighted, late out. 

Belay', v. to block up, to besiege ; with 
seamen, to make fast a rope. 

Belch, v. to eject wind from the stomach. 

Belch'ing, s. eructation. 

Bel'dam, s. a hag, a scolding woman. 

Beiea'guer. v. to besiege, to block up. 

Bel'fry. s. a place where bells hang. 

Belial, s. wickedness : a. worthless. 

Beli'e, v. to slander, to calumniate. 

Belii'f, s. persuasion, opinion ; creed ; a form 
containing the articles of faith. 

Belie' ve, w. to credit, to trust, to think truo. 

Believ'able, a. credible. 

Beliefer, s. a professor of Christianity. 

Believlngly, ad. in a believing manner. 






BEL 

Beli'ke, ad. probably, perhaps, likely. 
Bell, s. a hollow sounuing vessel. 
Belle, s. a gay dressy young lady. 
Belles-Let'tres, [Fr.j s.pl. polite literature. 
Bell-flower, s. the plant campanula, so 
named, from the flower being shaped like 
a bell. 
Bell'- founder, s. one who casts bells. 
Bell'-hanger, s. one who fixes bells. 

Bol'licose, a. inclined for war. 

Belli"gerent, s. a state carrying on war. 

Belli"gerent, Belli"gerous, a. waging war. 

Bell'man, s. he whose business it is to pro- 
claim any thing in towns, and to gain 
attention by ringing his bell. 

Bell'-metal, s. a mixture of copper and tin. 

Bel'low, v. to roar like a bull ;_ to clamour. 

Bel'lowing, a - , loud noise ; roaring. 

Bel'lows, s. an instrument to blow the fire. 

Bel'lows-maker, s. a maker of bellows. 

Bell-rope, s. a pulley for bells. 

Bel'luinc, a. beastly ; brutal ; savage. 

Bell'-wether, s. a sheep which leads the flock 
with a bell on his neck. 

Bel'ly, s. the lower part of the body. 

Bel'lyband, s. the girth which fastens the 
saddle of a horse in harness. 

Bel'lyful, s. as much food as fills the belly. 

Bel'ly-god, s. a glutton ; a gourmand. 

Belly-pinched, a. suffering from Lunger. 

Bel'ly-slave, s. a slave to the appetite. 

Belong', v. to appertain to, to be the pro- 
perty of, to have relation to. 

Bclov'ed, a. greatly loved, valued much. 

Below', ad. lower in place, inferior. 

Belt, s. a girdle, a sash : v. to encircle. 

Bema'sk, v. to hide, to conceal. 

Bemi'rc, v. to soil, to daub with mire. 

Bemo'an, v. to lament, to bewail. 

Bemo'aner, s. one who laments. 

Bemock', v. to deride ; to laugh at. 

Bemo'urn, v. to weep over ; to bewail. 

Bemu'sed, a. overcome with musing. 

Bench, s. a long seat ; a seat of justice ; 
justices sitting on the bench. 

Bench'er, .?. a senior or governing member in 
the inns of court. 

Bend, s. a curve ; a crook. 

Bend, v. to crook, to bow : to subdue. 

Bene'ath, prep, under, lower in place, lower 
in excellence, unworthy of : ad. in a lower 
place. 

Benedic'tine, s. a monk of that order, named 
after its founder, St. Benedict. 

Benedic'tion, s. a blessing ; an acknowledg- 
ment for blessings received. 

Bonefac'tion, s. a charitable gift, a benefit. 

Benefac'tor, Benefac'tress, s. a man or woman 
who docs acts of kindness ; a patron. 

Ben'efice, s. an ecclesiastical living. 

Ben'eficed, a. having church preferment. 

Beneficence, s. generosity, active goodness. 

Beneficent, a. kind, obliging, doing good. 

Beneficently, ad. in a beneficent manner. 

Bencfi"cial, a. advantageous, useful. 

Benefi"cially, ad. advantageously. 

Benefi"eialness, s. usefulness, profit. 

Benefi"ciary, s. one who holds a benefice. 

Ben'efit, *. kindness, advantage, use : v. to 
gain advantage by ; to do good. 

Benevolence, *. disposition to good; charity. 



25 



BES 



Benev'olent, a. having good-will, kind. 

Bencv'olently, ad. in a kind manner. 

Benga'lee, s. the language spoken in '. 

Bengale'se, s. a native or natives of Bengal. 

Beni'ght, v. to involve in darkness. 

Beni'ghted, p.av&a. overtaken by the night. 

Beni'gn, a. kind, generous, gentle. 

Benig'nant, a. kind ; gracious ; good. 

Benig'nity, s. giaciousness, kindness. 

Beni'gnly, ad. kindly, graciously. 

Ben'ison, s. a benediction or blessing. 

Ben'jamin, s. See Benzoin. 

Bent,*, inclination, disposition, fixed purpose. 

Bent'-grass, s. the agrostis, a kind of grass. 

Benum'b, v. to make torpid, to stupify. 

Benzoin', s. a medicinal kind of resin, vul- 
garly called gum-benjamin. 

Bepaint', v. to cover with paint. 

Bepinch', v. to mark with pinches. 

Bepow'der, v. to sprinkle over with powder 

Bepra'ise, v. to praise extravagantly. 

Bequeath', v. to give by will, to leave. 

Bequcath'ment, s. the act of bequeathing. 

Bequest', s. something left by will. 

Bere'ave, v. to deprive of ; to take away. 

Berc'avernent, *. deprivation ; great loss. 

Ber'gamot, s. a kind of pear ; an essence or 
perfume ; a sort of scented snuff. 

Berhy'me, v. to mention in rhyme. 

Ber'lin, s. a kind of chariot first made in 
Berlin. 

Ber'ry, j. any small fruit containing seeds. 

Berth, s. a room or sleeping place on board 
a ship ; a ship's station when at anchor. 

Ber'yl, s. a precious stone of a greenish cast. 

Bescrcen', v. to shelter ; to conceal. 

Bescrib'blc, v. to scribble over. 

Beseech', v. to beg, to entreat, to implore. 

Beseem', v. to become, to befit. 

Bcseem'ing, a. becoming, proper. 

Beseem'ly, a. fit ; becoming ; suitable. 

Beset', v. to waylay, to perplex, to harass. 

Beset'ting, a. habitually attending. 

Beshrew', v. to wish a curse upon. 

Besi'de, Besi'des, pr. over and above, ncai 

Besic'ge, v. to lay siege to ; to hem in. 

Besie'ger, s. one who besieges. 

Besmear', v. to daub or smear over. 

Besmut', v. to blacken with smut. 

Besnuff ', v. to foul with snuff. 

Be'som, s. a broom made of twigs. 

Besot', v. to make sottish; to stupify with 
liquor. 

Besot'tedness,*. arrant stupidity; infatuation. 

Bespan'gle, v. to decorate with spangles. 

Bespat'ter, v to splash with dirt ; to asperse 
with reproach. 

Bespeak', v. to order beforehand; to address 

Bespec'kle, v. to mark with speckles. 

Bespot', v. to mark with spots, to variegate 

Bespread', v. to spread over. 

Bcspriu'klc, v. to sprinkle over. 

Best, a. most good ; ad. in the best manner 

Bes'tial, a. like a beast, brutish. 

Bestial'ity, s. the quality of beasts. 

Bestir', v. to move quickly, to hasten. 

Bestow', v. to give, to confer upon. 

Bestow'al, Bestow'ment, S. disposal. 

Bcstow'er, s. a giver ; a disposer. 

Bestrew', v. to strew or scatter about. 

Bestri'de, v. to get across any thing. 
C 



BES 



26 



BIL 



Bestud', v. to adorn with studs. 
Bet, s. a wager : v. to lay a wager. 
Beta'ke, v. to take, to hare recourse to. 
Be'tel, s. a valuable Indian shrub. 
Bethink', v. to recollect, to reflect. 
Beti'de, v. to happen, to befall. 
Beti'rnes, ad. early, soon, seasonably. 
Beto'ken, v. to signify, to foreshow. 
Betray', v. to deliver up treacherously ; to 

divulge a secret, to discover. 
Betray'er, s. a traitor ; one that betrays. 
Betroth', v. to give or receive a contract of 

marriage ; to affiance. 
Betroth'ment, s. a mutual promise of mar- 
riage. 
Bet'ter, a. superior, improved, more good. 
Bet'tering, s. the act of improving. 
Bet'ters, s.pl. our superiors in station, &c. 
Bet' ting, s. the act of making a wager. 
Bet'tor, s. one that lays wagers. 
Between', Betwixt', prep, in the middle. 
BeVel, s. a kind of square rule ; an "Ltuse 

or acute anglo : a. oblique : v. to cut to a 

bevel anglo. 
Bev'erage, s. drink, liquor to be drunk. 
Bev'y, s. a flock of birds ; a company. 
Bewail', v. to bemoan, to lament. 
Bewail'ing, s. audible sorrow, lamentation. 
Bewa're, v. to be cautious, to be wary of. 
Bewil'der, v. to mislead, to puzzle. 
Bewitch', v. to injure by witchcraft, to charm, 

to fascinate. 
Bewitch'er, .y. one who bewitches. 
Bewitch'ery, Bewitch'ment, s. fascination. 
Bewitch'ing, a. having power to fascinate. 
Bewitch'ingly, ad. in an alluring manner. 
Bewrap', v. to wrap up ; to enclose. 
Bewray', v. to discover ; to betray. 
Bewray'er, s. a betrayer ; discoverer. 
Bey, s. a Turkish governor. 
Beyond', prep, farther onward than, remote 

from, on the farther side of, above. 
Bez'el, s. that part of a ring in which the 

diamond or stone is fixed. 
Be'zoar, s. a medicinal stone from the East. 
Bezo'nian, s. a low fellow. 
Bez'zle, v. to waste in riot. 
Bi'as, s. inclination, bent ; a weight lodged 

on one side of a bowl ; propension : v. to 

prejudice, to incline partially. 
Bib, s. a piece of linen to pin before a child. 
Bib'ber, s. a tippler, a toper, a sot. 
Bi'ble, s. the sacred volume, in which are 

contained the revelations of God. 
Bib'lical, a. relating to the bible or divinity. 
Bibliog'rapher, s. one skilled in book history. 
Bibliograph'ical, a. relating to the history of 

books. 
Bibiioma'nia, S. eagerness to possess curious 

books ; book madness. 
Biblioma'niac, s. one smitten with a rage for 

books. 
Bibliopol'ic, a. pertaining to bookselling. 
Bib'liopole, Bibliop'olist, s. a bookseller. 
Bibliothe'ca, Bibliothe'ke, s. a library. 
Biblioth'ecal, a. belonging to a library. 
Bib'lis, s. the wine-fly, a small insect. 
Bicar'bonate, s. carbonic acid doubly strong. 
Bicipital, Bicip'itous, a. having two heads. 
Bick'er, v. to quarrel, to wrangle. 
Riflfering. s, a quarrel ; skirmish. 



Bid', v. to command ; to offer a price. 
Bid'dcr, s. one who offers a price. 
Bid'ding, s. a command, order, charge. 
Bide, v. to dwell, to abide, to endure. 
Biden'tal, a, having two teeth. 
Bidet', [Fr.] J. a little horse. 
Bi'ding, s. an abode, residence, stop. 
Bien'nial, a. continuing for two years. 
Bien'nially, ad. every two years. 
Bier, s. a frame used for carrying the dead. 
Biest'ings, s. the first milk after calving. 
Bi'fold, a. twofold ; double. 
Bi'form, a. having a double form. 
Bifront'cd, a. having two fronts. 
Bi'furcated, a. having two forks. 
Bifurca'tion, s. division into two branches. 
Big, a. large, great, swollen, fraught. 
Big'amist, s. he who has committed bigamy. 
Bigamy, s. the having two wives at once. 
Big'gin, s. a kind of cap for a child. 
Bight, s. a small bay ; a coil of rope. 
Big'ness, s. bulk ; size ; dimensions. 
Big'ot, s. a zealot, one unreasonably or 

blindly devoted to a party or creed. 
Big'oted, a. irrationally zealous. 
Big'otedly, ad. in a bigoted manner. 
Big'otry, s. blind zeal ; superstition. 
Bilat'eral, a. having two sides. 
Bil'berry, s. a small purple-coloured berry 
Bilbo, ( Bilboa) s. a sword, a rapier. 
Bil'boes, s.pl. stocks or shackles for the feet, 

for punishing offenders at sea (originally 

used in Spanish ships). 
Bile, s. a thick bitter liquor separated from 

the blood, and collected in the gall bladder. 
Bi'leduct, s. a vessel or canal for the bile. 
Bilge, s. the broadest part of a ship's bottom ; 

the protuberant part of a cask : v. to spring 

a leak, to let in water. Another form of 

Bulge. 
Bil'ge-pump,,y.a pump to draw off bilge-water. 
Bil'ge-water, s. water which enters a 6hip by 

a leak, and lies on her bilge. 
Bil'iary, a. belonging to the bile. 
Bilin'guous, a. having two tongues. 
Bil'ious, a. full of bile, choleric. 
Bijou, [Fr.] s. any elegant ornament. 
Bilk, v. to cheat, to overreach, to defraud. 
Bill, s. the beak of a bird ; a kind of hatchet; 

a written paper of any kind ; an account 

of money due ; a law proposed in writiDg 

to parliament, which when passed is called 

an Act ; a legal declaration in writing. 
Bill of exchange, s. a note which authorizes 

the bearer to demand at sum of money at 

a certain time and place, in consideration 

of value received. 
Bill of parcels, s. an account delivered by 

the seller to the buyer of goods. 
Bill, v. to caress, to fondle. 
Bil'iet, s. a small log of wood ; a note, a 

letter, a small paper : v. to quarter soldiers. 
Bil'Iet-doux, s. a short love-letter, a card. 
Bil'liards, s. a game with balls and sticks. 
Billingsgate, *. foul language ; such as is 

used in Billingsgate, a famous fish-market 

in London. 
Bil'lion, s. a million of millions. 
Bil'low, s. a large rolling wave of the sea t 

v. to rise and roll like huge waves. 
Billowy, a. swelling like large waves. 



BIN 



27 



BLA 



Bin, J. a repository for wine, corn, &c. 
Bi'nary, a. composed of two ; double. 
Biad, v. to tie, to fasten, to connect ; to put 

under constraint or obligation ; to make 

costive ; to cover books. 
Bi'nder, s. lie whose trade it is to bind books. 
Bi'nding, s. covering of books ; a bandage. 
Bi'nding, a. obligatory. 
Bin'nacle, Bit'tacle, s. a frame in the steerage 

of a ship, where the compass is placed. 
Bin'ocle, s. a telescope with two tubes, for 

looking at an object with both eyes. 
Binoc'ular, a. having two eyes or two tubes. 
Bino'mial, s. an algebraic term. 
Biog'rapher, s. a writer of lives. 
Biographical, a. relating to biography. 
Biog'raphy, s. a history or writing of lives. 
Bip'arous, a. bringing forth two at a birth. 
Bip'artite, a. having two corresponding parts. 
Bi'ped, s. a two-footed animal. 
Bipen'nated, a. having two wings. 
Bipet'alous, a. consisting of two flower-leaves. 
Biquad'rate, Biquadratic, s. the fourth power 

arising from multiplying a square by itself. 
Birch, s. a tree common in England ; a rod. 
Birch, Birch'en, a. made of birch. 
Bird, s. a name applied to all fowls. 
Bird'-bolt, s. an arrow for shooting birds. 
Bird'cage, s. a cage to keep birds in. 
Bird'eall, s. a whistle to allure birds. 
Bird'-catcher, s. oue who catches birds. 
Bird's-eye, a. seen from above, as if by the 

eye of a bird flying ; as " a bird's-eye 

view." 
Bird'lime, s. a glutinous substance used to 

entangle the feet of small birds. 
Bird's-nest, s. the nest which a bird makes 

for hatching and rearing its young. 
Birth, s. the act of coming into life ; lineage, 

extraction ; rank inherited by descent. 
Birth'day, s. the anniversary of the day of 

one's birth. 
Birth'dom, s. privilege of birth. 
Birth 'place, s. place where any one is born. 
Birth'right, s. the rights and privileges to 

which a person is born. 
Bis'cuit, 5. a kind of hard flat bread; a cake. 
Bisect', v. to divide into two equal parts. 
Biseo'tion, s. division into two equal parts. 
Bish'op, s. (literally, an overseer) a dignitary 

of the Church, presiding over the clergy 

within a district called a diocese ; a liquor 

composed of oranges, wine, sugar, &c. 
Bish'opric, s. the diocese of a bishop. 
Bis'muth, 5. a hard white brittle mineral. 
Bis'on, s. a kind of wild ox. 
Bissex'tile, s. leap-year ; every fourth year. 
Bit, s. a small piece of any thing ; a morsel ; 

the iron mouth-piece of a bridle. 
Bitch, s. the female of the dog kind. 
Bite, s. seizure by the teeth ; a sharper. 
Bite, v. to seize or wound with the teeth ; to 

cut ; to cheat, to trick. 
Bi'ter, s. one that bites ; a tricker. 
Biting, a. sharp, severe, sarcastic. 
Bi'tingly, ad. sarcastically; reproachfully. 
Bit'ter, a. biting to the taste ; acrid, sharp, 

painful, severe, satirical. 
Bit'terly, ad. with a bitter taste ; sharply. 
Bit' tern, s. a bird of the heron kind. 
Bit'torness, s. a bittor taste ; malice ; grief. 



Bit'ters, s. a spirit ous liquor in which bitter 

herbs or roots aro steeped. 
Bit'ter-wort, s. gentian, a very bitter plant. 
Bitu'men, s. a kind of pitch ; naphtha. 
Bitu'minous, a. containing bitumen. 
Bivalve, a. and s. having two valves or shells 

which open and shut, as an oyster. 
Biv'ouac, s. an armed force on guard all 

night : v. to be under arms all night. 
Blab, v. to tell a secret, to tattle, to tell tales. 
Blab, s. a telltale ; a tattler. 
Blab'ber, s. one who blabs ; a telltale. 
Black, a. of the colour of night ; ' dark ; 

wicked : s. a negro ; a dark colour ; mourn- 
ing : v. to blacken. 
Black'amoor, Black'moor, $. a negro. 
Black'ball, v. to vote against, by putting 

black balls into the ballot-box. 
Black'bird, s. the name of a bird. 
Blaek'berry, s. the fruit of the bramble. 
Black'-cattle, s. oxen ; bovine cattle. 
Black'-cock, s. the heath-cock. 
Black'en, v. to make black ; to defame. 
Black'guard, j.alow dirty fellow, a scoundrel. 
Black'ing, s. liquid, &c, for blacking shoos. 
Black'ish, a. somewhat block. 
Black-lead, s. a mineral used for pencils. 
Black'lcg, s. a swindler, a low cheater. 
Black'ness, s. a black colour ; atrociousness. 
Black'mail, s. a certain rate paid for pro- 
tection to men allied to robbers. 
Black'-rod, s. the usher belonging to the 

Order of the Garter ; usher of Parliament. 
Black'smith, s. a smith who works in iron. 
Black'thorn, s. the sloe-tree. 
Blad'der, s. urinary vessel ; a bag ; a pustule. 
Blade, s. the spire of grass or corn ; the 

sharp or cutting part of an instrument ; a 

sharp or keen person. 
Bla'debone, *. the upper bone of the shoulder. 
Blain, s. a pustule, an ulcer, ahile.a blister. 
Bla'mable, a. deserving blame ; faulty. 
Bla'mableness, s. culpability. 
Bla'mably, ad. culpably. 
Blame, s>. imputation of a fault ; censure. 
Blame, v. to censure, to reproach. 
Bla'meful, a. deserving blame ; culpable. 
Bla'meless, a. without blame ; guiltless, 

upright. 
Bla'meiessly, ad. innocently ; without fault, 
Bla'mclessness, j. a state undeserving blame. 
Bla'mer, s. one who finds fault. 
Bla'meworthy, a. culpable, blamable. 
Blanch, v. to whiten ; to whiten by peeling, 

as to blanch almonds ; to evade. 
Blanc-manger, [Fr.J s. a confected white 

jelly. 

Bland, a. soft, mild, gentle, kind. 
Blandil'oquence, s. flattering speech. 
Blan'dish, v. to smooth, to soften. 
Blan'disher, s. an insinuating flatterer, 
Blan'dishment, s. soft speeches, flattery. 
Blank, s. a void space ; a disappointment. 
Blank, a. white, without writing, empty. 
Blank-w?\v<?, s. verse without rhyme. 
Blan'ket, s. a woollen cover for a bed. 
Blan'keting, s. cloth made for blankets. 
Blasphe'rne, v. to speak blasphemy. 
Blasphe'mer, s. au impious wretch, who 

irreverently speaks of the Divine Being. 
Blasphe'ming, a\ the act of blasphemy. 
C 2 



BLA 28 



BLU 



Blas'phcrnous, a. very profane, very •wicked. 
Blas'phernously, ad. impiously, irreverently. 
Blas'phemy, s. impious language regarding 

the Divine Being. 
Blast, s. a gust or puff of wind ; the sound 

made by a musical wind instrument : v. to 

blight or wither ; to blow up. 
Blast'ing, s. a blast or sudden explosion. 
Blala.nt, a. bellowing as a beast ; noisy. 
Blaze, s. a flame, the light of a flame : v. to 

flame ; to publish, to blazon. 
Bla'zing, a. emitting flame or light. 
Bla'zon, Bla'zonry, s. the art of heraldry. 
Bla'zon, v. to explain figures on ensigns 

armorial ; to deck, to embellish ; to make 

public ; to celebrate. 
Bla'zoner, s. one who blazons. 
Bleacb, v. to whiten, to grow white. 
Ble'acher, s. one who bleaches cloth. 
Bie'aching, s. the art of whitening cloth, &c. 
Bleak, a. cold ; exposed ; dreary. 
Ble'akness.A'. coldness; exposure to the wind. 
Blear, a. watery, dim, obscure, weak. 
Ble'aredness, s. the eyes dimmed with rheum. 
Ble'ar-eyed, a. having sore eyes ; inflamed. 
Bleat, v. to cry like a sheep. 
Ble'ating, s. the cry of lambs or sheep. 
Bleed, v. to lose blood ; to let blood. 
Bleeding, s. a discharge of blood ; blood- 
letting. 
Blemish, s. a spot or stain : v. to defame. 
Blemlshless, a. without blemish or spot. 
Blench, v. to shrink or start back. 
Blend, a. to mix, to mingle, to confound. 
Blende, s. the ore of zinc. 
Bless, v. to wish or make happy. 
Bless'ed, p. and a. made happy ; holy. 
Bless 'edness, s. heavenly felicity. 
Bless'er, s. one who gives a blessing. 
Blessing, s. a good wish, divine favor. 
Blight, s. a disease incident to plants : v. to 

blast; to hinder from fertility ; to destroy. 
Blind, a. deprived of sight ; dark : v. to 

make blind ; to darken. 
Blind, s. any thing which is placed to inter- 
cept the sight ; a false pretence. 
Bli'ndfold, v. to hinder from seeing. 
Bli'ndfold, a. having the eyes covered. 
Bli'ndly, ad. without sight ; implicitly. 
Biindman's-buff', <?. a play in which ouoof the 

company, blindfolded, tries to catch the 

others. 
Bli'ndness, s. a want of sight ; ignorance. 
Bli'ndside, s. weak part ; foible. 
BJi'nd-worm, s. a small venomous viper. 
Blink, s. a wink or glance. 
Blink, v. to wink ; to see obscurely. 
Blin'kard, s. one who has weak eyes. 
Bliss, s. happiness of blessed souls; felicity. 
Bliss'ful, a. very happy, full of joy. 
Bliss'fully, ad. happily. 
Bliss'fulness, s. happiness, fulness of joy. 
Bliss'less, a. destitute of bliss. 
Blis'ter, s. a rising in the skin ; a plaster : 

v . to apply a blister ; to rise in blisters. 
Blithe, Bli'thesome, a. gay, merry, sprightly. 
Bli'theral, a. gay ; cheerful. 
Bli'thely, ad. in a blithe manner. 
Bli'theness, Bli'thesomencss, s. quality of 

being blithe. 
Bloat, v. to swell, to grow puffy. 



Bloat'edness, s. turgidness, swelling. 

Block, s. a large heavy piece of wood ; a 
piece of marble; a stupid fellow ; a pulley: 
v. tc shut up, to obstruct. 

Blocka'de, s. a siege carried on by surrounding 
a place to prevent any relief : v. to sur- 
round a place with troops by land, or with 
ships by sea. 

Block'head, s. a stupid person, a dunce. 

Block'headed, Blockish, a. stupid ; dull. 

Block'ishness, s. stupidity, dullness. 

Block'tin, s. pure or unmixed tin. 

Blood, s. the red fluid that circulates through 
the body ; kindred, lineage ; murder ; a 
man of hoc spirit ; a gay spark. 

Blood, v. to bleed by opening a vein. 

Blood-guilt'iness, s. murder. 

Blood'-hot, a. of the natural heat of blood. 

Blood'hound, s. a fierce species of hound. 

Blood'ily, ad. in a bloody manner ; cruelly. 

Bloodiness, s. the state of being bloody. 

Bloodless, a. without blond ; dead. 

Bloodletter, .y. a pblebotomist. 

Blood'pudding, s. a pudding, one of the in- 
gredients of which is blood. 

Blood'-red, a. red as blood. 

Blood'shed, s. the crime of murder, slaughter. 

Blood'shedder, s. a murderer. 

Blood'shedding, s. the shedding of blood. 

Blood'shot, a. filled with blood ; inflamed. 

Blood'stained, a. stained with blood. 

Blood'sucker, s. a leech ; a cruel man. 

Blood'sucking, a. that sucks or draws blood. 

Blood'vessel, s. a vein or artery. 

Blood'wann, a. lukewarm. 

Blood'y, a. stained with blood ; sanguinary. 

Blood'y-minded, a. cruel ; implacable. 

Bloom, *. the blossom or flower of a tree ; 
the state of any tbing ripening ; the prime 
of life ; a native flush on the cheek ; the 
blue that appears on grapes and plums 
newly gathered. 

Bloom, v. to produce blossoms. 

Blooming, Bloom'y, a. youthful ; flowery. 

Blos'som, s. the flowers of trees or plants. 

Blos'som, v. to put forth blossoms. 

Blos'soming, *. the flowering of plants. 

Blot, j. a blur, a spot : v. to disgrace, to stain 

Blotch, s. a pimple, a pustule on the skin. 

Blote, v. to dry by smoke. 

Blot'ting-paper, s . soft paper for taking up 
or absorbing ink. 

Blow, s. a stroke ; a sudden calamity ; the 
act of a fly, by which it lodges eggs in flesh. 

Blow, v. to make a current of wind ; to drive 
by the wind ; to pant or breathe hard ; to 
put forth flowers; to sound a musical wind 
instrument ; to swell. 

Blow'er, s. one who blows. 

Blow'-pipe, s. a tube used by various arti- 
ficers in metals, to direct the flame. 

Blowzo, s. a ruddy fat wench ; a slattern. 

Blow'zy, a. ruddy-faced, fat. 

Blub'ber, s. the fat of a whale, &c. : v. to 
swell the cheeks with weeping. 

Blud'geon, s. a weapon, a short thick stick. 

Blu'e, a. and »\ sky-coloured ; one of tho 
seven primary colours. 

Blu'e- bottle, s. a flower of the bell shape ; a 
large fly. 

Blu'e-eyed, a. having bluo eyes. 



BLU 



29 



BON 



Blu'el y, ad. with a blue colour. 

Blu'eness, s. the quality of being blue. 

Blue-pe'ter, s. the signal flag for sailing. 

Blu'e-veined, a. having blue veins or streaks. 

Bluff, *. a high and steep bank or headland. 

Bluff, a. blustering, fierce ; large. 

Bluff'ness, s. surliness ; bloatedness. 

Blu'ish, a. blue in a small degree. 

Blu'ishness, $. a small degree of blue colour. 

Blun'der, s. a mistake, a gross oversight : v. 
to mistake grossly ; to flounder. 

Blun'derbuss, s. a short wide gun, to dis- 
charge many bullets at a time. 

Blun'derer, s. one who commits blunders. 

Blun'derhead, s. a stupid fellow. 

Blun'dering, a. apt to blunder. 

Bhm'deringly, ad. in a blundering manner. 

Blunt, a. dull, rough, rude, impolite, abrupt : 
v. to dull the point or edge. 

Blunt'ly, ad. rudely, plainly, roughly. 

Blunt'ness, s. a want of edge ; rudeness. 

Blunt'witted, a. dull ; stupid. 

Blur, s. a spot, a stain : v. to blot. 

Blurt, v. to blab out, to speak heedlessly. 

Blush, v. to redden with shame or confusion : 
s. a rod colour suddenly suffused over the 
face ; sudden appearance or glance. 

Blush'ful, a. full of blushes ; apt to blush. 

Blush'less, a. impudent ; past blushing. 

Blush'y, a. like the colour caused by blushing. 

Blus'ter, v. to roar, to hector, to swagger. 

Blus'terer, s. a noisy person, a swaggerer. 

Blus'tering, s. tumult, noise : a. nozsy. 

Bo, int. an exclamation used to frighten 
children. 

Bo'a, s. a large species of serpent ; a long fur 
tippet, resembling a boa in shape. 

Boar, s. the male of swine. 

Board, s. a broad piece of wood ; a table ; a 
council ov commission assembled round a 
table ; the deck of a ship : v. to lay or 
cover with boards ; to enter a ship by 
force ; to live in a house at a certain rate 
for the boaTd or table. 

Board'er, s. one who pays to lodge and have 
his meals in another's family. 

Board'ing-sehool, s. a school where the 
scholars board with the teacher. 

Board-wa'ges, s. an allowance for victuals. 

Boast, s. a proud speech, a brag, a bounce. 

Boast, v. to brag, to glory in, to exult. 

Boast'er, s. a braggart, a puffer, a swaggerer. 

Boast'ful, a. proud, haughty, vain. 

Boast'iug, s. an expression of ostentation. 

Boast'ingly, ad. ostentatiously, vainly. 

Boast'less, a. without ostentation. 

Boat, s. a small vessel used on rivers, &c. 

Boat'-hook, *. a hook fixed to a long pole, 
and used to push or pull a boat. 

Boat'raan, s a manager of a boat. 

Boat'swain, s. an inferior officer who super- 
intends a ship's rigging, anchors, &c, and 
overlooks tho sailors in their sundry duties. 

Bob, s. any little pendant ornament that is 
round and hangs loosely. 

Bob, v. to dangle, to dodge, to cheat. 

Bob'bin, s. a little pin of wood with a 
notch, on which thread or lace is wound ; 
a round tape. 

Bob'binwork, s. work woven with bobbins. 
Bob-stays, s. the short ropes of thj bowsprit. 



Bob'tail, s. a short tail ; the rabble. 

Bob'taiied, a. having the tail cut short. 

Bob'- wig, *. a short wig. 

Bode, v. to foreshow, to portend. 

Bo'demont, s. an omen, a foreboding. 

Bod'ice, s. a sort of stays for women. 

Bod'ied, a. having a body. 

Bod'iless, a. without a body ; spiritual. 

Bod'ily, a. relating to the body, corporeal ; 

real, actual. 
Bo'ding, s. an omen ; a foreknowing. 
Bod'kin, s. a largo kind of needle to draw 

thread through a loop. 
Bod'y, s. matter as opposed to spirit ; a per- 
son ; a collective mass ; the bulk or main 

part ; a corporation. 
Bod'y-clothes, s. clothing for horses. 
Bod'y-guard, s. the king's personal guard. 
Bog, s. a marsh, a fen, a morass, a swamp : 

v. to whelm, as in mud or mire. 
Bog'gle, v. to start, to hesitate, to waver. 
Bog'gler, s. a doubter, a timorous man. 
Bog'gy, a. marshy ; swampy. 
Bog'-land, s. a boggy country. 
Bo'gle, Bog'gle, s. a bugbear ; a goblin. 
Bog'-trotter, s. one that lives among bogs ; 

a freebooter, a robber. 
Bohea', s. a species of coarse black tea. 
Boil, v. to heat to a boiling state ; to cook by 

boiling in water : s. a sore angry tumor 

terminating in a pustule. 
Boil'er, s. one that boils ; a vessel for boiling. 
Boil'ing, j. ebullition from heat. 
Bois'tcrous, a. noisy, tumultuous. 
Bois'terously, ad. violently ; very loudly. 
Bois'te;ousness, s. turbulence, violence. 
Bold, a. daring, impudent, licentious, brave. 
Bo'lden, v. to make bold or confident. 
Bo'id-faccd, a. impudent. 
Bo'ldly, ad. in a bold manner, bravely. 
Bo'ldncss, s. courage, impudence, confidence. 
Bole, s. a fine sort of clay, of which there are 

various kinds, as Armenian bole, French 

bole, &c. ; a corn measure of six bushels. 
Boll, s. a round stalk or stem ; a bowl. 
Boll, v. to rise in a stalk ; to swell out. 
Boi'ster, s. a large pillow ; a long cushion. 
Bol'ster, v. to support with a bolster or pad ; 

to hold or prop up. 
Bol'stering, s. a prop ; a support. 
Bolt, s. the bar of a door ; an arrow. 
Bolt, v. to fasten with a bolt ; to sift ; to 

spring out suddenly. 
Bol'ter, s. a sieve to separate meal from bran. 
Bol't-rope, s. a rope on the edges of sails. 
Bo'lus, s. a large pill ; a pill. 
Bomb, s. a hollow iron globe or shell con- 
taining combustibles, &c. to be discharged 

from a mortar. 
Bom'bard, j. a piece of short thick ordnance : 

a mortar of great dimensions. 
Bombard', v. to attack with bombs. 
Bombardier', s. a bomb engineer. 
Bombard'ment, s. an attack with bombs. 
Bombasin', s. a silken or mixed stuff. 
Bombast', s. big words ; an inflated style. 
Bombas'tic, a. high-sounding ; ranting. 
Bomb-ketch, Bomb-vessel, s. a vessel froo 

which bombs are fired. 
Bom'byx, s. the silk-worm. 
Bonas'us, s. a kind of buffalo or wild bull. 



EON 



SO 



BOD 



Bon-chretien, [Fr.] s. a species of pear. 
Bond, s. any thing that hinds ; a written ob- 
ligation : pi. captivity : a. in a servile 

state ; enslaved, captive : v. to give hond 

for, as for duties, &c. 
Bond'age, s. captivity, slavery, imprisonment. 
Bond'maid, s. a female slave. 
Bond'man, s. a male slave or serf. 
Bond'slave, s. a person in a state of slavery. 
Bonds'nian, s. one hound for another. 
Bone, s. a firm hard substance which forms 

the frame-work of the body : v. to take 

out bones from the llesh, as in cookery. 
Bc'neless, a. having no bones ; tender. 
Bo'ne-setter, s. one who professes the art of 

setting broken bones. 
Bo'ne-setting, s. the practice of setting bones. 
Bo'ne-spavin, s. a bony excrescence on the 

inside of the hock of a horse's leg. 
Bon'fire, s. a fire made for triumph. 
Bon-mot, [Fr.] s. a joke, a witty repartee. 
Bon'net, s. a covering for the head, a cap. 
Bon'nily, ad. prettily, gayly, handsomely. 
Bon'ny, a. handsome, beautiful, merry, gay. 
Bo'nurn Mag'num, s. a great sort of plum. 
Bo'nus, s. a benefit or advantage ; a premium 

in addition to interest for a loan. 
Bo'ny, a. full of bones ; strong, stout. 
Bonze, s. a priest of Japan and China. 
Boo'by, s. a dull stupid fellow ; a large bird. 
Book, s. a volume in which we read or write ; 

a literary work ; a division of a work : v. 

to enter or register in a book. 
Book'binder, s. one who binds books. 
Book'binding, s. the art of binding books. 
Book'case, s. a case for holding books. 
Book'ish, a. much given to books, studious. 
Book'kecper, s. one who keeps accounts. 
Book-keeping, s. the art of keeping accounts. 
Book'less, a. not given to books ; unlearned. 
Book'learned, a. versed in books. 
Book'lcarning, s. skill in literature. 
Book'making, s. art or practice of making 

books. 
Book'-oath, s. an oath made on the Bible. 
Book'sciler, s. a vender of books. 
Book'worm, s. a close student ; a mite that 

eats holes in books. 
Boom, s. a beam or long polo ; a strong bar 

laid across the mouth of a harbour. 
Boom, v. to make a booming noise like the 

bittern ; to make a rushing noise. 
Boon, s. an advantage ; a gift ; a favour : a. 

gay, merry, jovial. 
Boor, s. a clown, a lout, a rude man. 
Boor'ish, a. rustic, clownish, rude. 
Boor'ishly, ad. in a clownish manner. 
Boor'ishncss, s. elownishness ; rusticity. 
Boose, v. See Bouse. 
Boot, s. covering for the foot and leg ; part 

of a coach : v. to put on boots. 
Boot, s. something in addition ; advantage, 

profit : v. to profit or avail. 
Boot'ed, a. wearing boots. 
Boo'tes, s. a constellation in the northern 

hemisphere. 
Booth, s. a stall or shed erected in a fair. 
Boot'hosc, s. stockings to wear with boots. 
Boot'jack, s. a utensil for pulling off boot3. 
Boot'less, a. useless, unavailing, vain. 
Boot'lessly, ad. without use or profit. 



Boots, s. the servant at an inn who palls o.'I 
and cleans the boots of travellers. 

Boot' tree, s. pieces of wood, with a wedge or 
screw, for stretching boots. 

Boo'ty, s. plunder, pillage, spoil. 

Bopcep' s. looking out, crying bo ! and draw- 
ing back, as children in play. 

Bo'rax, s. a kind of salts. 

Bor'der, s. an edging ; a boundary. 

Border', v. to adorn with a border ; to ap- 
proach near to. 

Bcr'derer, s. an inhabitant near the borders. 

Bore, s. the hollow of a gun, &c. ; a trouble- 
some fellow ; an annoyance of any kind. 

Bore, v. to make a hole ; to annoy, to pester. 

Bore, s. a tide borne-over, or swelling above 
another tide ; a sudden influx of the tide. 

Bo'real, a. northern, tending to the north. 

Bo'reas, s. the north wind. 

Bo'rer, s. a gimblet ; one who bores. 

Bor'ough, s. a corporation town. 

Bor'ough-master, s. the mayor or bailiff of a 
borough. 

Bor'ough monger, s. one who traffics in 
boroughs. 

Bor'row, v. to ask a loan ; take on credit. 

Bor'rowcr, s. one who borrows from another. 

Boss, s. a stud, a knob. 

Bos'cage, [Fr.].?. a wood, a grove, woodlands. 

Bos'ky, a. bushy, woody. 

Bo'som, s. the breast ; the heart. 

Bo'som, v. to enclose in the bosom. 

Bos'sed, Bos'sy, a. prominent ; studded. 

Botan'ic, Botan'ical, a. relating to herbs. 

Botan'ically, ad. according to botanical laws. 

Bot'rnist, s. a person skilled in herbs. 

Bot'auize, v. to gather and arrange plants. 

Bot'any, s. knowledge of plants ; that part 
of natural history which relates to vegeta- 
bles. 

Botch, s. an ulcerous swelling ; a part in any 
work ill-finished : v. to patch clumsily ; 
to spoil. 

Botch'er, s. one who mends old clothes. 

Botch'y, a. marked with botches. 

Both, a. the two, of two : ad. as well. 

Both'er, v. to perplex, to confuse. 

Bots, s. small worms in the entrails of horses. 

Bot'tle, s. a vessel to contain liquids ; a 
quantity of hay or straw bundled up : v. 
to put into bottles. 

Bot'tle-conipanion, s. a drinking companion. 

Bot'tom, s. the lowest part of any thing : v. 
to found or build upon. 

Bot'tomed, a. having a bottom. 

Bot'tomlcss, a. without any bottom ; un£v- 
tliomable, or immeasurably deep. 

Bot'tomry, s. money borrowed on a ship. 

Boudoir, [Fr.] s. a small private apartment. 

Bough, s. an arm of a tree, a branch. 

Bougie', j. a surgical instrument. 

Bought, past tense of buy. 

Bou'illon, [Fr.] s. soup ; broth. 

Bounce, v. to leap, to spring ; to boast. 

Bounce, s. a sudden crack or noise ; a boast. 

Boun'cer, s. a boaster, a bully ; a lie. 

Boun'cing, a. stout, strong; large. 

Bound, *. a limit, an end : v. to limit ; to 
leap or spring ; to fly back : a. destined 
for, as a ship. 

Bound'ary, s. a limit or mark. 



BOU 



31 



Bound'-bailiff, s. a sheriff's officer. 

Boundless, a. unlimited, unconfined. 

Boundlessness, s. exemption I'rom limits. 

Boun'teous, Bounl.iful, a. liberal, generous. 

Boun'teously, Boun'tifully, ad. liberally. 

Boun'tifulness, s. generosity, liberality. 

Boun'ty, s. generosity, munificence. 

Bouque't, [Fr.] s. a nosegay. 

Bou/geon, v. to sprout, to bud, to shoot. 

Bourn, s. a bound, a limit ; a brook. 

Bouse, or Boose, v. to drink to excess. 

Bou'sy, or Boosy, a. muddled with liquor. 

Bout, s. a turn, a trial, an attempt. 

Bouta'de, [Fr.] s. a whim ; a start of fancy. 

Bou'tefeu, [Fr.] s. an incendiary ; a disturber. 

Bow, s. an inclination of the body ; an in- 
strument to shoot arrows ; a knot made 
with a riband : v. to bend, to stoop. 

Bow'els, s. pi. the intestinal parts ; tenderness. 

BoVer, s. an arbour in a garden ; an anchor. 

Bow'ery, a. shady, retired, cool. 

Bowl, *. the hollow of a cup or glass ; a 
vessel to make punch in ; a wooden ball. 

Bowl, v. to play at bowls ; to roll, trundle. 

Bowl'der, Boul'dcr, s. a large round stone. 

Bow'legged, a. having crooked legs. 

Bowler, s. one who bowls, or plays at bowls. 

Bow'line, s. the name of a ship's rope. 

Bowl'ing, s. the art of throwing bowls. 

Bowl'ing-green, s. a level green for bowlers. 

Bow'man, s. an archer ; shooter with bows. 

BoVshot, s. the distance an arrow can reach. 

Bow'sprit, s. the large beam or spar that 
projects from the bows of a vessel. 

Bow'string, s. the string used for a bow. 

Bow-window, s. a projecting window. 

Bow'yer, s . an archer ; a maker of bows. 

Box, s. a case made of wood ; a blow with 
the fist ; an enclosed seat. 

Box, v. to strike ; to pack in a box. 

Box'en, a. made of box ; resembling box. 

Box'er, s. one who fights with the fist. 

Boxing, s. a combat with the fists. 

Boy, s. a male child, a youth. 

Boyliood, s. the state of a boy ; youth. 

Boy'ish, a. childish ; simple ; like a boy. 

Boyishness, Boy'ism, s. childishness, play. 

Brace, s. a bandage ; tightness ; pair; a line. 

Brace, v. to bind, to tighten, to strain up. 

Bra'celet, s. an ornament for the wrists. 

Bra'cer, s. a bandage, any thing that tightens. 

Brachial, a. belonging to the arm. 

Brach'man, s. an Indian priest ; a Bramin. 

Brack'et, s. a small support made of wood. 

Brack'ish, a. saltish, like sea water. 

Brack'islmcss, .?. saltncss in a small degree. 

Brag, s a boast ; a game at cards. 

Brag, v. to boast, to swagger. 

Braggado'cia, s. a boaster, a swaggerer. 

Brag'gart, s. a vain boasting fellow. 

Brag'gart, a. boastful, vainly ostentatious. 

Brag'gingly, ad. boastingly. 

Braid, v. to weave together, to plait. 

Braid, s. a sort of lace ; a knot ; false hair. 

Brails, s. ropes used to draw up a ship's sails. 

Brain, *. the collection of vessels and organs 
within the skull ; sense, understanding : 
v . to dash out the brains. 

Brainless, a, silly, foolish, weak, thoughtless. 

Brain'pan, s. tho skull containing the brains. 

Brain'sick, a. diseased in the understanding. 



BEE 

Brake, s. a thicket of brambles ; an instru- 
ment for dressing flax ; a kneading-trough. 
Bra'ky, a. full of brakes, thorny, foul, thick. 
Bram'a, Brah'ma, s. the chief deity of the 

Indians'. 
Bram'ble, .s. a prickly or thorny bush. 
Bram'bled, a. overgrown with brambles. 
Bram'ble-net, s. a net to catch birds. 
Bram'in, Brah'min, *. an Indian priest. 
Bran, s. the husks of ground corn. 
Branch, s. a small bough, a shoot ; offspring. 
Branch, v. to spread in branches, to adorn. 
Branchless, a. without shoots or boughs. 
Branch'y, a full of branches ; spreading. 
Brand, v. to mark with a brand, to burn. 
Brand, s. a mark of infamy; a lighted stick, 
Brandlron, s. an iron to brand with. 
Bran'dish, v. to wave, to shake, to flourish. 
Bran'dy, s. a strong distilled liquor. 
Bran'gle, s. a quarrel, a squabble : v . to 

wrangle. 
Bra'sier, Bra'zier, s. one who works in brass. 
Brass, s. a yellow metal composed of copper 

and zinc ; impudence. 
Brass'-visaged, a. impudent, shameless. 
Brass'y, a. hard as brass; made of brass ; 

bold. 
Brat, s. a contemptuous name for a child. 
Brava'do, s. a boast, a brag, a threat. 
Brave, a. courageous, gallant, noble : s. a 

daring man ; a boast : v. to challenge, to 

defy. 
Bra'vely, ad. gallantly, nobly ; generously. 
Bra'very, *. courage, heroism ; showy dress. 
Bra'vo, [Ital.] s. one who murders for hire;. 
Bra'vo, [It.] int. an exclamation of applause. 
Biavu'ra, [Ital.] s. a song requiring great 

vocal ability. 
Brawl, s. a quarrel ; a dance. 
Brawl, v. to quarrel, to speak loudly. 
Brawl'er, s. a wrangler, a quarrelsome 

person. 
Brawling, s. the act of quarrelling. 
Brawn, s. the hard flesh of a boar. 
Brawnlness, s. hardness, robustness. 
Brawn'y, a. fleshy, strong, muscular. 
Bray, s. the noise of an ass ; harsh cry : v. to 

bruise in a mortar ; to bray like an ass. 
Braying, s. clamour, noise. 
Braze, v. to solder with brass. 
Bra'zen, a. made of brass ; bold : v. to face 

it out, to be impudent. 
Bra'zcnbrowcd, Bra'zenfaccd, a. shameless. 
Bra'zenface, s. a bold, impudent person. 
Bra'zenly, ad. in a bold, impudent manner. 
Bra'zenness, s. shamelessness ; boldness. 
Brazil', s. a heavy red wood, growing in 

Brazil, and used in dying red. 
Brazilian, a. pertaining to Brazil. 
Breach, s. a breaking, a gap ; a quarrel. 
Bread, s. food made of ground corn. 
Breadth, s. the measure from side to side. 
Brcadthless, a. without limit of breadth. 
Bread'-trce, s. a tree that grows in the islands 

of the Pacific Ocean, and produces a fruit 

which serves for bread. 
Break, v. to part or burst by violence ; to 

tame ; to become bankrupt ; to fall out. 
Break, s. an opening, a breach, a failure, 
Break'er, s. one who breaks any tbing : a 

transgressor ; a rock that breaks the waves. 



BKJU 



32 



±5KU 



Break'fast, J. the meal which breaks our 
fast ; the first meal : v. to take breakfast. 

Breaking, s. irruption ; dissolution. 

Breakmg-in', s. the training of a young horse. 

Break'-neck, s. and a. a steep and dangerous 
place ; endangering the neck. 

Break'water, s. any bar at the entrance of a 
harbour to break the force of the sea. 

Bream, s. the name of a fish. 

Breast, s. that part of the body which contains 
the heart and lungs ; bosom ; conscience. 

Breast'bone, s. the bone immediately below 
the collar-bone ; the sternum. 

Breast'knot, s. ribands worn on the breast. 

Breast'plate, s. armour for the breast. 

Breast'work, s. a parapet, or work thrown up 
for defence, breast-nigh. 

Breath, s. the air which we breathe ; life ; a 
pause. 

Bre'athable, a. that may be breathed. 

Bre'athe, v. to draw breath ; to live ; to 
pause ; to utter privately. 

Bre'athing, s. the act of inhaling and ex- 
haling air ; respite. 

Bre'athing-time, s. pause, relaxation. 

Breath'less, a. out of breath, hurried ; dead. 

Breath'lessness, s. the being out of breath. 

Breech, s. a part of a gun; the lower part of 
the body : v. to put into breeches. 

Breech'es, s. part of a man's apparel. 

Breed, v. to engender, to plot ; to bring up. 

Breed, s. a race or progeny ; offspring. 

Breed'er, s. one who rears animals. 

Breed'ing, s. education, manners; nurture. 

Breeze, s. a gentle gale. 

Bre'ezeless, a. ca:m, wanting a breeze. 

Bree'zy, a. fanned with gentle gales, cool. 

Breth'ren, s. the plural of Brother, generally 
used in sacred writings. 

Breve, s. a note in music. 

Brevet', s. originally, a brief or short warrant 
or commission without seal ; an appoint- 
ment in the army with rank above that for 
which pay is received. 

Brev'et, a. taking rank by brevet; as a brevet 
colonel is a colonel in rank with the pay of 
a lieutenant-colonel. 

Brev'iary, s. a compendium or abridgment ; 
a book containing the daily office read by 
the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church. 

Bre'viat, s. a short compendium, an extract. 

Brevier', s. a small kind of printing-letter. 

Brev'ity, Briefness, s. conciseness, shortness. 

Brew, v. to make liquors ; to contrive. 

Brew'er, s. one who brews. 

Brew'ery, s. a place appropriated to brewing. 

Brew'house, s. a place for brewing in. 

Brewing, s. the process of making iiquors ; 
quantity brewed at once. 

Bribe, s. a reward given to pervert judgment. 

Bribe, v. to gain by gifts ; to corrupt. 

Eri'ber, s. one who corrupts for pay. 

Bri'bery, s. the act or crime of bribing. 

Brick, s. a long-square piece of burnt clay ; 
a small loaf: v. to lay or pave with bricks. 

Brick'bat, s. a piece of brick. 

Brick'dust, *. dust made by pounding bricks. 

Brick'-carth, s. clay or earth for bricks. 

Brick'kiln, s. a place where bricks are burnt. 

Brick'layer, s. a brick mason. 

Bvick'maker, s. one who makes bricks. 



Bri'dal, s. the nuptial festival, a wedding. 
Bri'dal, a. and*, relating to marriage, nuptial. 
Bride, s. a newly-married woman. 
Bri'de-cake,*.a cake distributed at a wedding. 
Bri'degroom, s. a newly-married man. 
Bri'demaid, s, the woman who attends a 

bride at the marriage ceremony. 
Bri'dewell, s. a house of correction. 
Bridge, s. a building raised over water for 

convenience of passage ; upper part of the 

nose; supporter of violin strings: v. to 

raise or make a bridge. 
Bri'dle, s. the head reins of a horse, a check. 
Bri'dle, v. to put on a bridle ; to restrain ; 

to guide ; to hold up the head. 
Bri'dle-hand, s. the hand which holds the 

bridle ; the left hand. 
Brief, a. short, concise. 
Brief, s. a short statement of a case given to 

a pleader or lawyer. 
Briefness, a. conciseness, shortness. 
Briefly, ad. concisely, shortly, in few words. 
Bri'er, s. a prickly bush ; a species of rose-tree. 
Bri'ery, a. full of briers, prickly. 
Brig, s. a light vessel with two masts, an 

abbreviation of brigantine. 
Briga'de, s. a party or division of soldiers. 
Briga'de-major, s. commander of a brigade. 
Brigadie'r-general, s. an officer next iu rank 

to a major-general. 
Brig'and, s. a freebooter, a robber. 
Brig'antine, s. a small vessel, such as corsairs 

or pirates used. 
Bright, a. shining, clear ; illustrious. 
Bright'en, v. to polish ; to grow bright. 
Bright'ly, ad. splendidly, with lustre. 
Brightness, s. lustre ; acuteness, wit. 
BriT'liance, Brilliancy, s. lustre, splendour. 
Bril'liant, a. sparkling : s. a fine diamond. 
Brilliantly, ad. splendidly. 
Brim, s. the edge of any thing ; the upper 

edge of any vessel ; the brink of a foun- 
tain, river, or sea. 
Brim'ful, a. full to the brim. 
Brim'less, a. without an edge or brim. 
Brim'mer, s. a glass full to the brim. 
Brim'ming, a. full to the brim. 
Brim'stone, s. a yellow mineral ; sulphur. 
Brin'ded, or Brin'dled, a. streaked, spotted. 
Brine, s. dissolved salt ; the sea ; tears. 
Bri'ne-pit, s. a pit where salt is formed. 
Bri'ne-spring. s. a spring of salt-water. 
Bring, v. to fetch, conduct, prevail on. 
Bring'er, s. the person that brings. 
Bri'nish, Bri'ny, a. saltish, like brine. 
Brink, s. the edge of a place ; a precipice. 
Brisk, a. quick, lively, active. 
Biis'kct, s. the breast of an animal. 
Briskly, ad. actively, quickly, nimbly. 
Brisk'ness, s. liveliness, quickness, gaiety. 
Bris'tle, s. the hair on a swine's back. 
Bris'tle, v. to stand erect as bristles. 
Bris'tly, a. thick set with bristles. 
Britch'ing, 5. harness for the hinder part of 

a horse. 
Brits'ka, s. a kind of barouche. 
Brit'on, s. a native of Great Britain. 
Brit'tle, a. apt to break, weak, frail. 
Brit'tleness, s. aptness to break, tenderness. 
Broach, v. to tap a vessel ; to give out or 

utter. 



BRO 



33 



Broach'er, s. one who first opens or utters. 

Broad, a. wide, extended; coarse, obscene. 

Broad'-cast, s. a sowing with the hand at 
large, and not in straight lines. 

Broad'clcth, s. fine kind of woollen cloth. 

Broad'ly, ad. in a broad manner. 

Broad'ness, s. breadth ; coarseness. 

Broad'sido, s. the side of a ship ; a discharge 
of all the guns from one side at once. 

Broad'sword, s. a sword with a broad blade. 

Broad'wiso, ad. according to the breadth. 

Broca'de, s. a kind of fine dowered silk. 

Bro'cage, s. profit gained by promoting bar- 
gains ; dealing in old things ; hire. 

Broc'eoli, s. a species of cabbage. 

Brook, *■. a badger. 

Brogue. s. a kind of shoe ; corrupt dialect. 

Broi'der, v. to adorn with needle-work. 

Broi'derer, s. an embroiderer. 

Broi'dery, s. embroidery, ornamental needle- 
work. 

Broil, s. a disturbance, tumult, quarrel. 

Broil, v. to roast on the fire ; to be hot. 

Brokenheart'ed, a. having the spirits subdued 
by grief or fear ; disconsolate. 

Bro'kenness, s. the state of being broken. 

Brokenwind'ed, a. having short breath. 

Bro'ker, a-, one who does business for others. 

Bro'kerage, s. the pay or reward of a broker. 

Bron'chiae, jr. the ramifications of the wind- 
pipe. 

Bron'chial, a. belonging to the throat. 

Bron'chus, [Lat.] the windpipe, the throat. 

Bronze, s. a metal compounded of copper 
and brass, or copper and tin. 

Bronze, v. to imitate bronze by means of 
gold dust laid on green paint. 

Bronz'ing, s. the art of imitating bronze. 

Brooch, s. a jewel, an ornament of jewels. 

Brooch, v. to adorn with jewels. 

Brood, s. offspring ; progeny ; the number of 
chickens hatched at once. 

Brood, v. to sit on eggs ; to watch anxiously. 

Brook, s. a rivulet or small river. 

Brook, v. to endure, to tolerate. 

Brook'mint, s. the water-mint. 

Brook'y, a. abounding with brooks. 

Broom, s. a shrub ; a besom to sweep with. 

Broom'stick, J. the handle of a besom. 

Broo'my, a. full of or like broom. 

Broth, s. liquor in which flesh is boiled. 

Broth'el, s. a house of lewdness. 

Broth'or, s. a male born of the same parents. 

Broth'erhood, s. union, society, class. 

Broth'erless, a. without a brother. 

Broth'erlike, a. becoming a brother. 

Broth/crly, a. like brothers, very fond. 

Brow, s. the forehead ; edge of a place. 

Brow'beat, p. to bear down, to humble, to 
depress with angry words. 

Browbeating, s. the act of depressing an- 
other by strrn looks or language. 

Brown, s. the aame of a color. 

Brow'nie, *. a harmless spirit supposed to 
haunt old houses in Scotland. 

Brown'ish, a. inclining to brown, reddish. 

Brown'ness, s. a brown color. 

Brownstud'y, *. dull thoughtfulness. 

Brawsc, v. to feed on sprouts or tender 
branches of trees. 

Bruise, v. to hurt with blows: to crush. 



BUG 

Bruise, s. a hurt from a heavy blow. 
Bru'iser, s. a too) for grinding the specula of 

telescopes ; in cant language, a boxer. 
Bru'ising, s. a crushing; a beating. 
Bruit, s. a report, a noiso : v. to noise about. 
Bru'mal, a. cold, belonging to winter. 
Brunet'te, s. a brown-complexioned woman. 
Brunt, S. a shock, an onset, violence. 
Brush, s. an instrument for sweeping ; a 

pencil used by painters; the tail of a fox. 
Brush, v. to sweep with a brush ; to skim 

lightly ; to move hastily past. 
Brushing, s. a rubbing or sweeping. 
Brush'wood, s. rough shrubby thickets. 
Brush'y, a. rough or shaggy, like a brush. 
Brusque, [Fr.] a. in an abrupt or rude 

manner. 
Bru'tal, a. savage, cruel, inhuman, churlish. 
Brutal'ity, s. savageness, inhumanity. 
Bru'talize, v. to make savage or brutal. 
Bru'tally, ad. in a brutal manner. 
Brute, s. an irrational animal. 
Brute, a. senseless, savage, fierce, wild. 
Bru'tify, v. to render the mind brutal. 
Bru'tish, a. resembling a beast, savage. 
Bru'tishness, s. brutality ; insensibility. 
Bub'ble, s. a small bladder of water ; any 

thing empty and transitory ; a delusive 

scheme. 
Bub'ble, v. to rise in bubbles; to run with a 

gentle noise. 
Bu'bo, 8. a tumor of the groin. 
Bucaneer', Bucanier', s. a name given to the 

pirates who formerly infested the West 

Indies and Spanish America. 
Buck, s. the male of deer, &c. 
Buck, s. a dashing fellow, a blood. 
Buck, v. to soak or steep in lye or suds. 
Buck'basket, s. the basket in which clothes 

are carried to the wash. 
Buck'et, j. a vessel to draw up water in. 
Buck'ing-stool, *. a washing-block. 
Bin/kle, s. a fastening for a strap, &c. : v. to 

fasten with a buckle ; to sot to or com- 
mence determinately. 
Buck'ler, *. a kind of shield. 
Buck'ram, s. cloth stiffened with gum. 
Buek'skin, s. leather made of bucks' sk'.n. 
Bucol'ie, a. pastoral. 

Bucolics, s.pl. pastoral songs, rural dialogues. 
Bud, s. the first fruit of a plant, a germ. 
Bud, v. to put forth buds ; inoculate; graft. 
Bud'dha, s. a Hindoo deity. 
Bud'dhism, s. the doctrine of the Buddhists. 
Bud'dhist, *. a worshipper of Buddha. 
Budge, v. to stir or move from a place. 
Bud'get, *. a bag, a pouch ; the bag th:. t 

contains prepared documents to lay before 

Parliament on financial matters. 
Buff, s. leather made of a buffilo's skin ; 

color resembling yellow ; a military coat. 
Buff, Buffet, v. to 'box. to beat, to strike. 
Buffalo, s. a kind of wild bull. 
Buffet', *. a kind of cupboard to hold china. 
Buffet, Buffeting, s. a succession of blows. 
Buffo, [Ital.] s. the conv/c actor in an opei-a. 
Buffoon', *. an arch fellow, a low jester. 
Butfoon'ery, s. low jests, mimicry. 
Buffoon'ish, a. like a buffoon. 
Bug, s. an odious insect bred in beds. 
Bug'bear. s. a frightful object ; a false terror . 
C 3 



BUG 



34 



BUS 



Bug'gy, a. abounding with, bugs ; a one-horse 

chaise. 
Bu'gle, s. a small bead of glass. 
Bu'gle-horn, s. a hunting horn. 
Build, v. to raise a building ; to raise on a 

support or foundation ; to depend on. 
Build'er, s. one who builds houses. 
Builu'ing, s. an edifice or fabric built. 
Bulb, s. a round root, such as tulips, &c. 
Bulba'eeous, a. consisting of bulbs. 
Buib'ed, a. round-headed. 
Bulbif'erous, a. producing bulbs. 
Bul'bous, a. having round heads, large. 
Bulge, j. the broadest part of a cask ; a 

protuberance : v. to swell out, to be pro- 
• tuberant. 
Bulk, s. magnitude, size ; the main part. 
Bulk'head, s. a partition across a ship. 
Bulk'iness, s. greatness of size. 
Bulk'y, a. large, heavy, of great size. 
Bull, *. the male of cattle ; a sign of the 

zodiac ; an edict of the Pope ; a blunder. 
Bull'baiting, s. a fight of dogs with a bull. 
Bull'calf, s. a male-calf ; a stupid fellow. 
Bull'dog, s. a species of British dog. 
Bull'et, s. a round ball of lead or iron. 
BuH'etin, [Fr.] s. an official account of news. 
Bulifmch, s. a finch with bull-like nsck. 
Bull'frog, s. a large species of frog. 
Bul.l'trout, *. a large species of trout. 
Bull'ion, s. gold or silver in the mass. 
Bull'ock, s. a young bull or steer ; an ox. 
Bull's-eye, s. the star in the head of the con- 
stellation Taurus ; the centre of a target. 
Bull y, s. a blustering quarrelsome fellow : 

v. to bluster; to overbear with menaces. 
Bol'rusk, s. a largo rush growing by rivers. 
Bul'wark, s. a fortification, a defence. 
Bumbail'iff, (properly bound bailiff,) s. a 

sheriff's officer. 
Bum'ble-bec, s. the wild bee, or bumblebee. 
Burn/boat, s. a small boat in which articles 

are carried on shipboard for sale. 
Bump, s. a swelling, a blow, a thump. 
Bump, v. to strike against ;. to thump. 
Bum'per, s. a glass full of liquor to the brim. 
Bump'kin, s. a clown, a lout, a rustic. 
Bunch, s. a cluster, knot, hard lump : v. to 

swell out in a bunch. 
Bunck'y, a. growing in or full of bunches. 
Bun'dle, s. a parcel of things bound together. 
Bun'dio, v. to bind or tie up together. 
Bung, s. a stopper for a barrel : v. to stop 

with a bung. 
Bung'holo, s. the hole at which the barrel is 

filled. 
Bungle, v. to perform any thing clumsily : 

s. clumsy performance ; a botch. 
Bun'gler, s. a clumsy, awkward workman. 
Bundling, a. clumsy, awkwardly done. 
Bmig'linglv, ad. clumsily, awkwardly. 
Bun, s. a small kind of light cake. 
Bunt, v. to protrude, to swell out : s. the 

middle part or cavity of a sail. 
Bun'ting, * . the stuff of which a ship's colours 

or hags are made ; a bird so called. 
Buut'lines, .«. ropes for drawing up sails. 
Buoy, s. a Heating object to indicate shoals, 

rocks, or the place of a ship's anchor : v. 

to keep aiioat, to bear up. 
Buc/ancy, s. tbe quality of floating. 



Buoy'ant, a. floating ; light. 

Bur, s. the prickly head of the burdock. 

Bur'den, Bur'then, s. a load ; uneasiness. 

Bur'den, v . to load, incumber, oppress. 

Burdensome, a. heavy, grievous. 

Bur'dock, s. a broad-leaved, prickly plant. 

Bureau', s. a set of drawers with a desk ; an 
ambassador's or secretary's office. 

Burgage, *. a tenure proper to cities and 
towns conferring the privileges of a bur- 
gess ; a dwelling-house in a borough. 

Bur'geois, [Fr.]s. a citizen ; a printing-type. 

Bui-'gess, s. a citizen, a representative. 

Burgh, s. a borough town, a corporation. 

Bur'gher, s. a freeman ; one who has a right 
to vote, and possesses other privileges. 

Burgh'mote, s. a borough court. 

Burg'lar, s. a thief that enters a house by 
night. 

Burgla'rious, a. relating to housebreaking. 

Burgla'riously,ac?. with burglarious intention. 

Burglary, s. the crime of entering a house 
by night to rob it. 

Burgomaster, s. a principal citizen in Hol- 
land ; a Dutch magistrate. 

Burgou't, {goo) s. thick gruel made at sea. 

Bur'gundy, *. a wine from Burgundy in 
France. 

Bur'ial, s. the act of interring the dead. 

Bur'ial-place, s. a church-yard, a burying- 
ground. 

Bu'rine, s. a tool for engraving, a graver. 

Burlcs'que, s. a ludicrous representation : a. 
ludicrous, droll, jocular : v. to turn to 
ridicule. 

Burlct'ta, J. a ludicrous musical farce. 

Bur'ly, a. blustering, big, bulky. 

Burn, v. to consume by fire ; to be inflamed. 

Burn, s. a hurt caused by fire. 

Burn'er, s. a person that burns any thing. 

Burn'ing, s. state of infiammatiou, combus- 
tion. 

Burning, a. vehement ; powerful. 

Burn'ing-glass, s. a glass which collects tho 
rays of the sun, and increases their heat. 

Bur'nish, s. a gloss ; a polish. 

BuVnish, v. to polish, to make bright. 

Bur'nisher, s. an instrument used for bur- 
nishing ; a person that burnishes. 

Burr, .?. the lobe or tip of the ear. 

Bu/row, v. to make holes, to mine. 

Bur'row, s. a place where rabbits burrow. 

Bur'sar. s. the treasurer of a college. 

Bur'sar'-.hip, s. the office of bursar. 

Bur'sary, s. the treasury of a college. 

Burse, s. an exchange where merchants meet. 

Burst, V. to break asunder, to fly open. 

Burst, s. a sudden disruption, a rupture. 

Bur'then, s. See Burden. 

Bu/y, v. to put into a grave ; to hide. 

Bur'ying, s. burial ; a funeral. 

Bush, j. a thick shrub, a bough. 

Bush, v. to grow thick ; to sprout out. 

Bush'el, s. a dry measure containing four 
pecks. 

Bush'iness, s. the quality of being bushy. 

Bush'y, a. thick, full of small branches, &C. 

Bus'ily, ad. with hurry ; very actively. 

Bus'iness, s. an employment, trade, affair- 

Busk, s. a piece of whalebone, or steel, •wvix 
by women to strengthen their stays. 



BUS 



35 



CAI 



Bns'kin, *. a kind of half-boot ; a high shoe 

■worn by the ancient actors in tragedy. 
Bos'kined, a. dressed in buskins. 
Busk'y, a. -woody, shaded with woods. 
Buss, *. a small fishing-boat ; a kiss. 
Buss, v. to kiss, to salute with the lips. 
Bust, s. a statue of the head and shoulders. 
Bus'tard, s. a large bird of the turkey kind. 
Bustle, v. to move about busily ; to make a 

great stir : s. a hurry, a great stir ; part of 

a lady's dress. 
Bus'tler, s. an active person, a busybody. 
Bus'y, a. actively employed ; officious. 
Bu/ybody, *. a meddling officious person. 
But, s. a boundary, limit, end of a thing : 

v. to abut or touch at the one end. 
But, conj. yet, nevertheless, however : prep. 

without ; except : ad. no more than. 
Butch'er, s. one who kills animals to sell. 
Butch'or, v. to kill, to slay, to murder. 
Butch'erly, a. cruel, barbarous, brutal. 
Butch'ery, *. murder ; a slaughter-house. 
But'-end, s. the end upon which any thing 

rests ; the large end. 
But'ler, s. a servant who is entrusted with a 

gentleman's liquors, &c. 
But'ment, s. the support of an arch. 
Butt, s. a mark to be aimed at ; an object of 

ridicule ; a cask containing 126 gallons. 
Butt, v. to strike with the head. 
But'ter, s. food made from the cream of 

milk : v. to moisten with butter. 
But'tercup, ,y. the name of a field flower, 
But'terflower, s. a bright yellow May flower. 
But'torfly, 5. a beautiful winged insect. 
But'termilk, s. the whey of churned cream. 
But'terprint, s. apiece of carved wood, used 

to mark butter. 
But'tery, s. a place where provisions are kept : 

a. having the appearance of butter. 
But'tock, s. the thickest part of the thigh. 
But'ton, s. a knob or ball used for the fasten- 
ing of clothes ; bud of a plant. 
But'tonbolo, s. a hole to fasten a button in. 
But'tress, J. a prop or support : v. to prop. 
Bux'om, a. lively, brisk, gay, jolly. 
Bus/omly, ad. wantonly, amorously. 
Bux'omness, s. wantonness, amorousness. 
Buy, v. to pay a price for, to treat for. 
Buy'er, *. one wlio buys, a purchaser. 
Buzz, s. a whisper, a hum, low talk. 
Buzz, v. to hum like bees; to spread secretly. 
Buz'zard, s. a hawk ; dunce, blockhead : a. 

senseless, stupid. 
Buz'zer, s. a secret whisperer. 
Buz'zing. s. a humming noise, low talk. 
By, ad. near ; beside ; passing; in presence. 
By, pr. denoting the agent, way, means. 
By-and-by", ad. in a short time, presently. 
By-the-bvo', ad. by the way, in passing. 
Byo, s. a dwelling ; a habitation. 
By'-end, s. secret purpose or advantage. 
By'-gone, a. past, gone by. 
By'-lane, s. a private or retired lane. 
ByMaw, s. private rules in a society. 
By'-namo, s. nick-name. 
BZ-path, j. a private or obscure path. 
Byro, s. a cow-bouso. 
By'-road, s. an obscure or private road. 
By'-staiiihr, s. a looker on, an observer. 
By'-stioct, s. a private or obscure street. 



By'-view, s. a self-interested purpose. 
By'-walk, s. a secluded or private walk 
By'way, s. a private and obscure way. 
By'-word, s. a cant word, a taunt. 



C, is an abbreviation for Centum, 100. 

Cab, s. an abbreviation of Cabriolet. 

Cabal', s. an intrigue ; a private junto. 

Cabal', v. to intrigue privately, to plot. 

Cab'ala, s. the secret science of the Jewish 
rabbins ; the Hebrew traditions. 

Cab'alist, s. one skilled in Jewish traditions. 

Cabalist'ic, Cabalist'ical, a. mysterious, 
secret. 

Cabal ist'ically, ad. in a cabalistic manner. 

Cabal'ler, s. an intriguer, a plotter. 

Cab'aret, [Fr.] J. a public-house or tavern. 

Cab'bage, s. a well-known vegetable. 

Cab'bage, v. to steal in cutting clothes. 

Cab'bago-tree, s. a species of palm-tree. 

Cab'in, s. an apartment in a ship ; a cottage. 

Cab'in, v. to live or confine in a cabin. 

Cab'in-boy, s. the boy who waits in the cabin 
on board a ship. 

Cab'inot, s. a small room ; a room in which 
state consultations are held ; the collective 
body of the ministers of state ; a set of 
drawers for curiosities. 

Cab'inet-council, s. a consultation of the 
cabinet ministers. 

Cab'inet -maker, s. one that makes fine wood- 
work. 

Ca'ble, s. a rope to hold a ship at anchor. 

Caboo'se, s. the cook-room of a ship. 

Cabriolet', [Fr.] j. an open one-horse car- 
riage. 

Cach'alot, s. a fish, the spermaceti whale. 

Ca'chet, [Fr.] s. a sealed or private letter. 

Cachinna'tion, s. loud laughter. 

Cacique, .?. See Cazique. 

Cac'kle, s. the voice of a goose or hen ; idle 
talk ; prattle : v. to make an idle noise. 

Ca'coa, Co'coa, s. the chocolate-nut. 

Cacode'mon, s. an evil spirit, a demon. 

Cacoe'thes, s. a bad or inveterate custom. 

Cadav'erous, a. appearing like a dead body. 

Cad'dy, s. a small box for keeping tea in. 

Cade, s. a cask or barrel. 

Ca'dence, s. a fall of the Toice, a sound. 

Ca'dont, a. falling down easily. 

Caden'za, [Ital.] s. the fall or modulation of 
the voice in singing. 

Cadet', *. the youngest son ; a volunteer in 
the army, who serves in expectation of a 
commission ; a student in the art of war. 

Cad'gor, s. a huckster ; a beggar. 

Ca'di, s. a chief magistrate among the Turks. 

Cadn'ceus, s. the wand of Mercury. 

Cadu'cous, a. falling off before the time; a 
botanical term. 

Cajsu'ra, s. a figure in poetry, by wbioh a 
short syllable after a complete foot is made 
long. 

Cas'ural, a. relating to the poetical figure, or 
to the pause of the voice. 

Caf 'tau, *. a Persian or Turkish garment. 

Cag, s. a small barrel, a small cask. 

Cage, *. a place of confinement. 

Cage, v. to enclose in a cage. 

Caique, [Fr.] s. a skiff belonging to a galley. 



CAI 



36 



CAM 



Cairn, *. a heap of stones ; a rude tomb. 

Cai'inan. See Cayman. 

Caisson', [Fr.] s. a chest of bombs or powder; 
a large wooden case or frame. 

Cai'tiff, s. a base fellow ; a wretch : a. base, 
servile. 

Caj'eput, s. an aromatic oil extracted from 
an Indian tree. 

Cajo'le, v. to flatter ; to beguile by flattery. 

Ca'joler, s. a flatterer, a deceiver. 

Cajo'lery, s. flattery ; deceit. 

Cake, s. sweet bread : v. to form into a cake, 
to harden. 

Cal'abash, s. a species of large gourd ; a 
vessel made from the shell of a calabash. 

Calaman'co, s. a kind of woollen stuff. 

Cal'amine, *. an ore of zinc. 

Calam'itous, a. full of misery, wretched. 

Calam'ity, s. affliction, distress, misery. 

Cal'amus, s. a sort of reed ; a pen made of 
reed ; a kind of sweet-scented cane. 

Calash', s. a kind of open carriage with a 
covering to let down at pleasure ; a sort of 
hood or covering for the head. 

Calca'reous, a. of the nature of calx or lime. 

Caleaval'la, s. a Portuguese sweet wine. 

Cal'cedony, s. See Chalcedony. 

Calcif'erous, a. producing calx or lime. 

Cal'cinable, a. that may be calcined. 

Calcina'tion, s. the act of pulverizing by fire. 

Calci'ne, v. to reduce to a calx by heat. 

Cal'citrate, v. to kick ; to spurn. 

Cal'cium, s. the metallic basis of lime. 

Calculable, a. that which may be estimated. 

Cal'culate, v. to compute, to reckon. 

Calculation, *. a computation, a reckoning. 

Cal'culative, a. belonging to calculation. 

Calculator, s. a computer, a reckoner. 

Calculous, a. stony, gravelly, hard, gritty. 

Cal'culus, s. the stone or gravel. 

Cal'dron, s. a boiler, a very large kettle. 

Calodo'nian, *. a native of Scotland. 

Caiefac'tion, s. the act of heating. 

Cal'efy, v. to make hot, to be heated. 

Cal'en'dar, s. an almanac, a yearly register : 
v. to enter or write in a calendar. 

Cal'ender, s. a hot-press for smoothing linen : 
v. to glaze or smooth linen by hot pressing. 

Cal'ends, s. the first day of every month. 

Cal'enture, s. a sun-fever, in which it is com- 
mon to imagine the sea to be green fields. 

Calf, s. the young of a cow; the fleshy or 
thick part of the leg ; a stupid fellow. 

Calf-skin, s. the hide or skin of a calf. 

Cal'iber, s. the bore of a gunbarrel. 

Cal'ibre, [Fr.] s. the compass or capacity of 
the mind. 

Cal'ico, s. a stuff made of cotton, originally 
from Calicut in India. 

Cal'id, a. very hot, burning, scorching. 

Calid'ity, s. intense heat. 

Caliga'tion, s. darkness, obscurity. 

Cali'ginous, a. dark, dim, dusky. 

CaJigraph'ic, a. relating to beautiful writing. 

Calig'raphy, s. beautiful writing. 

Calipash', Calipee', *. terms of cookery in 
dressing turtle. 

Ca'Jiph, s. the title of the successors of Ma- 
homet among the Saracens. 

Calisthen'ic, a. relating to gymnastic exer- 
cises. 



Cal'iver, s. a hand-gun, an arquebuse. 

Ca'lix, s. a cup, a flower-cup. 

Calk, v. to fill up the seams of a ship. 

Calk'er, *. one who stops a ship's seams. 

Call, v. to name, to invite, to summons ; to 
make a short visit. 

Call, s. a demand, address, summons. 

Callid'ity, s. craftiness, cunning. 

Call'ing, s. employment, trade, vocation. 

Callos'ity, s. a hard swelling without pain. 

Cal'lous, a. hardened, brawny, insensible. 

Cal'lously, ad. in an unfeeling manner. 

Cal'lousness, s. hardness ; insensibility. 

Cal'low, a. destitute of feathers ; bare. 

Cal'lus, s. an induration of the fibres, any 
cutaneous hardness. 

Calm, s. repose, quiet, rest, peace, serenity : 
a. unruffled, undisturbed, easy : v. to 
make quiet, to compose. 

Calm'ly, ad. quietly, coolly, without passion. 

Calm'ness, s. stillness, tranquillity; freedom 
from passion ; serenity, mildness. 

Cal'omel, s. a preparation of mercury. 

Calor'ic, s. the principle or cause of heat. 

Calorific, a. heating, causing heat. 

Calo'tte, [Fr.] s. a cap or coif. 

Caloy'er, s. a monk of the Greek church. 

Calp, s. a subspecies of carbonate of lime. 

Cal'trop, s. an instrument of war with three 
spikes, thrown on the ground to annoy the 
enemies' horse ; a kind of thistle. 

Cal'umet, s. an Indian pipe, a symbol of peace. 

Calum'niate, v. to accuse falsely, to revile. 

Calumniation, s. a malicious representation. 

Calum'niator, s. a false accuser, a slanderer. 

Calum'niatory, Caluui'nious, a. slanderous. 

Cal'umny, s. slander, aspersion, false charge. 

Calve, v. to bear or bring forth a calf. 

Cal'vinism, s. the tenets of Calvin. 

Cal'vinist, s. a follower of Calvin. 

Calvinis'tic, Calvinis'tical, a. relating to 
Calvinism. 

Calx, s. a powder made by fire, lime, &c. 

Ca'lyx, s. the outer covering of a flower. 

Cam'eo, s. a particular sort of onyx on which 
figures are engraved ; a kind of painting 
used in representing basso relievos. 

Ca'mbrio, s. a kind of fine linen. 

Cam'el, s. a large animal common in Arabia, 

Cam'elopard, *. an animal somewhat resem- 
bling a camel, but spotted like a panther. 

Cam'era-obscu'ra, s. an optical machine used 
in darkened chambers, through which the 
rays of light passing, reflect outward ob- 
jects inverted. 

Cam'is, s. a thin transparent dress. 

Camisa'do, s. an attack made by soldiers in 
the dark ; on which occasion they put tbeii 
shirts outward, to be known by each other. 

Cam'let, *. a stuff made of wool and silk. 

Cam'omile, *. a medicinal plant. 

Cam'ous, Camoys', a. flat-nosed, depressed. 

Camp, s. the order of tents for soldiers. 

Campaign', s. a large open country ; the time 
an army keeps the field in one year. 

Campaign', v. to serve in a campaign. 

Campaign'er, s. an old experienced soldier. 

Campanology, s. the art of ringing bells. 

Campan'ula, s. the bell-flower. 

Campes'trian, a. relating to tho fields. 

Campes'tral, a. growing in the fields, wild. 



CAM 



37 



Cam'phire, Cam'phor, s. a white gum. 
Cam'phorated, a. impregnated with camphor. 
Camphoric, a. partaking of camphor. 
Cam'phor-tree, s. the tree from which cam- 
phor is obtained. 
Can, v. to be able to : s. a vessel, a cup. 
Canaille, [Fr.] s. the rabble ; the swinish 

multitude. 
Can'akin, s. a small can or cup. 
Canal', s. a basin or course of water, a duct. 
Gan'al-coal, s. See Cannel-coal. 
Cana'ry, s. a wine brought from the Canary 

isles ; a singing bird originally from the 

Canary isles ; an old dance. 
Can'cel, v. to blot out, destroy, make void. 
Can'celated,a. cross-barred ; crossed bylines. 
Canccla'tion, s. an obliteration. 
Can'cer, s. a crab-fish ; one of the twelve 

signs of the zodiac ; a virulent sore. 
Can'cerate, v. to grow cancerous. 
Can'eerous, a. inclining to, or like cancer. 
Candela'brum, s. a branched candlestick. 
Can'dent, a. hot, burning, fiery, shining. 
Can'did, a. fair, open, frank, honest. 
Can'didatc, s. one who sues for a place. 
Can'didly, ad. uprightly, fairly, openly. 
Can'didness, s. ingenuousness. 
Can'died, p. and a. preserved and encrusted 

with sugar. 
Can'dle, s. a light made of tallow, wax, &c. 
Can'dlclight, s. the light of a candle. 
Can'dlcmas, s. the feast of the Purification. 
Can'dlestick, s. an instrument to hold candles. 
Can'dor, Can'dour, s. frankness, integrity. 
Can'dy, v. to conserve with sugar, to congeal. 
Cane, s. a walking-stick ; a reed from which 

sugar is extracted : v. to beat with a cane. 
Canic'ula, s. Sirius, or the dog-star. 
Canic'ular, a. belonging to the dog-star; hot, 

as in the dog-days. 
Cani'ne, a. having the properties of a dog. 
Ca'ning, s. a beating with a cane or stick. 
Can'ister s. a box to hold tea ; a small basket. 
Can'ker, s. a worm; disease; a corroding 

ulcer : v. to grow corrupt, corrode, infect. 
Can'kered, a. crabbed ; uncivil. 
Can'kcrous, a. corroding like a canker. 
Can'kerworm, s. a worm that destroys fruit. 
Can'nabine, a. hempen ; pertaining to hemp. 
Can'nel-coal , s. a coal that burns with a 

bright white flame like a candle. 
Can'nibal, 5. a man-eater. 
Can'nibalism, s. the habits of a cannibal. 
Can'non, s. a great gun for cannonading. 
Cannona'de, v. to batter with cannon : s. an 

attaek with heavy artillery. 
Can'non-ball, Can'non-shot,s. the balls which 

are shot from great guns. 
Cannonier', s. one who manages cannon. 
Can'non-proof, s. proof against cannon. 
Can'not, v. to be unable. 
Canoe', s. an Indian boat rowed by a paddle. 
Can 'on, s. a rule, a law; the book of holy 

scripture ; a dignitary in cathedrals. 
Canonical, a. ecclesiastical, regular. 
Canon'ically, ad. agreeably to the canons. 
Canon'icals, s. canonical dress of the clergy. 
Can'onist, s. a doctor of canon law. 
Canouiza'tion, s. the act of making a saint. 
Can'oni/.e, v. to enrol as a saint. 
Can'opied, a. covered with a canopy. 



CAP 

Can'opy, s. a cloth of state spread over the 
head ; the sky: v. to cover with a canopy. 

Cano'rous, a. musical, tuneful, loud. 

Cant, s. a whining, hypocritical manner of 
speaking ; the repetition of phrases like the 
burden of a song ; an auction ; a throw or 
jerk : v. to talk in the jargon of thieves 
and blackguards ; to throw or toss ; to sell 
by auction. 

Canta'ta, s. an air ; a grave piece of music. 

Canta'tion, *- the act of singing. 

Can'teen, s. a vessel of tin in the form of a 
square bottle ; a suttling-house. 

Can'ter, s. one that cants, a hypocrite ; a 
short gallop : v. to gallop easily or gently. 

Canterbury -bell, J. a flower; the campanula. 

CantharTdeS, s.pl. Spanish flies for blisters. 

Can'thus, [Lat.] s. the corner of the eye. 

Can'ticle, s. a song of Solomon ; a pious song. 

Can'tilate, v. to chant ; to recite musically. 

Cantila'tion, s. recitation with musical ca- 
dence. 

Cant'ing, p. and a. whining ; affectedly pious. 

Can'to, s. a section or division of a poem. 

Can'ton, s. a division of a country. 

Can'ton, v. to divide land into districts. 

Canton'ment, s. the situation which soldiers 
occupy when quartered in different parts of 
a town, or when dispersed in villages. 

Can'ty, a. cheerful ; talkative. 

Can'vas, s. a coarse stiff cloth. 

Can'vass, s. solicitation ; discussion. 

Can'vass, v. to sift, to examine, to debate, to 
solicit votes, to sue for honors. 

Can'vasser, s. one who solicits any thing. 

Ca'ny, a. full of canes ; consisting of canes. 

Can'zonet, s . a short song or air. 

Caou'choue (pro. coo'chook), s. India rubber. 

Cap, s. a covering for the head : v. to cover 
the head. 

Capability, s. capableness, capacity, fitness, 
adequateness. 

Ca'pable, a. intelligent, equal to, qualified. 

Ca'pableness, s. the quality of being capable. 

Capa'cious, a. wide, vast, extended. 

Capa'ciousness, s. the power of holding. 

Capa"citate, v. to enable, qualify, make fit. 

Capa"city, s. ability, sense, state, space. 

Cap-a-pie', [Fr.] ad. from head to foot. 

Capar'ison, *. a superb dress for a horse. 

Capa/ison, v. to dress pompously. 

Cape, s. a promontory ; a point of land pro- 
jecting farther into the sea than the rest of 
the continent ; the neck-piece of a coat. 

Capel'la, s. a star in the constellation Auriga. 

Ca'per, s. a leap, a jump; a berry, a pickle : 
v. to dance frolicsomely, to frisk. 

Ca'per-bush, s. a plant growing in the south 
of France ; the buda'are pickled for eating. 

Ca'pias, s. a writ of execution. 

Capilla'ceous, a. resembling a hair. 

Cap'illary, a. like a hair ; fine, minute : s. 
a small tube; a small blood-vessel. 

Capil'laments, J. the small threads or hairs 
that grow up in the middle of a flower. 

Cap'ital, a. chief, principal ; criminal in 
the highest degree, deserving death. 

Cap'ital, s. a principal sum ; a large letter ; 
stock ; upper part of a pillar ; chief city. 

Capitalist, *. he who possesses much money. 

Capitally, ad. in a capital manner. 



CAP 



S3 



Capitate, a. (in botany) growing to a head. 
Capita'tion, s. numeration of heads. 
Capitol, s. a temple in Rome, dedicated to 

Jupiter, where the senate assembled. 
Capito'lian, Capltoline, a. pertaining to the 

Capitol in Rome. 
Capit'ular, s. a body of statutes; a member 

of an ecclesiastical chapter. 
Capitulary, a. relating to the chapter of a 

cathedral. 
Capit'ulato, v. to yield by capitulation. 
Capitula'tion, s. the surrendering of a town 

upon certain terms ; stipulations. 
Capit'uiator, s. he who capitulates. 
Ca'pon, j. a castrated cock. 
Capou'ch, Capo'ch, s. a monk's hood. 
Capri'ce, s. a whim, fancy, humour. 
Capri"cious, a. whimsical, fanciful, odd. 
Capri"ciousness, s. caprice, whinisicalness. 
Ca'pricorn, s. a sign of the zodiac, the goat. 

the winter solstice. 
Capriole, [Fr.] s. a leap, such as a horse 

makes in one and the same place, without 

advancing ; a caper in dancing. 
Cap'sicum, s. Guinea pepper, 
Capsi'ze, v. to upset, to overturn. 
Cap'stan, s. an engine to draw up great 

weights, as anchors, &c. 
Cap'sular, Cap'sulary, a. hollow as a chest. 
Cap'sulate, Cap'sulated, a. enclosed in a box. 
Cap'sule, s. a receptacle in plants for the seed. 
Cap'tain, s. the commander of a ship, a troop 

of horse, or company of foot ; a chief. 
Cap'taincy, s. the rank or post of a captain. 
Cap'tain ship, s. the post of a captain. 
Captation, s. the art or act of catching favor. 
Cap'tion, s. the act of taking any person. 
Cap'tious, a. catching at faults, cross. 
Cap'tiou^ness, s. inclination to find fault. 
Cap'tivating, a. having power to captivate 

the affections. 
Captiva'tion, s. the act of taking captive. 
Cap'tivate, v . to subdue ; to charm. 
Cap'tivo, s. one taken in war, a slave : a. 

made prisoner. 
Captivity, s. slavery, subjection, thrall. 
Cap'tor, s. one who takes prizes or prisoners. 
Cap'ture, s. a prize, the act of taking a prize : 

v. to take as a prize. 
Capuchi'n, s. a friar ; a cloak with a hood ; 

an order of friars ; a kind of pigeon. 
Ca'put mor'tuum. [Lat.j s. lees, dregs. 
Car, s. a cart, a chariot. 
Car'aek, s. a Spanish galleon, a large ship. 
Car'acolo, *. in horsemanship, an oblique 

tread : v. to move obliquely. 
Car'at, s. a weight of four grains. 
Caravan', s. a large carriage; a body of tra- 
velling merchants or pilgrims. 
Caravan'sora, Caravan'sary, j. a public build- 
ing erected for the conveniency of eastern 

travellers, where they may repose, &c. 
Car'avel, Car'vel, s. a light old-fashioned ship. 
Car'away, *. a plant producing warm seed 

used in medicine and confectionary. 
Carlnne, Car'abine, s. a short musket. 
Carbinier', 5. a light horseman. 
Car'bon, s. pure charcoal. 
Carbona'ceous, a. containing carbon. 
Carbona'de, v. to cut or hack, and prepare 

meat for broiling or frying. 



CAR 

Carbona'do, 5. meat cut across to be broiled 
on the coals : v. to cut or hack. 

Car'bonate, s. a name for salts, formed by the 
union of carbonic acid with different bases. 

Car'bonated, a. combined with carbon. 

Carbonic, a. obtained from carbon. 

Car'bonize, v. to convert into carbon. 

Carlmncle, s. a precious stone ; a red pimple. 

Car'buneled, a, set with carbuncles. 

Car'buret, s. carbon combined with metal, 
earth, or alkali. 

Car'huTetted-hyd rogen, s. gas formed of hy- 
drogen and carbon, used for gas lights. 

Car'canet, s. a chain or collar of jewels. 

Car'cass, s. a dead body ; the body ludicrously. 

Car'ceral, a. belonging to a prison. 

Card, s, a complimentary note ; a painted 
paper used for games ; the paper on which 
the points of the compass are marked -, an 
instrument with iron teeth to comb wool. 

Card, v. to comb wool. 

Card'er, s. one that cards wool. 

Car'diac, a. cordial, strengthening, cheering. 

Car'dinal, a. principal, chief, eminent : s. a 
dignitary of the Roman Catholic church ; 
a woman's cloak. 

Car'dinal ship, s. the office of a cardinal. 

Car'dinal points, s. east, west, north, south. 

Car'dinal virtues, s. prudence, temperance, 
justice, and fortitude. 

Carding, s. the dressing of wool. 

Card-maker, s. a maker of cards. 

Card'-match, s. a match made by dipping 
pieces of card in melted sulphur. 

Card'-table, s. a table for playing card3 on. 

Care, *. solicitude, anxiety, charge. 

Care, v. to have a care for, to be anxiou3 
about. 

Careen', v. to lay a vessel on one side in order 
to calk or repair the other. 

Careen'ing, s. the act of careening. 

Career 7 , s. a course, race, swift motion : v. to 
run with swift motion. 

Ca'reful, a. full of care, diligent, anxious. 

Ca'refulness, s. vigilance, great care. 

Ca'rcfully, a. needfully ; providently. 

Ca'rcless, a. without cam. negligent, heedless. 

Ca'rclessly, ad. negligently. 

Ca'relessness, s. heedlessness, inattention. 

Caress', s. an act of endearment : v. to em- 
brace fondly, to fondle. 

Ca'ret, s. a mark in writing, thus ['), to de- 
note the place where something has been 
omitted. 

Car'go, s. a ship's lading or freight. 

Caricatu're, s. a painting or description so 
overcharged as to be ludicrous : v. to give 
a ludicrous representation of. 

Caricatu'rist, s. one who caricatures others. 

Ca'ries, Carios'ity, *. rottenness of the bones 

Ca'rious, a. rotten, decayed, putrified. 

Cark, s. care, anxiety : t'. to be anxious. 

Carle, s. a robust rude man, a clown, a churL 

Carllsh, a. churlish ; rude. 

Carlovin'gian, a. of the race of Charlemagne. 

Car'man, s. one who drives or keeps cars. 

Car'melite, s. a friar of the Order of Mount 
Carmel. 

Carmin'ative, s. medicine for expelling wind. 

Carmin'ative, a. having the property of ex- 
pelling wind ; antispasmodic. 



CAR 



39 



CAS 



Car'mine, s. a bright red or crimson color. 

Car'nage, *. slaughter, havoc, devastation, 

Car'nal, a. fleshly, lustful, sensual. 

Car'nalist, s. one given to carnality. 

Carnal'ity, s. lust; sensuality. 

Car'nal.ize, v. to debase to sensuality. 

Car'nal ly, ad. according to tbe flesh. 

Car'nal -minded, a. worldly-minded. 

Car'nal-mindedncss, s. gTOssness, worldliness. 

Carna'tiou, 5. a flesh color ; a flower. 

Carno'lion. See Corne'lian. 

Car'neous, Car'nous, a. fleshy, plump, fat. 

Car'nival, s. a festival before Lent. 

Carnivorous, a. eating of flesh, greedy. 

Carnos'ity, s. a fleshy excrescence. 

Caro'che, s. a sort of carriage. 

Car'ol, s. a song of exultation or praise. 

Car'ol, v . to sing ; to praise, to celebrate. 

Carot'id, a. belonging to the two arteries of 
the neck, which convey the blood from tho 
aorta to the brain. 

Cnrot'ides, s. pi. the two arteries of the neck. 

Carou'sal, s. a feast, festival, drinking-l.out. 

Carou'se, s. a drinking-match. 

Carou'se, v. to chunk hard, to revel. 

Carp, v. to find fault, to cavil : s. a fish. 

Car'penter, s. an artificer in wood. 

Car'pentry, .«. the trado of a carpenter. 

Carp'er, s. a caviller ; a censorious person. 

Car'pet, s. a covering for a floor : v. to spread 
with carpets. 

Carpeting, a - , stuff of which carpets are made. 

Carp'ing, *. cavilling : a captious, censo- 
rious. 

Carp'ingiy, ad. captiously; censoriously. 

Carriage, s. behaviour, manners ; a vehicle. 

Car'rier, s. one who carries ; a sort of pigeon. 

Car'rion, s. any flesh not tit for food. 

Car'rion, a. relating to, or feeding on carcasses. 

Carrona'do, s. a short iron cannon. 

Carrot, s. an esculent root. 

Car'roty, a. like a carrot; red-haired. 

Car'ry, v. to convey, bear; to gain; behave. 

Cart, s. a carriage for luggage : v. to carry. 

Cart'age, s. conveyance by a cart for hire. 

Carte-blanche, [Ft.] *. a blank paper en- 
trusted to a person to be filled up as ho 
pleases. 

Cartel', s. an agreement betweon nations at 
war for the exehango of prisoners. 

Carte'sian, a. pertaining to the philosophy of 
Dos Cartes : s. a follower of Des Cartes. 

Car'ter, s. one who drives a cart. 

Carthu'sian, s. a monk of the Chartreuse : a. 
relating to the order of monks so called. 

Car'tilago, s. gristle, a toue.li substance. 

Cartila"git!ous, a. consisting of gristles. 

Cart'ing, *. the act of carrying in a cart. 

Cartoon', s. a drawing on large paper. 

Cartou'eh, s. a case to hold powder and balls. 

Car'tridgo. s. a papercase to hold the charge 
of a gnu. Cartridges without ball are 
called blank cartridges. 

Car'tridgo- box, J. a box containing cartridges. 

Cart'-rnt, s. tho out or track of a wheel. 

Cart'wright, .«. a maker of carts. 

Carve, v. to cut wood> stone, or meat. 

Carv'er, s. a sculptor ; he that cuts up the 
meat at the table. 

Carving, t. sculpture; figures carved. 

Casca'do, t, a cataract ; a waterfall. 



Case, s. a covering, a sheath ; the state of 
things ; variation of nouns ; a cause ot 
suit in court. 
Case, v. to put into a case ; to cover. 
Ca'scharden, v. to harden the outside. 
Ca'seknife, s. a large knife, generally kept 

in a case. 
Ca'semato, s. a kind of vault or arch of stone. 
Ca'sement, $. a window opening upon hinges. 
Ca'seous, a. of the nature of cheese. 
Ca'se-shot, s. balls, stones, iron, &c. put into 

cases, to be discharged from cannon. 
Ca'seworm, j. a grub that makes itself a case. 
Cash, s. money, properly ready money : v. to 

turn into money, to give money for. 
Cash'-account, s. an account of money re- 
ceived, paid, or on hand. 
Cash'-book, J. a book in which a register of 

receipts and payments is kept. 
Cashier', s. one who roceives and has charge 

of the money. 
Cashier', v. to dismiss from a post, to discard. 
Cash'-keeper, s. a person entrusted with cash. 
Ca'sing, s. tho covering of any thing. 
Casque, [Fr.] *. a helmet ; a head-piece. 
Cask, s. a barrel, a wooden vessel. 
Cas'ket, s. a small box for jewels. 
Cas'savi, s. an American plant, from the root 
of which a kind of bread and also tapioca 
are made. 
Cassa'tion, s. the act of annulling. 
Cas'sia, s. a very fragrant aromatic spice. 
Cassi'no, s. a game at cards. 
Cassiope'ia, s. a northern constellation. 
Cas'sowary, s. a large bird, the ernew. 
Cas'sock, j. the under vestment of a priest. 
Cast, s. a throw ; mould ; squint : v. to throw; 

to condemn ; to mould ; to compute. 
Cas'tanets, s. pi. small shells of ivory or hard 
wood, which dancers rattlo in their hands. 
Cast'away, 5. an abandoned or lost person. 
Caste, s. a name by which each tribe or class 
of Hindoos is distinguished. 
I Cas'tellated, a. adorned with battlements. 
Cast'er, s. one who casts; a calculator; a 
small box or cruet, out of which the con- 
tents are cast, as a pepper-caster ; a frame 
on small wheels. 
Cas'tigate, r. to chastise, to punish, to beat. 
Castiga'tion, ?. chastisement, punishnienx. 
Cas'tigator, a. he who chastises. 
Cas'tigatory, a. corrective. 
Cas'tiie-soap, s. a kind of refined soap. 
Cast'ing, s. the act of casting ; a mould. 
Cast'ing-net, s. a net thrown by tho hand. 
Cast'ing-vote, s. tho vote of a presiding 
officer, which decides a question, when the 
votes of tho members are equally divided. 
Cas'fle, *. a fortified house ; a fortress. 
Cas'tle-builder, s. ono who forms visionary 

schemes, as castles in the air. 
Cas'tle-building, *. the act of forming wild 

or groundless projects. 
Cas'tled, a. furnished with castles. 
Cas'tor, j. tho beaver ; a beaver hat. Castof 
and Pollux are two stars, also called Gemini 
or tho Twins. 
Castor-oil, *. an oil extracted from the palm? 

Christi, in the West Indies. 
Cas'trate, v. to emasculate. 
Castra'tion, *. the act of emasoulating. 



CAS 



40 



CED 



Castrel, s. a kind of hawk. 

Cas'ual, a. accidental, uncertain, fortuitous. 

Cas'ually, ad. accidentally ; without design. 

Cas'ualty, s. chance; an accident. 

Cas'uist, *. one who studies and settles cases 
of conscience. 

Casuistical, a. relating to doubtful cases. 

Cas'uistry, s. the science or skill of a casuist 

Cat, s. a domestic animal. 

Catachrc'sis, s. in rhetoric, abuse of a trope. 

Cat'acomb, s. a cave for the burial of the dead. 

Catacou'stics,s.the science of reflected sounds. 

Catalec'tic, a. wanting a syllable in metrical 
measure. 

Cat'alepsy, s. a lighter species of the apo- 
plexy, or epilepsy. 

Catalep'tic, a. pertaining to catalepsy. 

Cat'alogue, s. a list of names, articles, &c. 

Cat'alogue, v. to make a list of. 

Catamoun'tain, s. the wild or mountain cat, 
a fierce animal resembling a cat. 

Cat'aplasrh, s. a poultice, soft plaster. 

Cat'apult, s. an engine to throw stones, &c. 

Cat'aract, s. a waterfall ; a disease in the eyes. 

Catar'rh, s. a cold or rheum in the head. 

Catarrhal, a. relating to the catarrh. 

Catas'trophe, s. the denouement of a drama- 
tic piece ; a final event ; a disastrous ter- 
mination. 

Cat'cal, s. a small squeaking instrument. 

Catch, v. to lay hold on, to seize, to ensnare. 

Catch, s. the act of seizing ; any thing caught ; 
a song, the parts of which are caught up 
by different singers. 

Catch 'cr, s. he that catches. 

Catch ing, p. and a. infectious, apt to catch. 

Catoh'penny, s. any worthless publication. 

Catch 'poll, s. a sergeant, a bailiff's follower. 

Cat'chup, Cat'sup, s. a hind of pickle usually 
made from mushrooms. 

Catch' word, S. the word sometimes put at 
the bottom of a page, and which is the 
first in the page succeeding. 

Catechet'ical, a. consisting of questions and 
answers ; catechising. 

Catechet'ically, ad. by question and answer. 

Cat'echise, v. to instruct by questions. 

Cat'echiser, s. one who interrogates. 

Cat'echism, s. a form of instruction by ques- 
tions and answers. 

Cat'echist, s. one who teaches the catechism. 

Catcchis'tical, a. instructing by interrogation. 

Catechu'men, s. one who is yet in the first 
rudiments of Christianity ; a pupil little 
advanced. 

Categorical, a. absolute, positive. 

Categorically, ad. absolutely ; positively. 

Cat'egory, s. a classifj cation of all the objects 
of human thought ; a class or predicament ; 
an order of ideas. 

Catena'tion, 5. regular connexion, a Jink. 

Ca'ter, v. to provide food ; to purvey. 

Ca'terer, s. a provider of victuals. 

Cat'erpillar, *. an insect, a grub. 

Cat'erwaul, v. to cry like a cat. 

Cat'erwauling, s. the cry of cats. 

Cates, s. cakes, dainties, nice food. 

Cat'gut, s. a string for musical instruments. 

Cathar'tic, s. a purgative medicine. 

Cathar'tic, Cathar'tical, a. purgative. 

Cat'head, s. a strong beam over a ship's bows. 



Cathe'dra, s. a pulpit ; a professor's chair. 

Cathe'dral, s. an episcopal or head church 
a. pertaining to a bishop's seat or see. 

Cath'eter, s. a surgical instrument. 

Cath'olic, Cathol'ical, a. universal. 

Cath'olic, s. a member of the Church of Rome. 

Catholicism, Catholi"city, s. adherence to 
the Catholic Church ; universality. 

Cathol'icon, s. a universal remedy. 

Cat'kins, s. imperfect flowers resembling 
cats' tails. 

Catop'trical, a. relating to reflected vision. 

Catop'trics, s. that part of optics which treats 
of vision by reflection. 

Cat's-paw, s. the dupe of another. 

Cat'tle, *. beasts of pasture. 

Cau'dal, a. relating to the tail of an animal. 

Cau'dle, s. a warm drink mixed with wine, 
spice, &c. for women in childbed. 

Caul, s. part of a cap or wig ; the omentum. 

Cauliflower, s. a flowering species of cabbage. 

Caus'al, a. relating to or implying causes. 

Causality, s. the agency of a cause. 

Caus'ative, a. that effects as an agent. 

Caus'atively, ad. in a causative manner. 

Cause, s. that which produces an effect ; a 
reason, a motive, a suit or case at law ; a 
side or party : v. to effect or produce. 

Cau'seless, a. having no just reason. 

Cau'selessly, ad. without cause or reason. 

Cau'selessness, s. unjust ground. 

Cau'ser, *. one who causes ; the agent. 

Cau'sey, Cau'seway, s. a raised paved way. 

Caus'tic, s. a corroding or burning applica- 
tion : a. burning, hot and pungent. 

Caustfcity, Caus'ticness, s. the quality of 
being caustic. 

Cau'tcrize, v. to burn with irons ; to sear. 

Cau'tion, s. prudence, care, warning : v. to 
warn, to admonish. 

Cau'tionary, a. warning ; given as a pledge. 

Cau'tious, a. wary, watchful, prudent. 

Cau'tiously, ad. in a prudent wary manner. 

Cau'tiousness, *. vigilance, circumspection. 

Cavalca'do, s. a procession on horseback. 

Cavalier', s. a knight; a partisan of Charles I., 
a royalist: a. gay, brave; haughty, proud. 

Cavalierly, ad. haughtily, disdainfully. 

Cav'alry, s. horse troops, horse soldiers. 

Cave, *. a den, a cell, hollow place. 

Ca'veat, s. a writ or process to stop proceed- 
ings ; a caution or admonition. 

Cav'ern, s. a cave, den, hollow place. 

Cav'erned, Cav'ernous, a. full of caverns. 

Cavia're, *. the roe of the sturgeon, or other 
large fish, salted. 

Cavil, s. false or frivolous objections : v. to 
raise objections, to wrangle. 

Caviller, s. a captious disputant. 

Cavilling, s. frivolous disputation. 

Cav'illingly, ad. in a cavilling manner. 

Cavity, s. a hollow place, a cavern. 

Caw, v. to cry as a rook or crow. 

Cay'enne, s. a very pungent pepper. 

Cay'man, s. the American alligator. 

Cazi'que, s. a title given to the petty kings 
among the aboriginal Americans. 

Cease, v. to leave off; to stop; to be extinct. 

Cea'seless, a. never ceasing, perpetual. 

Cea'selessly, ad. perpetually, incessantly. 

Ce'dar, s. a large evergreen tree. 



CED 



41 



CHA 



Cede, v. to yield up, to surrender. 
Cedilla, s. a mark put under the French c, 

thus 9, to show that it is to be sounded like s. 
Ceil, v. to overlay or cover the inner roof. 
Ceil'ing, s. the inner roof. 
Cel'ebrate, v. to praise ; to make famous. 
Celebralion, s. solemn remembrance ; praise. 
Celeb'rity, s. fame, celebration, renown. 
Celerity, s. swiftness, velocity, haste. 
Cel'ery, s. a species of parsley. 
Celoslial, j. an inhabitant of heaven : a. 

heavenly, supremely happy. 
Celibacy, s. a single life. 
Cell, s. a small close room ; a cave, a cavity. 
Cellar, s. a room under ground where liquors 

or stores are deposited. 
Cellarage, s. cellars; space for cellars. 
Cellaret, s. a case for holding bottles. 
Cellular, a. consisting of little cells. 
Cellule, s. a little cell. 
Cel'situde, s. height ; altitude. 
Cem'ent, s. that which unites ; mortar. 
Cement', v. to join together, to solder. 
Cementa'tion, s. the act of cementing. 
Cement'er, s. one that cements. 
Cem'etery, s. a burial-place, a churchyard. 
Cen'obite, s. a monk, a recluse. 
Cen'otaph, s. an empty or honorary tomb. 
Cen'ser, s. a perfuming or incense pan. 
Cen'sor, s. a magistrate of Rome who had 

the power of correcting manners ; one ad- 
dicted to censuring others. 
Censo'rial, a. full of censure ; severe. 
Censo'rious, a. addicted to censure, severe. 
Censo'riousness, s. disposition to find fault. 
Cen'sorlike, a. censorious, austere. 
Cen'sorship, s. the office of a censor. 
Gen'surable, a. deserving censure, culpable. 
Cen'surableness, s. blamableness. 
Cen'sure, s. blame, reproach, judgment : v. 

to blame, to condemn. 
Cen'sus, s. a numbering of the population. 
Cent, s. an abbreviation of the Latin word 

centum, a hundred ; an American coin, of 

which a hundred go to the dollar. 
Cent'age, s. rate by the hundred. 
Cen'taur, s. a poetical being, represented as 

half man, half horse. 
Cen'taury, s. the name of a plant. 
Cen'tenary, s. the number of a hundred. 
Centen'nial, a. consisting of a hundred years. 
Centesimal, a. the hundredth part. 
Cenligrade, a. consisting of 100 degrees. 
Cenlipede, s. a many -legged insect. 
Cenlo, s. a composition consisting of scraps 

and fragments from various authors. 
Cen'tral, a. relating to the centre. 
Cen'trally, ad. in a central manner. 
Cen'tre, s. the middle point. 
Cenlre, v. to place on a centre ; to rest on. 
Centrifugal, a. flying from the centre. 
Centrip'etal, a. tending to the centre. 
Cen'tuplc, a. a hundred fold : v. to multiply 

a hundred fold. 
Centu'rion, s. a Roman military officer who 

commanded a hundred men. 
Cen'tury, s. a hundred years. 
Cephalic, a medicinal for the head. 
Ce'rato, s. a salve made of wax and oil. 
Celated, a. covered with wax. 
Cero, v. to cover or smear over with wax. 



Ce'real, Cerealious, a. pertaining to corn. 
Cerebellum, s. the hinder portion of the brain. 
Cer'ebral, a. belonging to the brain. 
Cer'ebrum, s. the fore-part of the brain. 
Ce'recloth, Ce'rement, *. cloth dipped in wax 

in which dead bodies were wrapped. 
Ceremo'nial, 5. outward form ; external rite. 
Ceremo'nial, Ceremo'nious, a. formal. 
Ceremony, s. outward rite ; form in religion; 

forms of civility. 
Ceremo'nially, ad. according to ceremony. 
Ceremo'niously, ad. with due forms. 
Ce'reous, a. waxen, resembling wax. 
Cer'tain, a. sure, resolved, unfailing ; some. 
Cerlainly, ad. indubitably, without fail. 
Cerlainty, s. exemption from doubt or fail- 
ure ; that which is real ; truth, fact. 
Cerles, ad. certainly ; verily ; in truth. 
Certificate, s. a testimony in writing. 
Cerlify, v. to give assurance of. 
Cer'titude, s. certainty ; freedom from doubt. 
Cerulean, a. blue or sky-color. 
Ce'ruse, s. white lead reduced to calx. 
CerVix, *. the hind part of the neck. 
Cess, s. a rate or tax : v. to rate. 
Cessa'tion, s. a stop, rest ; intermission. 
Cession, s. a yielding or giving up. 
Cess'pool, s. a receptacle for liquid filth. 
Ceta'ceous, a. of the whale kind. 
Chafe, v. to warm by rubbing ; to inflame or 

make angry ; to fret. 
Cha'fer, s. an insect ; a sort of beetle. 
Chaff, s. the husks of corn ; a worthless thing. 
Chaffer, v. to higgle or bargain about. 
Chaf ferer, s. a dealer ; a hard bargainer. 
Chaffinch, s. a bird said to like chaff. 
Chaffy, a. full of chaff; like chaff. 
Cha'fmgdish, s. a portable grate for coals 
Chagri'n, s. ill humour, vexation : v. to vex, 

to tease. 
Chain, s. a series of links or rings ; a fetter : 

v. to fasten with a chain ; to enslave. 
Chain'pump, s. a pump used in sbips. 
Chain'shot, s. bullets fastened by a chain. 
Chain'work, s. work with open spaces like 

the links of a chain. 
Chair, s. a moveable seat, a sedan. 
Chairlnan, s. the president of any public 

meeting ; one who carries a sfdan. 
Chaise, s. a kind of light carriage. 
Chal'cedony, s. a fine variegated stone. 
Cha'ldron, *. a coal measure of 36 bushels. 
Chal'ieo, s. a cup, a bowl. 
Challced, a. having a cell or cup. 
Chalk'-stone, s. a white concretion in the 

hands and feet of gouty persons. 
Challengeable, a. that may be challenged. 
Challenger, *. one that challenges. 
Chalk, s. a white calcareous earth : v. to rub 

or mark with chalk. 
Chalk'pit, s. a place whore chalk is dug. 
Chalky, a. consisting of chalk, white. 
Challenge, v. to call to a contest or fight ; to 

accuse or object to : s. a summons to fight. 
Chalyb'ean, a. pertaining to steel. 
Chalyb'eate, a. impregnated with iron. 
Cham, Khan, s. the sovereign of Tartary. 
Chama'de, s. the beat of a drum, denoting a 

surrender, or a desire to parley. 
Cha'mber, s. an apartment in an upper 

story : v. to occupy as a chamber. 



CHA 



42 



CHA 



Cha'mberer, s. a mail of intrigue. 

Cha'mbcrhig, s. intrigue, wantonness. 

Cha'mbcrlain, s. one who takes care of cham- 
bers ; an officer of state. 

Cha'mbermaid, s. a servant who has the care 
of bedrooms. 

Chalnber-practice, s. the practice of barris- 
ters who give opinions in their rooms. 

Chameleon, s. a kind of lizard. 

Cham'fer, 5. the fluting in a column. 

Cham'ois, s. an animal of the goat kind ; 
leather made of the goat's skin. 

Champ, v. to gnaw, to bite. 

Champa'gnc, s. a brisk, sparkling wine from 
Champagne in France. 

Cham'paign, s. a flat open country. 
•Champign'on, [Fr.]s. a small kind of mush- 
room. 

Cham'pion, s* one that fights in single com- 
bat ; a defender ; a hero. 

Chance, s. casual event, accident, fortune : 
a. fortuitous : v. to happen. 

Chan'ccl, s. the east end of a church. 

Chan'cellor, s. a great officer of state. 

Chancellorship, s. the office of chancellor. 

Chance-medley, s. the killing of a person by 
chance. 

Chan'ccry, s. the chief court of equity. 

Chandelier', s. a branch to hold candles. 

Chandler, s. one who makes and sells can- 
dles ; a dealer. 

Chandlery, s. the articles sold by a chandler. 

Change, s. alteration, novelty ; small money: 
v. to alter, to exchange. 

Changeable, a. subject to frequent changes; 
inconstant, fickle. 

Cha'ngeableness, s. inconstancy ; fickleness. 

Cha'ngcably, ad. inconstantly. 

Cha'ngeful, a. inconstant, mutable, fickle. 

Cha'ngeless, a. without change ; constant. 

Changeling, s. a child changed for another ; 
an idiot, a natural, a wavtrer. 

Chan'nel, s. the hollow bed of running 
waters, a narrow sea ; a furrow in a pillar : 
v. to cut in channels. 

Chan'son, [Fr.] s. a song. 

Chant, s. a song, a melody ; part of the ca- 
thedral service : v. to sing cathedral service. 

Chant'er, s. a singer in a cathedral, a 
songster. 

Chant'ress, s. a female singer. 

Chanticleer', s. the cock. 

Chanting, s. the act of singing. 

Chant'ry', s. a chapel or part of a church for 
priests to sing mass in. 

Cba'os, s. a confuted mass of matter, confu- 
sion ; the beginning of the creation. 

Chaotic, a. resembling chaos; confused. 

Chap, s. a cleft, a chink or gap ; a beast's jaw : 
v. to open, to crack, to split. 

Chape, s. a thin plate of metal at the point 
of a scabbard ; the catch of a buckle. 

Cha'peau, [Fr.] 5. a hat; a cap or bonnet. 

Chap'el, s. a place of worship. 

Chap'elrv, J. the bounds of a chapel. 

Chap'eron, [Fr.] s. a kind of hood or cap 
worn by knights ; the gentleman who pro- 
tects or attends on a lady in public : v. to 
attend on a lady in a public assembly. 

Chap'fallen, a. silenced ; dejected. 

Chap'iter, s. the capital of a pillar. 



Chap'lain, s. a clergyman who performs di- 
vine service in the army or navy, or in a 
nobleman's or a private family. ' 

Chaplaincy, Chap'lainship, s. the office of a 
chaplain. 

Chap'let, s. a garland or wreath for the 
head. 

Chap'man, s. a dealer in goods ; a cheapener. 

Chap'ter, s. a division of a book ; an assembly 
of the clergy of a cathedral. 

Chap'ter-house, s. a house where the clergy 
meet. 

Char, v. to burn wood to a black cinder. 

Char, v. to work by the day, without being 
a hired servant. 

Char, s. a small fish. 

Char'acter, s. a mark ; reputation ; a letter. 

Char'acter, v. to inscribe ; to describe. 

Characteris'tic, a. peculiar to, distinguish- 
ing : s. that which constitutes the character. 

Characteris'tically, ad. in a manner that dis- 
tinguishes character. 

Characterize, v. to give a character of a per- 
son ; to imprint ; to mark with a stamp. 

Chara'de, [Fr.] s. a riddle, usually in verse. 

Charcoal, s. coal made by burning wood. 

Charge, s. trust ; expense ; onset ; command : 
v. to entrust ; to impute as a debt ; to ac- 
cuse ; to load a gun ; to command. 

Changeable, a. expensive, costly ; accusable. 

Char'ger, s. a large dish ; a war horse. 

Cha'rily, ad. warily, frugally. 

Cha'riness, s. caution, care, nicety. 

Chariot, s. a carriage of pleasure or state. 

Charioteer', s. a chariot driver, a coachman. 

Charitable, a. kind, bountiful, candid. 

Charitableness, s. the exercise of charity ; 
disposition to charity. 

Charitably, ad. kindly, benevolently. 

Charity, s. tenderness, love, good-will ; alms. 

Charlatan, s. a mountebank, quack, cheat. 

Charlatanlcal, a. quackish, ignorant. 

Charlatanry, s. deceit ; quackery. 

Charles's-wain, s. a northern constellation, 
called the Great Bear. 

Charm, s. a spell or enchantment ; something 
to gain the affections : v. to bewitch, to 
delight, to appease. 

Charm'er, s. one who charms or enchants. 

Charming, s. enchanting, delighting. 

Charmingly, ad. iu a delightful manner. 

Char'nel-house, s. a receptacle for the bones 
of the dead, a vault for dead bodies. 

Chart, s. a delineation of coasts ; a map. 

Charier, s. a privilege, immunity or exemp- 
tion, by royal grant, in writing : v. to es- 
tablish by charter ; to let or hire a ship by 
charter. 

Chartered, a. privileged ; granted by 
charter. 

Charlvonian, s. a woman hired by the day. 

Cha'ry, a. careful, cautious, diligent. 

Chase, s. a piece of ground for hunting, 
larger than a park ; hunting itself; pur- 
suit of an enemy ; the bore of a gun : v 
to hunt, to pursue, to drive away ; to 
chase metals. See Enchase. 

Cha'ser, s. hunter; pursuer; an enchaser. 

Chasm, s. a cleft, an opening, a vacuity. 

Chasseu'rs, [Fr.] s. a select body of light 
infantry. 



CHA 



43 



Chaste, a. pure, uncorrupt, honest. 
Cha'ste-eyed, a. having modest eyes. 
Cba'stely, ad. in a chaste manner, purely. 
Cha'sten, v. to punish, to correct, to purify. 
Chasti'se, v. to correct by punishing. 
Chas'tisevnent, s. correction, punishment. 
Chasti'ser, s. he who corrects by punishment. 
Chas'tity, s. purity of the body ; chasteness 

or purity. 
Chat, v. to" prate, to talk idly, to prattle : s. 

idle talk, prattle, conversation. 
Chateau', [Fr.] s. a castle, country seat. 
Chat'tel, s. any moveable property. 
Chat'ter, s. noisy and idle prattle : v. to utter 

sounds without meaning. 
Chat'terbox, Cnat'terer, s. an idle talker. 
Chaffering, s. rapid inarticulate sounds. 
Chat'ty, a. conversing freely. 
Cheap, a. bearing a low price ; of small 

value ; easy to be had. 
Cheapen, v. to attempt to purchase ; to make 

cheap or to lessen the value. 
Cheap'ener, s. a bargainer. 
Cheaply, ad. at a small price. 
Cheap'ness, s. lowness of price. 
Cheat, s. a fraud, a trick ; a deceiver : v. to 

impose on, to deceive, to gull. 
Cheat'er, s. one that practises fraud. 
Check, v. to repress, curb, chide, control : s. 

a stop, curb, restraint, dislike, reproof; a 

kind "of checked or chequered linen; a 

countermark. 
Check'-mate, s. the term used at chess when 

the king is made prisoner ; a check that 

finishes the game of chess : v. to finish. 
Cheek, s. the side of the face below the eye. 
Cheek'bone, s. the bone of the cheek. 
Cheek'-tooth, s. the hinder tooth or tusk. 
Cheep, v. to chirp, as a small bird. 
Cheer, s. a shout of applause ; entertain- 
ment, gaiety, jollity : v. to incite, to 

comfort. 
Checr'er, s. one who promotes mirth. 
Cheer'ful, a. gay, full of life, merry. 
Cheer'fulnoss, s. alacrity, liveliness, mirth. 
Checrl'ully, ad, without dejection ; gaily. 
Cheer'less, a. sad, gloomy, comfortless. 
Cheerily, Cheerly, ad, cheerfully. 
Cheer'y, a sprightly, making gay/ 
Cheese, s. food made from milk curds. 
Chee'secake, s. a cake of curds, sugar, &c. 
Chee'semonger. s. one who sells cheese. 
Chee'sevat, s. the wooden case in which the 

curds are pressed into cheese. 
Chee'sy, a. having the nature of cheese. 
Chemi'se, [Fr.] .v. a shift ; in fortification, a 

wall that iines a bastion. 
Chemist, *. one versed in chemistry. 
Chemistry, .v. the science by which the nature 

and properties of bodies are analyzed and 

ascertained. 
Cheque, s. an order to pay money on demand. 
Cheq'uer, v. to variegate ; to diversify. 
Cherish, v. to treat with tenderness ; to 

nurso; to comfort ; to shelter. 
Cherlsher, 5. an encourager, a supporter. 
Cher'ry, s- a fruit : a. ruddy, blooming. 
Cher'ry-chccked,a. having blooming cheeks. 
Cher'ub, s. a celestial spirit 
Chcrlibim, s. the Hebrew plural of cherub. 
Cher'up, v. to chirp ; to use a lively voice. 



CHI 

Chest'nut, s. the fruit of the che.t-nut tree : 

a. of the color of a chestnut. 
Chess, s. a scientific game. 
Chess'-board, J. a board to play chess on. 
Chest, J. a largo box or coffer ; the breast. 
Chevalie'r, s. a knight, a gallant man. 
Chevaux-de-Fri'se, [Fr.] s. a military fence 

composed of a piece of timber, traversed 

with spikes. 
Chev'eril, s. a kid ; kid leather. 
Chew, v. to grind with the teeth, to masti- 
cate ; to meditate on. to ruminate. 
Chiaro-oscuro, [Ital.] lights and shades in 

painting. 
Chica'ne, s. a trick in law proceedings ; 

sophistry ; protracting a debate by artifice. 
Chica'nery, s. trickery ; mean artifice. 
Chica'ne, v. to prolong a contest by tricks. 
Chica'ner, s. a petty sophister ; a caviller 
Chick, Chick'en, s. the young of liens. 
Chick'en -hearted, a. timorous, pusillanimous. 
Chick'en-pox, s. a mild form of small-pox ; 

a pustulous distemper. 
Chick'peas, s. a kind of degenerate pea. 
Chick'weed, s. the name of a plant. 
Chide, v. to reprove, to blame, to reproach. 
Chi'der, s. one who chides. 
Chilling, s. the act of reproving, a rebuke. 
Chillingly, ad. in a chiding manner. 
Chief, a. principal, eminent : «. a leader. 
Chiefly, ad. principally, above all. 
Chief'rie, s. a small feudal rent. 
Chieftain, s. a leader, a commander. 
Chief'tainry, Chieftainship, s. headship. 
Chil'blain, s. a blain or swelling made by 

frost or cold. 
Child, s. an infant ; male or female offspring. 
Childbearing, s. the act of bearing children. 
Childbed, s. the state of a woman in labor. 
Childbirth, s. the act of bringing forth. 
Childhood, s. infancy, the state of a child. 
Childish, a. trivial, puerile, like a child. 
Childishly, ad. in the manner of a child. 
Childishness, s. puerility, harmlessness. 
Childless, a. having no children, barren. 
Childlike, a. becoming or like a child. 
Chil'dren, s. the plural of Child. 
Chill, a. cold, depressed : s. chilness, cold : 

v. to make cold, to discourage. 
Chilliness, s. a sensation of shivering. 
Chilly, a. somewhat cold, frosty, raw. 
Chil'ness, s. coldness ; want of warmth. 
Chime, s. a sound of bells, concord of sound. 
Chime, v. to sound in harmony ; to agree. 
Chimo'ra, s. a fabulous monster ; a wild fancy. 
Chimerical, a. imaginary, whimsical. 
Chimcr'ically, ad. wildly, fantastically. 
Chim'ney, s. a passage made for smoke. 
Chim'ney-piece, s. an ornamental frame of 

marble, stone, &o. round a fire-place. 
Chim'ney-sweeper, s. one whose trade is to 

clean chimneys. 
Chimlst, Chimlstry. See Chemist. 
Chimpan'zeo, s. an animal of the ape species. 
Chin, s. the lowest part of the huutan face. 
Chi'na, s. a species of fine earthenware, first 

made in China. 
Ch ilia-orange, s. the sweet orange, firat 

brought from China. 
Chi'naware, s. fine porcelain. 
Chin'cough, s. a violent disease of children. 



CHI 



44 



Chine, s. the backbone : v. to cut into chines. 
Chink, s. a narrow aperture ; money, in cant 

language : v. to jingle like mono v. 
Chink'y, a. full of chinks, gaping, open. 
Chintz, s. fine Indian printed calico. 
Chip, *. a small fragment cut off. 
Chip, v. to cut into small pieces, to hack. 
Chira'gra, s. gout in the hands. 
Chirog'rapher, s. one who practises writing 

as a profession ; an officer in the Common 

Pleas, who engrosses fines in that court. 
Chir'omancy, s. divination by the hand. 
Chirop'eclist, .?. one who extracts corns. 
Chirp, v. to imitate the noise of birds : s. 

the voice of birds or insects. 
Chirping, s. the gentle noise of birds. 
Chirur'geon, s. a surgeon ; an operator. 
Chirur'gery, s. the art of surgery. 
Chirur'gical, a. relating to surgery. 
Chis'el, s. a carpenter's tooi to pare with : v. 

to cut with a chisel. 
Chit, s. a baby, a child ; a sprout. 
Cliit'chat, s. prattle, common trifling talk. 
Chit'terlings, s. the entrails of an animal. 
Chit'ty, a. childish, like a baby. 
Chiv'alrous, a. warlike ; adventurous. 
ChiValry, s. knighthood ; knightly valour. 
Chive, j. a kind of small onion. 
Chives, s. the threads or filaments rising in 

flowers, with seeds at the end. 
Chlo'rate, s. chlorio acid with a base. 
Chlo'ric, a. pertaining to chlorine. 
Chlo'ride, s. a compound of chlorine with a 

combustible body. 
Chloline, s. a gaseous body of greenish hue ; 

a bleaching liquid. 
Chlo'rite, s. a grass-green mineral, composed 

of little spangles and scales. 
Choc'olate, s. a preparation of the Indian 

cocoa-nut shell ; the liquor made with it. 
Choice, s. a thing chosen ; power of choosing ; 

variety, plenty ; best part of any thing. 
Choice, a. select, of great value ; careful. 
Choi'celess, a. not having the power of 

choosing. 
Choi'ce] y, ad. with great care ; curiously. 
Choi'ceness, s. nicety, of particular value. 
Choir, .9. a body of singers ; part of a church. 
Choke, v. to suffocate, to block up. 
Cho'ke-uamp, s. a noxious vapor in coal 

mines. 
Cho'ke-full, a. as full as possible. 
Chol'er, *. the bile ; anger, irascibility. 
Chorcra-mor'bus, s. a sudden and violent 

evacuation of bile, &c., very generally 

proving fatal, and supposed to be conta- 
gious. 
Chol'erio, a. full of choler, angry, offensive. 
Chol'ericness, s. irascibility ; anger. 
Choose, v. to select, to pick out. 
Chop, v. to cut with a quick blow ; to mince 

or cut into small pieces ; to bargain, to 

barter. 
Chop, s. a small piece of meat ; a cleft. 
Chop'house, s. a houso to eat provisions at. 
Chop'per, s. a butcher's oleaver or axe. 
Chop'ping. a. lusty, plump, as a child. 
Chop'py, a. full of cracks or clefts. 
Chops, Chaps, s. pi. the jaws of a beast. 
Cho'ral, a. belonging to or singing in a choir. 
Chord, s. the string of a musical instrument. 



CHU 

Chord, v. to furnish with musical strings. 
Cho'rist, Chorister, s. a singer in cathedrals. 
Cho'rus, s. a number of singers ; a concert. 
Chough, *. a sea bird which frequents rocks. 
Chouse, v. to cheat, to trick. 
Chrism, s. a holy unguent or oil. 
Chris'ten, v. to baptize, to name. 
Chris'tendom, s. the countries inhabited by 

Christians ; the whole body of Christians. 
Chris'tening, s. the act of baptizing infants. 
Chris'tian, s. a disciple of Christ : a. belong- 
ing to the religion of Christ. 
Christianity, s. the religion taught by Christ. 
Christianize, v. to make Christian. 
Chris'tianlike, a. befitting a Christian. 
Chris'tianly, a. in a Christian manner. 
Christ'mas, s. the festival of the Nativity of 

Christ, December 25. 
Christ'mas-box, s. a box in which presents 

are collected at Christmas ; a Christmas gift. 
Chromat'ic, s. that kind of music that pro- 
ceeds by a succession of semitones. 
Chromat'ic, a. relating to colors ; relating 

to music. 
Chromat'ics. s. the science of colors. 
Chron'ic, Chron'ieal, a. of long continuance. 
Chron'icle, s. a history, register, record : v. 

to record in history, to register. 
Chron 'icier, 5. a historian, recorder of events. 
Chronol'oger, s. an explainer of past time. 
Chronolo"gical, a. relating to time. 
Chronolo"gically, ad. in a chronological 

manner. 
Chronol'ogist, *. one skilled in chronology. 
Chronol'ogy, s. the art of computing time. 
Chronom'eter, *. an instrument for the exact 

mensuration of time. 
Chrys'alis, s. anrelia, or the form of certain 

insects, as butterflies, before they become 

winged ; so called because the color is 

generally golden. 
Chrys'olite, s. a precious stone of a dusky 

gTeen, having in general a golden cast. 
Chub, s. the name of a short, thick fish. 
Chub'by, a. plump, fat. 
Chuck, v. to call as a hen calls her young ; 

to touch or hit gently ; to pitch to a short 

distance : $. a word of endearment ; a pat 

under the chin. 
Chuck'-farthing, s. a vulgar game. 
Chuckle, v. to make a chucking noise ; to 

laugh at or over. 
Chuff, s. a blunt clownish person. 
Chuf'fy, s. blunt ; surly ; fat. 
Chum, s. a chamber fellow ; a messmate. 
Church, s. a place of divine worship ; the 

collective body of Christians. 
Church'ing, s. the act of giving thanks in 

the church after child-birth. 
Church'l iko, a. befitting a churchman. 
Church'man, s. a clergyman ; a member of 

the Church of England. 
Churchwar'den, s. a parish officer chosen 

by the minister and parishioners. 
Church'yard, s. the burial ground of a church. 
Churl, s. a niggard ; a rustic, rude person. 
Churlish, a. rude, surly, selfish. 
Churlishly, ad. rudely, surlily. 
Churlishness, s. rudeness, ill-nature. 
Churn, v. to make butter. 
Churn, *. a vessel used in making butter. 



CHU 



45 



CLA 



Churn'ing, s. the act of making butter. 

Chyle, s. a milky juice formed in the stomach 
by digestion. 

Chyme, s. chyle in a state of preparation. 

Chymlst, s. See Chemist. 

Chym'istry, s. See Chemistry. 

Cica'da, s. a cricket; a genus of insects. 

Cic'atrice, s. a scar left by a wound. 

Cic'atrize, v. to heal a wound, to skin over. 

Cicero'ne, [Ital.] s. a guido; a conductor. 

Cicero'niau, a. like Cicero ; pure, elegant. 

Ciou'ta, s. a plant, water hemlock. 

Cid, [Span.] s. a valiant chief; a commander. 

Ci'der, s. a liquor made from apple juice. 

Cigar', s. tobacco leaves rolled up for smoking. 

Cil'iary, a. relating to tho eyelids. 

Cili"cious, a. made of hair, hairy. 

Cim'eter, s. See Scimitar. 

Cimme'rian, a. extremely dark. 

Cinc'ture, s. a belt, sash, girdle. 

Cin'der, s. a coal that has ceased to burn. 

Cin'nabar, s. an ore of quicksilver. 

Cin'namon, s. the fragrant bark of a tree. 

Cinque, s. five, the number of five on dice. 

Cin'que-foil, *. a kind of five-leaved clover. 

Cin'que-pace, s. a grave kind of dance. 

Cin'que-ports, s. five ports on the eastern 
coast of England; viz. Hastings, Dover, 
Hytho, Romney, and Sandwich. 

Ci'pher. s. the character (0) in numbers ; the 
initials of a person's name interwoven ; a 
secret manner of writing: v. to cast ac- 
counts ; to write in occult characters. 

Ciphering, s. the art of casting accounts. 

Cir'cle, s. a round body, an orb ; a company. 

Cir'cle, v. to move round any thing ; to sur- 
round ; to enclose. 

Cir'cuit, s. the act of moving round ; a circu- 
lar space ; a portion of the country visited 
by the judges of assize. 

Cir'cuit, v. to go round. 

Circu'itous, a. going round in a circuit. 

Cir'cular, s. a letter or paper sent round. 

Cir'cular, a. like a circle, round. 

Circularly, a. in the form of a circle. 

Cir'culate, v. to move round, to spread. 

Circula'tion, .?. the act of moving round. 

Circumam'bient, a. surrounding. 

Cir'cu incise, v. to cut off the foreskin. 

Circumcision, s. the act of circumcising. 

Circum'ference, s. the periphery of a circle. 

Circumferen'tor, s. an instrument used in 
surveying to measure angles. 

Cir'cumflect, v. to place the circumflex on 
words. 

Circumflex, s. an accent used to regjilato 
the pronunciation of syllables, marked 
thus (*). 

Circum'fluent, a. flowing round any thing. 

Circum'flunus, a. environing with waters. 

Circumfu'se, v. to diffuse, to spread every- 
where ; to pour round. 

Circumfu'sion, *. the act of pouring round. 

Circivmgyra'tion, s. a rolling or turning round. 

Ciroumja'cent, a. iying round any thing. 

Cireumlocu'tion, 3. the use of indirect ex- 
pressions, a circuit of words. 

Circumloc'utury, a. periphrastical. 

Circumnav'igablo, a. that which may be 

9ailed round. 
Circumnavigate, v. to sail round. 



Circumnavigation, s. the act of sailing round. 

CircumnaVigator, s. one who sails round. 

Circumpb'lar, a. round the pole. 

Circumscri'bo, v. to enclose, limit, confine. 

Cir'cumspect, a. cautious, watchful, wary. 

Circumspec'tien, s. caution, watchfulness. 

Circumspective, a. watchful, vigilant. 

Circumspec'tively, ad cautiously. 

Circumspectly, ad. vigilantly, watchfully. 

Cir'cuinspectness, s. caution, vigilance. 

Cir'cumstance, s. an accident, event; a fact 
connected with something else. 

Circumstanced, a. situated or placed. 

Circumstan'tial, a. minute, detailed. 

Circumstantiality, S. the appendage of cir- 
cumstances. 

Circumstantially, ad. minutely, exactly. 

Circumstan'tiate, v. to describe exactly. 

Circumvalla'tion, s. a fortification surround- 
ing a besieged place. 

Circumvent', v. to overreach, to deceive. 

Circumven'tion, s. deception, fraud. 

Circumvol've, v. to roll round about. 

Circumvolu'tion, s. a turning or rolling round. 

Cir'eus, s. an area for sports, with seats 
around for the spectators. 

Cisal'pine, a. on the Italian side of the Alps. 

Cis'tern, s. a receptacle for water. 

Cit, s. a pert low townsman. 

Cit'adel, s. a fortress or castle in a city. 

Cita'tion, s. a summons to appear before a 
judge ; a quotation from another author. 

Ci'tatory, a. having the power of citation. 

Cite, v. to summons; to quote. 

Cit'izen, s. an inhabitant of a city ; a freeman. 

Citizenship, s. the freedom of a city. 

Cit'ric-acid, s. the acid of lemons. 

Cit'rine, a. like a citron ; of a lemon color. 

Cit'rine, s. a species of yellow crystal. 

Cit'ron, *. a fruit resembling a lemon. 

Cit'y, *. a corporate and cathedral town. 

Civ'et, s. a perfume obtained from a small 
animal called the civet cat. 

Civic, a. relating to civil honors. 

Civil, a. relating to the community; civi- 
lized ; polite. 

CWil-law, s. the national law of a country 

CWi\-war, s. an intestine war. 

Civilian, s. a professor of civil law. 

Civility, s. politeness, courtesy, kindness. 

Civiliza'tion, s. the state of being civilized. 

Civilize, v. to reclaim from barbarism. 

Civilized, p. and a. reclaimed, polished. 

Civlly, ad. politely ; complaisantly. 

Clack, *. part of a mill ; a continued noise : 
v. to talk fast, to let the tongue run. 

Claim, s. a demand of any thing as of right. 

Claimable, a. that which may be claimed. 

Claim'ant, s. one who claims or demands. 

Clam, v. to clog with any glutinous matter. 

Clam'ber, v. to climb with difficulty. 

Clam'miness, *. stickiness, viscosity. 

Clam'my, a. viscous, sticky, moist. 
Clani'orous, a. noisy, loud, importunate. 
Clam'orously, ad. in a noisy manner. 
Clam'or, Clam'our, s. noise, outcry, vocifera- 
tion : v. to vociferate. 
Clamp, s. a piece of wood or iron used to 
strength en any thing : v.' to strengthen by 
means of a clamp. 
Clan, s. a family ; sect of persons ; a race. . 



CLA 



43 



OLO 



Ciandcs'tine, a. secret, hidden, private. 

Clandes'tinely, ad. secretly, craftily. 

Clan'gor, Clan'gour, s. a loud, shrill rjoise. 

Clang, v. to make a loud and shrill noise : 
s. a shrill, harsh noise. 

Clan'ish, a. united, like a clan. 

Clank, v. to make a noise like the clanking 
of a chain. 

Clan'ship, s. an association of families. 

CJap, s. a loud noise ; an explosion of thun- 
der ; an act of applause : t>. to strike to- 
gether with quick motion; to applaud 
with the hands. 

Clapper, s. he or that which claps ; the 
tongue of a hell. 

Clap'pcrclaw, v. to scold, chide, revile. 

Clare-obscu're. See Chiaro-oscuro. 

Clar'et, s. a clear, pale-red, French wine. 

Clarifica'tion, s. the act of making clear. 

Clar'ifier, s. that which makes clear. 

Clarify, v. to make clear, to purify. 

Clarionet, s. a kind of haul boy. 

Ciar'ion, s. a kind of trumpet. 

Clash, v. to strike against ; to oppose. 

Clash, s. a noisy collision of two bodies. 

Clash'ing, s. collision ; opposition. 

Clasp, s. a kind of hook, a holdfast : v. to 
shut or hold with a clasp ; to embrace. 

Clasp'knife, *. a knife which shuts up. 

Class, s. a rank, order, degree ; a set : v. to 
arrange in classes. 

Clas'sic, Cias'sical, a. relating to authors of 
the first class or order ; learned ; elegant. 

Clas'sically, ad. in a classical manner. 

Clas'sics, s. pi. the term applied to the writ- 
ings of the ancients in the Latin or Greek. 

Classifica'tion, s. the act of ranging into 
classes. 

Clas'sify, v. to arrange, to class. 

Clat'ter, J. a rattling confused noise : v. to 
make a confused noise. 

Clat'tering, *. a rattling confused noise. 

Clause, s. a sentence, a stipulation. 

Clavicle, .?. the collar bone. 

Claw, s. the foot of a beast or bird : v. to 
tear with claws, to scratch. 

Clay, s. a tenacious kind of earth : v. to cover 
with clay. 

Clay'-cold, a. cold as clay, lifeless, dead. 

Clay'ey, a. consisting of clay ; like clay. 

Ciaylsh, a. partaking of the nature of clay. 

Clay'mavl, s. a whitish, smooth, chalky clay. 

Claymo're, s. a large two-handed Highland 
sword. 

Clean, a. free from dirt ; pure, innocent : v. 
to free from dirt, to cleanse : ad. quite. 

Cleanliness, Clean'ness, s. neatness, purity. 

Clean'ly, a. clean, pure, neat: ad. neatly, 
purely, dexterously. 

Cleanse, v. to free from dirt ; to purify. 

Cleans'ing, s. a purification. 
Clear, a. bright, pure, perspicuous ; free 
from stain ; innocent : v. to make bright ; 
to free from obscurity ; to remove any en- 
cumbrance ; to vindicate or free from im- 
putation or charges against character; to 
gain over and above all deductions. 
Clear'age, 5. the removing of any thing. 
Clearance, s. the act of clearing ; acquittal. 
Cleaning, s. justification ; defence. 
Clearly, ad. plainly, evidently. 



Clear'ness, s. transparency ; perspicuity. 
Clear'sighted, a. discerning, judicious. 
Clearsightedness, s. discernment. 
Clear'starch, v. to stiffen with starch. 
Cleave, v. to adhere, stick to ; divide, split. 
Cleav'er, s. an instrument for cleaving. 
Clef, s. a mark for the key in music. 
Cleft, s. an opening made by splitting. 
Cleui'eney, s. mercy, leniency, humanity. 
Clem'ent, a. mild, merciful, gentle. 
Clem'ently, ad. in a merciful manner. 
Clench, v' See Clinch. 
Clep'sydra, s. an ancient instrument to mea- 
sure time by the running of water. 
Cler'gy, s. the whole order or body of divines. 
Clergyable, a. the term applied to felonies 

within benefit of clergy. 
Cler'gyman, s. a person in holy orders. 
Cleric, S. a clergyman : a. relating to the 

character of a clergyman. 
Cler'ical, a. relating to the clergy, orthodox. 
Clerk, s. a clergyman ; a scholar ; a man of 

letters; a writer or bookkeeper ; one that 

reads the responses in church. 
Clerk'liko, a. like a clerk ; learned. 
Clerk'ship, *. scholarship ; office of a clerk. 
Clev'er, a. skilful, dexterous, ready, fit. 
Clev 'erly, ad. dexterously, ingeniously. 
Clev'erness, s. skill, knowledge, art. 
Clew, s. a ball of thread, &c. ; a guide. 
Clew, v. to draw np the sails to be furled. 
Clew-lines, s. ropes fastened to the sails. 
Click, v . to make a clicking noise. 
Cli'ent, s. one who employs an attorney ; 

originally a dependent or follower. 
Cliff, Clift, s. a steep rock ; a precipice. 
Cliffy, a. broken, craggy. 
Climac'ter, *. every seventh or ninth year. 
Climac'teric, s. and a. a certain mimber of 

years, atthe end of which somegreat change 

is supposed to befall the body. The grand 

climacteric is the 63rd year. 
Cli'mate, Clime, s. a region or tract of 

country ; temperature of the air. 
Cli'max, s. a rhetorical figure, in which tho 

ascent rises by gradation : ascent. 
Climb, v. to ascend any place. 
CJi'mber, s. one that climbs ; a plant. 
Clinch, v . to .grasp in the hand, to contract 

or double the fingers ; to rivet or bend tho 

point of a nail on the other side ; to fix 

firmly ; to confirm : s. a pun or word with 

a double meaning ; an ambiguity ; part of 

a cable. 
Clinch'er, s. a cramp, a holdfast ; a posing 

answer. 
Cling, v. to twine round ; to dry up. 
Cling'y, a. adhesive, apt to cling. 
Clin'ic, s. aperson confined inbeil by sickness. 
Clin'ic, Clinical, a. relating to a discourse 

upon a disease, made at the bedside of the 

patient. 
Clink, j. a sharp sound produced by the col- 
lision of small sonorous bodies: v. to sound 

or jingle like metal. 
Clip, v. to cut short, to embrace, confine. 
Clipper, s. a debaser of coin by clipping it. 
Clip'ping, j. tho part cut off: p. cutting. 
Clique, [Fr.] s. a party, gang, or set. 
Cloak, s. an outer garment, a cover ; a blind; 

v. to hide, conceal, cover over. 



CLO 

Clock, *. an instrument to show time ; the 

name of an insect ; a beetle. 
Clock'work, s. movement by weights or 

springs like that of a clock. 
Clod, s. a lump of earth or clay ; a dolt ; a 

clown : v. to gather into concretions. 
Clod'dy, a. consisting of earth or clods. 
Clod'pate, Clod'pole, s. a stupid fellow. 
Clod'pated, a. stupid ; dull. 
Clog, s. an encumbrance ; a weight ; a sort of 

shoo : v. to hinder, obstruct, encumber. 
Clog'giness, s. the state of being clogged. 
Clog'gy, a. that has the power of clogging up. 
Clois'ter, s. a place of religious retirement ; 

a square with piazzas : v. to shut up in a 

cloister. 
Clois'tcred, a. inhabiting a monastery. 
Close, v. to shut, conclude, confine, join. 
Close, s. a small field enclosed ; pause, end. 
Close, a. shut fast ; private ; secret ; cloudy. 
Clo'se-fisted, a. penurious. 
Clo'sely, ad. in a close, compact manner. 
Clo'scness, s. the state of being close. 
Clos'et, s. a small private room : v. to shut 

up in a closet ; to conceal. 
Clo sing, s. period ; conclusion. 
Clot, s. any thing clotted or coagulated ; a 

hard lump : v. to form clots, to coagulate. 
Cloth, s. linen or woollen woven for garments ; 

the covering for a table. 
Clothe, v. to cover with garments ; to dress. 
Clo'thier, s. a maker or seller of cloth. 
Clo'thing, Clothes, s. garments ; dress. 
Cfot'ted, p. and a. congealed, curdled. 
Clot'ty, a. full of clots or concretions. 
Cloud, v . to grow cloudy ; to obscure. 
Cloud, s. a body of vapors in the air. 
Cloud'capt, a. topped with clouds. 
Cloud'iness, s. being covered with clouds. 
Cloud'lcss, a. free from clouds, clear, pure. 
Cloud'y, a. obscure, gloomy, sullen. 
Clough, s. the cleft of a hill. 
Clout, s. a cloth for any mean use ; a patch ; 

a rude blow : v. to patch, to strike. 
Clout'ed, p. and a. patched ; also wrongly for 

clotted, as " clouted cream." 
Clove, s. a spice ; a grain or root of garlic. 
Clo'ven, p. and a. cleft, divided, separated. 
Clo'ven-foot, s. a foot divided into two parts. 
Clo'ven-footed, a. having the foot divided 

into two parts. 
Clo'ver, s. a species of trefoil. 
Clown, s. a rustic, ill-bred man ; a churl. 
Clown'ish, a. uncivil, awkward, ill-bred. 
Clowu'ishly, ad. coarsely ; rudely. 
Clown'ishness, s. rusticity, coarseness. 
Cloy, v. to surfeit, to glut, to sate. 
Club,*, a heavy stick; a society; a suit of cards. 
Club, v. to join in common expense. 
Club'- footed, a. having crooked feet. 
Club'-law, s. the law of force. 
Cluck, v. to call as a hen calls chickens. 
Clue. See Clew. 

Clump, s. a shapeless mass ; a cluster of trees. 
Clum'sily, ad. awkwardly ; without grace. 
Clum'siness, s. awkwardness, unhandiness. 
Clum'sy, a. awkward, heavy, ungainly. 
Clus'ter, s. a bunch, a collection ; v. to grow 

in bunches. 
Clutch, v. to grasp or gripe: *. tho gripo : 

pi. talons, hands. 



47 



coc 



Clut'ter, s. a noise, a bustle : v. to make a 
noise or bustle. 

Clut'tering, a. hurried, indistinct but noisy. 

Clys'ter, s. an injection. 

Coach, s. a carriage of state or pleasure. 

Coach/box, s. the driver's seat on a coach. 

Coach'man, s. the driver of a coach. 

Coadju'tor, s. an assistant, helper, ally. 

Coag'ulate, v. to curdle, to run into clots. 

Coagula'tion, s. the act of coagulating ; the 
body formed by coagulating. 

Coag'ulative, a. having power to coagulate. 

Coal, s. a mineral used for firing. 

Coal, v. to burn wood to charcoal. 

Coal'-black, a. black in the highest degree. 

Coal'box, s. a box to carry coals to tho fire. 

Coal-house, j. a house for keeping coal. 

Coal'-meter, s. one who superintends the 
measuring of coals. 

Coal-mine, s. a mine in which coal is dug. 

Coal'-pit, s. a pit for digging coals. 

Coalesce, v. to unite, to join together. 

Coales'cence, s. act of uniting together. 

Coali'tion, s. a union in one body ; junction. 

Coal'y, a. like coal, containing coal. 

Coarse, a. rude, gross, not fine, rough. 

Coars'cly, ad. meanly; rudely; inelegantly. 

Coars'eness, s. meanness, rudeness, rough- 
ness, want of delicacy. 

Co-assess'or. s. a joint assessor. 

Coast, s. an edge, bank, side, shore : v. to 
sail along or near to the coast. 

Coast'er, s. one that sails near the shore. 

Coast'ing-trade, s. trade carried on between 
different ports of the same .state. 

Coat, s. a man's upper garment ; the hair or 
covering of a beast : v. to cover, to over- 
spread. 

Coating, s. a covering ; cloth for coats. 

Coax, v. to wheedle, to entice, to flatter. 

Coax'cr, s. a wheedler, flatterer. 

Cob, s. a strong, stout pony. 

Co'balt, s. a kind of mineral. 

Cob'ble, v. to mend coarsely or clumsily. 

Cob'bler, s. a mender of shoes; a bungler. 

Cob'le, s. a small open fishing-boat. 

Cob'web, s. a spider's web : a. slight, flimsy. 

Cob'webbed, a. covered with webs of spiders. 

Cochineal', s. an insect used to dye scarlet. 

Cock, s. the male of birds : a spout to let out 
liquids ; part of a gun ; a heap of hay : v. to 
set up or fix ; to set up the hat. 

Cocka'de, s. a riband worn on a hat. 

Cock'ahoop, ad. in high mirth and jollity. 

Cockatoo', s. a bird of tho parrot kind. 

Cock'atrice, s. a kind of serpent. 

Cock'boat, s. a small boat belonging to a ship. 

Cock'ehafer, s. the tree-beetle. 

Cock'crowing, s. the break of day. 

Cock'er, v. to fondle, to pamper. 

Cock'erel, s. a young cock, a small cock. 

Cock'ering, *. indulgence. 

Cock'horse, a. on horseback ; triumphant. 

Coc'kle, s. a shellfish ; the weed darnel. 

Coc'kle, v. to contract into wrinkles like the 
shell of a cockle. 

Cock'loft, s. a room over a garret. 

Cock'ney, s. a citizen of London contempt- 
uously. 

Cock'pit, s. a place where cocks fight ; a 
place on the lower deck of a ship of war. 



COG 

Cock'roach, s. an insect resembling a beetle. 
Cocks'comb, s. the upper part of a cock's 

head ; the plant loboswort. See Coxcomb. 
Cock'spur, s. Virginian hawthorn. 
Cock'-sure, a. quite sure, very confident. 
Cock'swain, s. commander of the cock-boat. 
Co'coa, j. a kind of nut ; liquor made from it. 
Cocoon', s. the fibrous web round a chrysalis. 
Coc'tile, a. made by baking, as a brick. 
Coc'tion, s. the act of boiling ; digestion. 
Cod, s. a sea-fish ; the husk or case of seeds. 
Code, s. a book of the civil law ; a book. 
Codg'er, s. a miser ; a penurious fellow. 
Cod'icil, s. addition or supplement to a will. 
Codill'e, 5. a term in playing at ombre. 
Cod'le, v. to parboil. 
Cod'ling, s. a sort of early apple. 
Coef'ficacy, Coeffi"ciency, s. co-operation ; 

joint force of several things acting together. 
Coeffi"cient, a. that which unites in action 

■with something else : s. a term in algebra. 
Coeffi"ciently, ad. by co-operation. 
Coenip'tion,s. the act of buying up the whole. 
Coe'qual, a. equal with, in the samestate. 
Coequal'ity, s. the state of being equal. 
Coe'qually, ad. with joint equality. 
Coer'ce, v. to restrain by force, to check. 
Coer'cible, a. that may be restrained. 
Coer'cion, s. a restraint, force, check. 
Coer'cive, a. restraining by force. 
Coer'cively, ad. by constraint. 
Coessen'tial, a. partaking of the same essence. 
Coessential'ity, s. participation of the same 

essence. 
Coessen'tially, ad. in a coessential manner. 
Coeter'nal, a. equally eternal with another. 
Cooter'nity, s. joint eternity. 
Coe'val, a. being of the same age : s. a co- 
temporary of the same age. 
Coexec'utor, s. a joint executor. 
Coexist', v. to exist together, or at one time. 
Coexist'cnoe, s. existence at the same time. 
Coexist'ent, a. existing at the same time. 
Coextend', v . to make of equal extent. 
Coexten'sion, s. extending to the same space 

or duration with another. 
Coexten'sive, a. having the same extent. 
Coffee, s. the berry of an Arabian tree ; the 

liquor prepared from that berry. 
Coffee-house, s. a house of entertainment. 
Coffee-mill, s. a mill for grinding coffee. 
Ccf fer, J. a money-chest : v . to treasure up. 
Coffin, s. a chest to enclose a dead body : v. 

to enclose in a coffin. 
Cog, v. to flatter, to wheedle, to cheat, to lie. 
Cog, s. tooth of a wheel by which it acts. 
Co'gency, s. force, strength, power. 
Co'gent, a. forcible, resistless, convincing. 
Co'gently, ad. forcibly, irresistibly. 
Co"gitate, v. to think, to meditate. 
Cogita'tion, s. thought, meditation. 
Connate, a. born together, alike, allied. 
Co'gniae, s. the best kind of brandy. 
Cop r ui"tion, s. knowledge, conviction, trial. 
Cogn'izable, a. proper or liable to be tried 

or examined. 
Cogn'izance, s. a judicial notice. 
Cogn'izant, a. having knowledge of. 
Cogno'men, [Lat.] s. a surname ; a family 

name. 
Cognoscen'te, [Ital.] s. a connoisseur. 



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Cognoscibil'ity, s. the being cognoscible, 

Cognos'cible, a. that may be known. 

Cog'wheel, s. a wheel with cogs or teeth. 

Cohab'it, v. to live together. 

Cohab'itant, s. one living in the same place. 

Cohabita'tion, s. the act or state of cohabit- 
ing. 

Coheir', s. a joint heir with other persons. 

Coheir'ess, s. a woman who is a joint heiress. 

Cohe're, v. to stick together, to agree, to fit. 

Cohe'rence, Cohe'reney, s. connexion. 

Cohe'rent, a. sticking together, consistent. 

Cohe'rently, ad. in a coherent manner. 

Cohe'sible, a. capable of cohesion. 

Cohe'sion, s. the act or state of cohering. 

Cohe'sive, a. having a sticking quality. 

Cohe'sively, ad. in a connected manner. 

Cohe'siveness, s. the quality of being cohesive. 

Co'hort, s. a troop of soldiers. 

Coif, s. a head-dress, a cap. 

Coigne, Coin, *. a corner, a quoin. 

Coil, v. to roll up a rope ; to wind in a ring : 
s. rope wound into a ring ; a turmoil ; a 
tumult. 

Coin, s. money stamped by authority. 

Coin, v. to make money ; to forge -, invent. 

Coin'age, s. the practice of coining ; coin. 

Coinci'de, v. to agree with, to concur. 

Coin'cidence, *. an agreement, concurrence. 

Coin'cidcnt, a. agreeing with, united. 

Coin'er, s. a maker of money ; an inventor. 

Coi"tion, s. a going together. 

Cojoin', v. to join with another. 

Coke, s. a cinder made from pit-coal. 

Col'ander, s. a straining vessel ; a sieve. 

Cold, a. not hot ; chill ; frigid ; without pas- 
sion, reserved, coy: *. coldness; a disorder. 

Cold-blooded, a. without feeling. 

Cold-hearted, a. wanting passion. 

Cold-heart'edness, s. want of feeling. 

Co'ldish, a. rather cold ; reserved ; shy. 

Co'ldly, ad. without animation; coolly. 

Co'ldness, s. want of heat ; indifference. 

Cole, s. all sorts of cabbage. 

Co'lewort, s. a sort of cabbage. 

Col'ic, s. a distemper affecting the bowels. 

Collap'se, v. to fall together ; to shrink up. 

Collap'sed, a. withered; fallen down. 

Coi'lar, s. something worn about the neck : 
v. to seize by the collar or throat. 

Col'lar-bone, *". the clavicle. 

Colla'te, v. to lay together and compare : to 
examine that nothing be wanting ; to place 
in an ecclesiastical benefice. 

Collat'eral, a. side by side ; not direct. 

Collaterally, ad. in collateral relation. 

Colla'tion, s. a repast ; the act of placing in 
a benefice ; comparison. 

Colla'tive, a. able to collate or confer. 

Colla'tor, s. one who collates. 

Col'league, s. a partner or associate in office : 
v. to unite with. 

Collect', v. to gather together ; to infer. 

Col'lect, s. a short comprehensive prayer. 

Collect'ed, a. cool, firm, prepared. 

Collect'edly, ad. in one view ; coolly. 

Collect'edness, s. recovery from surprise. 

Collec'tion, s. things gathered ; a conclusion 

Collec'tive, a. accumulative, apt to gather. 

Collect'ively, ad. in a body ; wholly. 

Collect'or, s. a gatherer ; a tax-gatherer. 



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Cellect'orship, s. office of a collector. 

College, s. ;i seminary or school for learn- 
ing ; a society tor promoting the arts and 
sciences. 

Collc'gian, s. a member of a college. 

Colle'giate, a. instituted after the manner 
of a college. 

Colli'de, v. to clash, to strike together. 

Col'licr, s. a digger of coals ; a coal-ship. 

Colliery, s. the place where coals are dug. 

Colligate, v. to hind together. 

Colliga'tion, *: the act of binding together. 

Collis'ion, s. act of striking together, a clash. 

Collocate, v. to place, to station, to fix. 

Colloca'tion, 5. the act or state of placing. 

Col'Iop, s. a small cut or slice of meat. 

Collo'quial, a. relating to conversation. 

Col'loquist, s. a speaker in a dialogue. 

Colloquy, s. a conference, a dialogue. 

Collu'de, v. to codsj tire in a fraud. 

Collu'sion, .?. a secret agreement for a frau- 
dulent purpose. 

Collu'sive, a. fraudulent, deceitful. 

Collu'sively, ad. in a fraudulent manner. 

Col'Jy, v. to grime with coal, to soil. 

Colon, a-, tins point (:), used to mark a pause 
greater than that of a semicolon, and less 
than that of a period ; the greatest and 
widest of the intestines. 

Col'onel, s. the commander of a regiment. 

Col'onelcy, s. the office of a colonel. 

Colo'nial, a. relating to a colony. 

Col'onize, v. to supply with inhabitants. 

Col'onist, s. a settler in a colony. 

Colonization, .1. forming colonies. 

Colonna'dc, s. a range of pillars or columns. 

Col'ony, s. a body of pcoplo drawn from the 
mother country to inhabit some distant 
place ; the country so planted. 

Col'ophon, s. the conclusion of a book. 

Colos'sal, Colossc'an, a. gigantic. 

Colosse'um, s. a spacious amphitheatre at 
Rome ; a building of huge proportions. 

Colos'sus, s. a gigantic statue. 

Col'or, Col'our, s. hue, dye, tint. ; a pretence ; 
v. to dye ; to tinge ; to blush ; to cloak. 

Col'ourable, a. specious, plausible. 

Col'ourably, ad. speciously, plausibly. 

Col'ouring, *. an ait in painting; an excuse. 

Col'ourless, «. without color ; transparent. 

Col'ours, s. a banner, flag, streamer. 

Colt, s. a young horse ; an inexperienced 
person. 

Colt's-foot, s. a plant ; a flower. 

Colter, s. the sharp iron of a plough. 

Col'umbary, s. a dove or pigeon house. 

Col'umbine, s. a plant ; the name of the 
principal female performer in a panto- 
mime. 

Col'umn, *. a round pillar; a file of troops. 

Colum'nar, a. formed in columns. 

Colu'res, s. pi. two imaginary circles passing 
through the poles, and the equinoctial 
and solstitial points. 

Co-ma'tc, s. a companion, an associate. 

Comb, s. a valley surrounded with hills, 

Comb, s. an instrument for the hair ; the 
crest of a cock ; the cavities in which bees 
lodge their honey. 

Comb, v. to divide and adjust, to smooth. 

Com'bat, s. a battle, duel, contest. 



Com'bat, v. to fight, to resist, to oppose. 

Com'batant, Com'bater, s. one who fights. 

Com'batant, a. disposed to quarrel. 

Co'mber, s. one whose trade is to comb wool. 

Combi'nable, a. capable of being united with. 

Combina'tion, s. a conspiracy, an association. 

Combi'ne, v. to unite, to agree, to join. 

Combustibility, s. quality of catching fire. 

Combus'tible, a. capable of taking fire. 

Combus'tible, s. that which easily takes fire. 

Combus'tion, s . the act of burning. 

Come, v. to draw near, to happen. 

Come'dian, s. actor of comic parts, a player. 

Com'edy, s. a laughable dramatic piece. 

Com'eliness, s. becomingness, grace, beauty. 

Com'ely, a. graceful, decent, handsome. 

Com'et, s. a heavenly body with a luminous 
train and eccentric motion. 

Com'fit, s. a dry sweetmeat, a confection. 

Com'fort, v. to strengthen, to console, to ease : 
j. consolation, support ; joy. 

Com'fortable, a. dispensing or giving com- 
fort ; cheerful, commodious. 

Com'fortableness, s. a state of comfort. 

Com'fortably, ad. in a comfortable manner. 

Com'fortcr, s. on" that gives consolation. 

Com'fortless, a. without comfort, forlorn. 

Com'frey, *. a me..ie.aal plant. 

Comic, a. raising mirth, relating to comedy . 

Comical, a. diverting, merry, queer. 

Comically, a. in a comical manner. 

Comlcalness, ». the quality of being comical. 

Coming, s. an arrival, a drawing near. 

Coming-in, s. entrance ; revenue or income. 

Com'ma, s. a point marked thus (,). 

Comma'nd, v. to govern, to order, to lead as 
a general : s. right of commanding, autho- 
rity ; order given. 

Commandant', s. a chief in command. 

Comma'ndatory, a. having command. 

Comma'nder, *. a chief, one in authority. 

Comma'nding, a. controlling ; powerful. 

Comma'ndingly, ad. in a commanding 01 
powerful manner. 

Comman'dment, *. a mandate, command. 

Commem'orate, a. to preserve the memory of ; 
to celebrate solemnly. 

Commemora'tion, s. act of public celebration. 

Commem'orati've, a. tending to preserve, re- 
membrance. 

Commen'ce, a. to begin, to enter upon. 

Commen'cement, s. a beginning, date. 

Commend', a. to recommend as worthy. 

Commend'able, Com'mendable, a. laudable, 
praiseworthy. 

Commend'ableness, s. state of being com- 
mendable. 

Commend'ably, ad. laudably. 

Commend'am, s. a vacant benefice held by 
some person till a pastor is provided. 

Commenda'tion, s. praise, recommendation. 

Commend'atory, a. containing praise. 

Commen'sal, s. one that eats at the same 
table. 

Commen'surable, a. reducible to a commoD 
measure ; equal, coextensive. 

Commen'suratc, a. equal, proportional. 

Com'ment, s. annotation ; note ; remark. 

Com'ment, Comment', v. to write notes on ; 
to expound, to make remarks on. 

Com'mentary, s. an exposition, annotation. 
D 



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50 



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Commenta'tor, *. an expositor or annotator. 

Com'merce, s. trade, traffic ; intercourse. 

Com'merce, Commerce', v . to traffic, to hold 
intercourse with. 

Commer'cial, a. relating to trade, trading. 

Commer'cially, ad. in a commercial view. 

Commigra'tion, s. a general emigration. 

Commina'tion, s. a threat of punishment. 

Comin'atory, a. denunciatory ; threatening. 

Commin'gle, v. to unite one with another. 

Comminu'tion, s. the act of grinding or re- 
ducing to small parts ; pulverization. 

Commis'erate, v. to pity ; to compassionate. 

Commisera'tion, s. pity, sympathy. 

Commis'erative, a. compassionate. 

Commissa'riat, s. the body of officers attend- 
ing an army, who regulate the procuration 
and conveyance of ammunition and provi- 
sions. 

Com'missary, s. an officer who has the charge 
of furnishing provisions, &c. for an army. 

Commission, s. a trust, warrant, charge. 

Commis'sion, v. to empower, to entrust. 

Commis'sioner, s. one empowered to act. 

Commit', v. to give in trust, to deliver to ; to 
send to prison ; to perpetrate ; to pledge. 

Commit'ment, s. the act of committing. 

Committal, s. commitment, sending to prison. 

Commit'tee, s. a certain number of persons 
selected to examine or manage any matter. 

Commix', v. to mingle, to blend, to unite. 

Commix'ture, s. the act of mingling ; a com- 
pound. 

Commo'dious, a. convenient, suitable, useful. 

Commo'diously, ad. conveniently. 

Commo'diousness, s. convenience, use. 

Commod'ity, s. interest, profit, merchandise. 

Com'modore, s. a captain commanding a 
squadron of ships of war. 

Com'mon, a. belonging to many, general, 
usual, vulgar, mean. 

Com'mon, s. a tract of ground to which 
several people have a common or joint 
right : v. to share together. 

Com'monage, s. right of feeding on a common. 

Com'monalty, s. the common people. 

Common-coun'cil, s. the council of a city or 
corporate town, consisting of certain inha- 
bitants elected to assist the mayor and 
aldermen. 

Com'moner, s. amember of parliament; a stu- 
dent of the second rank at the universities. 

Common-hall, 5. the building in which citi- 
zens meet to transact public business. 

Com'monly, ad. frequently, usually. 

Commonpla'ce, a. ordinary, trite. 

Commonpla'ce-book, s. a book in which 
things to be remembered are ranged under 
general heads. 

Com'mons, s. pi. the common people ; the 
lower house of parliament ; food at a com- 
mon table. 

Commonweal', s. the public good. 

Commonwealth', s. a republic ; tho state. 

Commotion, s. a tumult, a disturbance. 

Comm'une, v. to converse, to impart senti- 
ments mutually. 

Communicabil'ity, s. the being communi- 
cable. 

Commu'nicable, a. that may be communi- 
cated or imparted. 



Commu'nicant, s. one who receives the i 
ment of the Lord's Supper. 

Commu'nicate, v. to impart, to reveal ; to 
receive the Lord's Supper. 

Communica'tion, s. the act of imparting or 
exchanging ; conference ; conversation ; in- 
tercourse ; a common inlet or passage. 

Commu'nicative, a. ready to impart ; frank. 

Commu'nicativeness, 5. the being communi- 
tive, readiness to impart. 

Commu'ning, s. the act of talking together. 

Commu'nion, s. celebration of the Lord's 
Supper; fellowship, union, intercourse. 

Commu'nity, s. the commonwealth, the body 
politic, a common possession. 

Commu'table, a. that may be exchanged. 

Commuta'tion, s. change of one thing for 
I another, alteration, ransom. 
| Commu'te, v. to exchange, to buy off. 
| Com'pact, s. a contract, mutual agreement. 

Compact', a. firm, close, solid. 

Compact'ly, ad. closely put together. 

Compact'ness, s. closeness, firmness, density. 

Compan'ion, s. a partner, an associate, a mate. 

Compan'ionable, a. sociable ; agreeable. 

Companionship, s. fellowship ; association. 

Company, s. a number of persons assembled 
together ; fellowship ; a society ; a body 
corporate ; a small body of foot soldiers. 

Com'parable, a. that may be compared with ; 
of equal regard. 

Comparative, a. estimated by comparison. 

Comparatively, ad. in a comparative manner. 

Compa're, v. to liken or examine one thing 
by another, to estimate : s. comparison, 
similitude. 
j Comparison, s. the act of comparing, a com- 
parative estimate ; simile in writing. 

Compart'ment, s. separate part, a division. 

Com'pass, v. to encircle, to surround ; to 
contrive ; to obtain. 

Com'pass, *. a circle, space, limits ; extent 
or power of the voice in singing ; the mag- 
netic apparatus for steering ships by ; an 
instrument for describing circles, generally 
called compasses. 

Compas'sion, s. pity, commiseration. 

Compas'sionate, a. merciful, tender: *. t» 
pity, to commiserate. 

Compatibil'ity, s. consistency, suitableness. 

Compatible, a. consistent with, suitable to. 

Compatibleness, s. consistency, suitableness. 

Compatibly, ad. fitly ; suitably. 

Compa'triot, s. one of the same country. 

Compeer', s. an equal, companion, colleague. 

Compel', v. to force, to constrain. 

Compellable, a that may be forced. 

Com'pend, s. an epitome; a summary. 

Compen'dious, a. brief, concise. 

Compen'diousness, s. shortness ; brevity. 

Compe,n'dium, s. an abridgment, an epitome 

Compensate, Com'pensate, v. to make amend* 
for, to recompense. ' 

Compensa'tion, s. a recompense, amends. 

Compensatory, a. serving to recompense. 

Compete', v. to contend in rivalry with. 

Com'petence, Com'petency, s. sufficiency. 

Com'petent, a. fit, qualified, adequate. 

Competently, ad. adequately, suitably. 

Competition, s. rivalry, a contest. 

Competitor, *. a rival, an opponent 



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Competltory, a. pursuing the same object. 

Compila'tion, s. a collection, an assemblage. 

Compila'tor, s. a compiler, a collector. 

Compi'le, v. to collect from various authors. 

Compi'lement, s. the act of compiling. 

Compi'ler, s. one who compiles. 

Compla'cency, s. pleasure, mildness, civility. 

Compla'cent, a. civil, affable, kind. 

Compla'cently, ad. in a soft or easy manner. 

Complain', v. to murmur, lament, inform. 

Coniplair/ant, s. a plaintiff in a lawsuit. 

Complain'er, s. one who complains. 

Complain'ing, s. expression of sorrow. 

Complaint', s. an accusation against ; a 
lamentation ; a malady or disease. 

Complaisa'nce, s. courteousness ; civility. 

Com'plaisant, a. civil, obliging, kind, polite. 

Com'plaisantly, ad. civilly, politely. 

Com'plement, s. the full number. 

Complemen'tal, a. filling up, completing. 

Comple'te, a. perfect, full, finished : V. to 
finish, to perfect. 

Completely, ad. fully: perfectly. 

Comple'teinent, s. the act of completing. 

Completeness, S. complete state ; perfection. 

Completion, s. accomplishment, fulfilling. 

Com'plex, a. compounded of many parts. 

Complexion, s. the hue or color of the 
face ; the temperament of the body. 

Complex'ional, a. pertaining to the com- 
plexion. 

Complex'ioned, a. constituted : tempered. 

Complexity, s. state of being complex. 

Com'plexness, s. the state of being involved. 

Compliance, s. submission, act of yielding. 

Compli'ant, a. yielding, bending, civil. 

Com'plicacy, 5. the state of being intricate. 

Com'plicate, a. compounded of many parts : 
v. to entangle, to involve. 

Complication, s. a mixture of many things. 

Com'pliment, s. an act of civility : v . to 
pass compliments ; to flatter. 

Complimen'tal, a. implying a compliment. 

Complimentary, a. expressing respect or 
civility. 

Com'plot, 5. a conspiracy ; a plotting to- 
gether : v. to plot, to conspire. 

Comply 7 , v. to yield to, to agree with. 

Compo'nent, a. constituting, forming : s. an 
elementary part of a compound body. 

Comport', v. to bear, to endure, to behave. 

Comport'nient, s. behaviour, demeanour. 

Compo'se, v. to put together, to form a com- 
pound ; to write as an author ; to calm, to 
settle. 

Compo'sed, p. and a. calm, sedate, serious. 

CompoSedly, ad. calmly ; sedately. 

Compo'sedness, s. sedateness ; tranquillity. 

Compo'ser, s. an author, a writer. 

Composite, a. in architecture, the composite 
order is the last of the five orders of co- 
lumns, so named because its capital is 
composed out of those of the other orders. 

Composi'ti<m, s. the act of composing ; the 
thing composed ; a mixture ; a written 
work ; agreement ; discharging a debt by 
paying part. 

Compos'itor, s. one who sets up or arranges 

the letters for printing. 
Com'post, S. a mixture ; manure. 
Compo'sure, s. sedateness, calmness. 



Compota'tion, s. the act of drinking together. 

Compound', v. to mingle, to combine ; to ad- 
just ; to come to terms with a debtor. 

Com'pound, .y. a mass of ingredients ; a word 
formed from two or more words ; a. not 
simple, more than one. 

Comprehend', v. to include, to conceive. 

Comprehen'sible, a. intelligible, conceivable 

Comprehen'sibleness, s. intelligibleness. 

Comprehen'sibly, ad. intelligibly. 

Comprehen'sion, s. knowledge, capacity. 

Comprehensive, a. comprising much. 

Comprehensiveness, s. the quality of includ- 
ing much in a few words. 

Compress', v. to press together, to condense. 

Compressibil'ity, s. the quality of being 
compressible. 

Compres'siblo, a. yielding to pressure. 

Compression, s. the act of compressing. 

Compressive, a. capable of compressing. 

Compres'sure, s. the act of pressing against. 

Compri'se, v. to contain, to include. 

Com'promise, s. a compact or bargain : v. to 
settle a dispute by mutual concessions. 

Com'promiser, s. he who makes concession. 

Comptroller, s. See Controller. 

Compul'satory, a. compelling, forcing. 

Compul'sion, s. the act of compelling, force. 

Compul'sive, Compul'sory, a. forcing. 

Compulsively, ad. by force : by violence. 

Compul'sorily, ad. in a forcible manner. 

Compunc'tion, s. repentance, remorse. 

Compurga'tion, s. a vouching for another. 

Compurgator, s. one who bears testimony to 
the innocence of another. 

Compu'table, a. that may be numbered up. 

Computa'tion, s. a calculation, an estimate. 

Compu'te, v. to calculate, to reckon. 

Compu'ter, s. a calculator. 

Com'rade, s. a companion, an associate. 

Con, an abbreviation of contra, against. 

Con, v. to think over, to commit to memory. 

Concatena'tion, s. a regular series of links. 

Con'cave, a. hollow : *. a cavity. 

Conceal', v. to hide, to keep secret. 

Conceal'able, a. that may be kept secret. 

Conceal'ment, s. the act of hiding, shelter. 

Conce'de, v . to admit, to grant, to yield. 

Conceit', s. conception, fancy, idea, imagina- 
tion, opinion, opiniative pride : v. to form 
a notion, to fancy, to imagine. 

Conceit'ed, a. opiniative, affected. 

Conceit'edly, ad. fancifully ; affectedly. 

Conceit'edness, s. pride ; opinionativeness. 

Conceiv'able, a. that may be conceived. 

Conceiv'ably, ad. in a conceivable manner. 

Concei've, v. to become pregnant, to think, 
to understand, to comprehend. 

Coneen'trate, v. to bring to a point. 

Concentration, S. the act of concentrating. 

Concen'tre, v. to tend to a common centre. 

Concen'tric, a. having one common centre. 

Concep tion, *. the act of conceiving, a notion 
or idea. 

Concern', s. an affair, business, care, anxiety : 
v. to belong to ; to affect; to make anxious. 

Concerning, prep, relating to or about. 

Concern'ment, s. a concern, business, care. 

Concert', v. to contrive, to settle privately. 

Con'cert, s. agreement ; accordance ; har- 
mony ; a musical entertainment. 

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52 



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Concerta'tion, s. strife ; contention. 

Concerto, [Ital.] *. a piece of music 

ConcesSion, s. a thing yielded, a grant. 

Concessive, a. implying concession. 

Conces'sively, ad. by way of concession. 

Conch, s. a shell ; name of a fish. 

Conchol'ogist, s. a connoisseur in shells. 

Conchol'ogy, s. the natural history of shells. 

Conciliate, v. to reconcile, to gain over. 

Conciliation, s. the act of reconciling. 

Concilia'tor, s. a peace-maker, a friend. 

Conciliatory, a. tending to reconciliation. 

Conci'se, a. brief, short, contracted. 

Conci'sely, ad. briefly ; shortly. 

Conciseness, s. shortness, brevity, force. 

Conclama'tion, s. a great shout or outcry. 

Con'clave, s. an assembly of cardinals ; a. a 
close or private assembly. 

Conclu'de, v. to shut, to finish, to determine. 

Conclusion, s. the close, the end; an in- 
ference. 

Conclusive, a. decisive, convincing. 

Conclusiveness, s. the being conclusive. 

Concoct', v. to digest ; to mature. 

Concoc'tion, s. digestion in the stomach. 

Concomitance, Concom'itancy, s. a subsist- 
ing together ; a state of joint subsistence. 

Concomitant, a. accompanying, joined to: 
s. an accompanying circumstance. 

Concomitantly, ad. concurrently. 

Con'cord, s. agreement, union, harmony. 

Concord', v. to agree with. 

Concordance, s. an' index to the Scriptures. 

Concor'dancy, s. agreement. 

Concor'dant, a. agreeing ; harmonious. 

Concor'dantly, ad. in conjunction. 

Concor'dat, s. a compact, a convention. 

Con'course, s. a great number of persons as- 
sembled together ; a meeting. 

Concres'ccnce, s. the act of growing by the 
union of separate particles. 

Concre'te, a. formed by concretion ; not ab- 
stract ; not separated from its subject: s. a 
mass formed by concretion : v. to form by 
concretion. 

Concre'tion, s. a union of parts, a mass. 

Concre'tive, a. causing to concrete. 

Concu'binage, *. the act or state of living 
with a woman, not being married to her. 

Con'cubine, s. a woman kept in fornication. 

Concu'piscence, s. irregular desire ; lust. 

Concur', v. to agree in one opinion. 

Concur'rence, s. agreement, union. 

Concurrent, a. acting in conjunction. 

Concurrently, ad. in a concurrent manner. 

Coneus'sion, s. tho act of shaking, agitation. 

C&ndem'n, v. to pass sentence on, to blame. 

Condem'nable, a. blamable, culpable. 

Condemnation, s. a sentence of punishment. 

Condem'natory, a. implying condemnation. 

CondenSable, a. capable of condensation. 

Conden'sate, v. to make thick or dense. 

Condensation, s. the act of thickening. 

CondenSe, v. to make thick or dense. 

CondenSer, s. he, or that which condenses ; 
a vessel for condensing air. 

Condescend', v. to descend from the privileges 
of superior rank or dignity ; to yield, to stoop. 

Condescend'enoe, s. voluntary submission to 
equality with inferiors. 

Condescending, a. yielding; courteous, kind. 



Condescend'ingly, ad. by way of concession ; 
courteously. 

Condescension, s. submission, courtesy. 

Condi'gn, a. deserved, merited, suitable. 

Con'dimont, s. seasoning, sauce, zest. 

Condf'tion, s. state; quality; temper; rank ; 
stipulation ; terms of contract. 

Condi'lional, a. containing or depending on 
conditions ; not absolute. 

Conditionally, ad. with certain limitations. 

Condol'atory, a. expressing condolence. 

Condole, v. to lament or mourn with. 

Condo'lement, s. sympathy for anotherS 
sorrow. 

Condolence, *. grief for anotherS sorrow. 

Condoling, s. expression of condolence. 

Con'dor, *. a large kind of vulture. 

Condu'ce, v. to lead or tend ; to promote 

Condu'cement, 5. a leading to, a tendency. 

Condu'cent, a. tending to, contributing. 

Condu'cible, a. having the power of conduc- 
ing, tending to, or promoting. 

Condu'ciblcness, s. contributing to any end. 

Condu'cive, a. promoting, helping. 

Condu'civencss, s. the quality of conducing. 

Con'duct, s. management ; guidance ; be- 
haviour ; economy. 

Conduct', v. to guide ; to manage ; to behave. 

Conduc'tor, s. a leader, a director, a chief. 

Con'duit, s. a water-pipe, a canal, a duct. 

Cone, s. a solid body, of which the base is a 
circle, and the summit a point ; the fruit 
of the fir-tree. 

Confab'ulate, v. to chat with. 

Con'fect, s. a confection or sweetmeat. 

Confect', v. to preserve with sugar. 

Confec'tion, s. a sweetmeat, a mixture. 

Confec'tionary, s. a preparation of sweetmeats. 

Confec'tioner, s. one who makes sweetmeats. 

Confed'eracy, s. a league ; federal compact. 

Confed'erate, v. to join in a league : a. united 
in a league : s. an ally or accomplice. 

Confederation, s. close alliance, union. 

Confer, v. to discourse with ; to bestow. 

Con'ference, s. a formal discourse. 

Confess', v. to acknowledge, to avow. 

Confessedly, ad. avowedly, indisputably. 

Confes'sion, s. avowal, acknowledgment. 

Confes'sional, s. the box in which the con- 
fessor sits to hear confession. 

Confess'or, s. one who hears confessions. 

Confidant', s. mas. Confidante', s.fem. a per- 
son trusted with a secret ; a bosom friend. 

Confi'de, v. to trust in, to rely upon. 

Con'fidcnce, s. assurance, boldness, trust. 

Con'fident, a. positive, daring, impudent. 

Confidential, a. trusty, faithful ; private. 

Con'fidently, a. without doubt or fear. 

Configura'tion, s. the form of various part* 
adapted to each other. 

Confi'nable, a. that may be limited. 

Con'fine, s. a limit, border, boundary. 

Confi'ne, v. to bound or limit ; to imprison. 

Confi'neless, a. boundless ; without end. 

Confinement, s. restraint, imprisonment. 

Confirm', v. to make firm ; to establish ; to 
ratify ; to admit fully into Christian com- 
munion. 

Confirm'able, a. capable of being proved. 

Confirma'tion, $. tho act of establishing ; a 
I proof or convincing testimony ; a church 



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53 



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rite by which baptized persons are confirm- 
ed in the faith. 

Confirm'ative, a. having power to confirm. 

Confirmatory, a. affording additional proof. 

Confiscate, v. to forfeit to the public trea- 
sury : a. forfeited to the state. 

Confiscation, s. the act of adjudging the 
goods of criminals to public use. 

Confis'catory, a. consigning to forfeiture. 

Con'fituro See Com'fiture. 

Conflagration, s. a general fire or burning. 

Confla'tion, s. the act of blowing many in- 
struments together ; or of many fires in the 
casting of metals. 

Conflict', v. to fight, to contest, to strive. 

Con'flict, s. a contest, struggle, agony. 

Con'fluence, s. the junction or union of several 
streams ; a multitude of people. 

Con'fluent, a. running into one channel. 

Con'fiux, s. a joining of currents, a crowd. 

Conform', v. to comply with, to yield, to suit. 

Conform'ablc, a. agreeable ; suitable. 

Conform'ably, ad. agreeably; suitably. 

Conforma'tion, s. a proper disposition of 
parts as relating to each other. 

Conform'ist, s. one who complies with the | 
established forms of the church. 

Conform'ity, s. resemblance ; consistency. 

Confound', v. to mix, to perplex, to disturb. ! 

Confound'edly, ad. shamefully, hatefully. 

Confound'er, s. one who confounds. 

Confratcr'nity, s. a religious brotherhood. 

Confront', v. to face, to oppose, to compare. 

Confu'se, v. to confound, to perplex, to mix. 

Confu'sedly, ad. indistinctly ; with agitation. 

Confu'sodness, s. want of distinctness. 

Confu'sion, s. disorder, hurry, astonishment. 

Confutable, it. that which maybe disproved. 

Confutation, s. the act of confuting. 

Confute, v. to convict of error, to disprove. 

Confu'ter, s. one who confutes another. 

Conge', [Fr.] s. a bow or act of reverence ; 
leave ; farewell. 

Congo'-d'eli're, s. the sovereign's permission 
to a dean and chapter to choose a bishop. 

Congeal', v. to freeze", to grow stiff. 

Congeal'able, a. that which may be frozen. 

Congeal'ment, s. a mass formed by frost. 

Congela'tion, s. the act of turning fluids to 
solids by cold. 

Conge'nial, a. of the same nature , kindred. 

Congeniality, s. state of being congenial. 

Con'gcr, s. a kind of sea-eel. 

Conge'ries, s. a mass of small bodies. 

Congest', v. to heap or lay up, to amass. 

Congestion, s. a collection of humours. 

Conglob'ulate, v. to gather together into a 
round mass. 

Conglomerate, v. to gather into a ball, as of ' 
thread : a. gathered into a round mass: s. 
a sort of sandstone. 

Conglomeration, s. a collection, mixture. 

Con'gou, S. a fine sort of black tea. 

Congratulate, v. to wish joy to, to compli- 
ment on any happy event. 

Congratulation, s. a wishing of joy. 

Congratulatory, a. expressing joy. 

Con'gregate, v. to assemble; to meet together. 

Congregation, s. a collection, an assembly. 

Congregational, a. pertaining to a congrega- 
tion ; also to the sect of independents. 



Congrega'tionalist, s. one who belongs to an 
independent or congregational church. 

Con'gress, s. a meeting, an assembly. 

Con'gruence, s. agreement, fitness. 

Con'gruent, a. agreeing, suitable. 

Congru'ity, s. fitness, consistency. 

Con'gruous, a. fit, suitable, agreeable. 

Con'gruously, ad. suitably ; consistently. 

Con'ic, Con'ical, a. like a cone 

Con'ically, ad. in form of a cone. 

Con'ics, s. the doctrine of conic sections. 

Coniferous, a. bearing cones, as the fir. 

Conjec'tural, a. depending on conjecture. 

Conjec'turally, ad. by guess. 

Conjec'ture, s. a guess, supposition, idea : v 
to guess, to suppose. 

Conjoin', v. to unite or join together. 

Conjoint', a. united ; associated. 

Conjoint'ly, ad. in union, jointly. 

Con'jugal, a. belonging to marriage. 

Con'jugally, ad. matrimonially. 

Conjugate, v. to join, to unite, to vary a verb 
according to its tenses, &c. 

Conjugation, s. the form of inflecting verbs; 
union, assemblage. 

Conjunct', a. connected, united, conjoined. 

Conjunction, *. a union ; an astronomical 
term ; a connecting word. 

Conjunctive, a. uniting, connecting. 

Conjunc'tively, ad. in union; together. 

Conjunctly, ad. jointly ; in conjunction. 

Conjuncture, s. a critical or peculiar time. 

Conjura'tion, s. the act of conjuring. 

Conju'ro, v. to enjoin solemnly, to conspire; 
to bind by an oath. 

Con'jure, v. to practise enchantments. 

Con'jurer, .f. a magician, a fortune-teller. 

Connect', v. to join, to unite. 

Connec'tion, Connex'ion, s. a joining things 
together ; union ; participation. 

Connective, a. having the power of connect- 
ing: s. a word that connects. 

Connective] y, ad. together ; jointly. 

Conni've, v. to wink at a fault. 

Conni'vancoj s. the act of winking at a fault ; 
voluntary bjindness to a fault. 

Connoisseur', s. a critic, a judge of the arts. 

Connu'bial, a. relating to marriage. 

Con"quer, v. to subdue, to overcome. 

Con"qucrablc, a. that may be conquered. 

Con"queror, s. one who conquers, a victor. 

Con"quest, s. victory ; a thing gained by 
conquest. 

Consanguin'ity, a. relationship by blood. 

Con'scicnce, .?. the faculty by which we judge 
of the rectitude or wickedness of our own 
actions ; justice, honesty. 

Conscientious, a. scrupulous, just, exact. 

Conscientiously, ad. according to tho dictates 
of conscience. 

Conscien'tiousness, s. tenderness of con- 
science, strict regard to justice or equity. 

Con'scionable, a. proper, reasonable. 

Con'scionably, ad. reasonably ; justly. 

Con'sciotis, a. inwardly persuaded ; privy to. 

Consciously, ad. with inward persuasion. 

Consciousness, s. perception, internal sense 
of the guilt or innocence of our actions. 

Con'script, a. written down or enrolled with 
otli ors. This term was applied to the en- 
rolled members of tho Roman Senate. 



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Con'script, s. one enrolled to serve in the 
army; more particularly applied to soldiers 
drawn by lot for the French armies. 

Conscrip'tion, s.an enrolling or registering. 

Con'secrate, v. to make sacred, to dedicate : | 
a. consecrated, devoted. 

Consecra'tion, s. the act of consecrating. 

Consec'utive, a. following in order, succeed- 
ing each other uninterruptedly. 

Consec'utive] y, ad. following regularly. 

Consent', s. agreement : v. to agree to. 

Consen'tient, a. uniting in opinion. 

Con'sequence, s. an effect ; importance ; in- 
fluence. 

Consequent, a. following as an effect : s. an 
effect, an inference. 

Consequen'tial, a. following as the effect ; 
important ; conceited ; pompous. 

Consequentially, ad. by consequence ; 
haughtily. 

Con'sequently, ad. by consequence, there- 
fore, necessarily, inevitably. 

Conserva'tion, s. the act of preserving. 

Conserv'ative, a. having power to preserve : 
s. one opposed to changes in the state. 

Conserva'tor, *. a preserver ; one that has 
the keeping of any thing from detriment. 

Conservatory, s. a place where any thing is 
preserved ; a greenhouse : a. having power 
to preserve. 

Conserv'e, v. to preserve or candy fruit. 

Con'serve, s. a sweetmeat, preserved fruit. 

Consid'er, v. to doubt, to study, to examine. 

Considerable, a. worthy to be considered ; 
of some importance. 

Considerably, ad. importantly, much. 

Consid'erate, a. prudent, thoughtful. 

Considerately, ad. prudently, calmly. 

Consideration, s. the act of considering ; 
serious thought ; prudence ; importance ; 
regard ; compensation. 

Consi'gn, v. to transfer or make over to. 

Consignee', s. the person to whom goods for 
sale are consigned. 

Consignment, s. the act of consigning to. 

Consi'gner, Consignor', s. he who consigns goods 
to another for saie. 

Consist', v. to subsist, to be made of. 

Consis'tence, Consis'tency, s. degree of den- 
sity ; substance ; agreement with ; unifor- 
mity. 

Consis'tent, a. standing or agreeing together ; 
firm ; uniform. 

Consist'ently, ad. in a consistent manner. 

Consisto'riai, a. relating to a consistory. 

Consist'ory, s. a spiritual court. 

Conso'labl'e, a. that which admits comfort. 

Consola'tion, s. alleviation of misery. 

Consol'atory, a. giving consolation. 

Conso'le, v. to comfort, to revive. 

Conso'ler, s. one who gives comfort. 

Consols', s. certain funds or stock. 

Con'sonant, a. sounding or agreeing with ; 
consistent : s. a letter which cannot be 
sounded by itself. 

Con'sonantly, ad. consistently; agreeably. 

Con'sort, s. a wife or husband ; a companion. 

Consort', v. to associate with, to join. 

Conspicu'ity, s. clearness, brightness. 

Conspic'uous, a. obvious to the sight ; distin- 
guished, eminent. 



Conspic'uously, ad. so as to be clearly sees. 

Conspic'uousness, s. clearness, renown. 

Conspiracy, s. a plot, a lawless combination. 

Conspira'tion, s. a plot; a conspiracy. 

Conspir'ator, Conspi'rer, s. a plotter. 

Conspi're, v. to plot, to concert. 

Con'stable, s. a peace-officer, a policeman. 

Constab'ulary, a. re.ating to the police force. 

Con'stancy, s. firmness, continuance. 

Con'stant, a. firm, unchangeable, fixed. 

Constantly, ad. invariably, perpetually. 

Constella'tion, s. a cluster of fixed stars. 

Consterna'tion, s. fear, astonishment, wonder. 

Con'stipate, v. to crowd, to condense ; to 
stop up ; to make costive. 

Constipa'tion, s. condensation ; costiveness. 

Constituent, a. constituting or forming ; es- 
sentia] : s. the person or thing that con- 
stitutes ; an elector. 

Con'stitute, v . to make, depute, set up. 

Constitu'tion, s. the frame of body or mind ; 
law of a country, form of government. 

Constitutional, a. in accordance with the 
constitution ; legal. 

Constitu'tionalist, s. an adherent to the law 
of the land. 

Constitutionally, ad. legally. 

Constrain', v. to compel, to force, to press. 

Constrain'edly, ad. by constraint. 

Constrai'nt, s. compulsion, confinement. 

Constrict', v. to bind, to contract. 

Constric'tion, s. contraction, compression. 

Constric'tor, s. that which compresses. 

Constrin'ge, v. to compress, to bind. 

Constrin'gent, a. of a binding quality. 

Construct', v. to build, to form. 

Construc'ter, s. he who forms or makes. 

Construc'tion, s. the act of building, fabrica- 
tion ; the connexion of words in a sentence ; 
interpretation or meaning. 

Construc'tional, a. relating to the meaning. 

Construc'tive, a. capable of construction. 

Construc'tively, ad. by construction. 

Construc'ture, s. a building, an edifice. 

Con'strue, v. to explain, to translate. 

Consubstai'tial'ity, s. existence of more than 
one body in the same substance. 

Consubstantia'tion, s. the union of the body 
and blood of our Saviour with the sacra- 
mental element, according to Lutherans. 

Con'sul, s. the principal Roman magistrate ; 
an officer appointed to protect the com- 
merce of his nation in foreign ports. 

Con'sular, a. belonging to a consul. 

Con'sulate, Consulship, s. office of consul. 

Consult', v. to ask advice of, to debate, plan. 

Consulta'tion, s. the act of consulting. 

Consu'mable, a. that may be consumed. 

Consu'me, v. to waste, to destroy, to spend. 

Consu'mer, s. one who consumes. 

Consum'mate, v. to complete, to perfect : a. 
complete, finished. 

Consum'mately, ad. perfectly; completely. 

Consummation, s. completion, perfection. 

Consumption, *. the acting of consuming 01 
destroying ; a disease. 

Consumptive, a. destructive, wasting. 

Consump'tively, ad. tending to consumption. 

Consump'tiveness, s. tendenoy to consump- 
tion. 

Con'tact, s. a touch, juncture, close union. 



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55 



CON 



Conta'gion, s. an infection, a pestilence. 
CoDta'gious, a. infectious, catching. 
Conta'giousness, s. the being contagious. 
Contain', v. to hold, to comprise, to restrain. 
Containable, a. possible to be contained. 
Contaminate, v. to defile, to corrupt. 
Contamination, s. defilement, taint. 
Contem'n, v. to despise, scorn, neglect. 
Contem'ner, s. one that contemns. 
Contem'plate, v. to muse, meditate, study. 
Contemplation, s. meditation, thought. 
Contem'plative, a. studious, thoughtful. 
Contemplatively, ad. thoughtfully. 
Contenipora'neous, a. living or existing at 

the same time. 
Contem'porary, s. one who lives at the same 

time with another : a. living at the same 

time. 
Contempt', s. scorn, disdain ; disobedience 

to a court of law. 
Contemptible, a. deserving scorn ; base. 
Contemp'tibleness, s. meanness ; baseness. 
Contemptibly, ad. in a contemptible manner. 
Contemp'tuous, a. scornful, insolent. 
Contemptuously, ad. scornfully. 
Contemp'tuousness, s. tending to contempt. 
Contend', v. to strive with, to contest. 
Content', a. satisfied, easy, willing : s. mo- 
derate happiness, satisfaction : v. to satisfy, 

to gratify. 
Content'ed, p. and a. satisfied ; not repining. 
Content'edly, ad. in a satisfied manner. 
Content'edness, s. state of being content. 
Conten'tion, s. strife, debate, contest. 
Conten'tious, a. quarrelsome, perverse. 
Conten'tiously, ad. quarrelsomely. 
Conten'tiousness, s. quarrelsomeness. 
Content'ment, s. the being content. 
Con 'tents, s. pi. what is contained in any 

thing ; the amount ; the heads of a book ; 

an index. 
Conter'minable, a. capable of being brought 

within the same bounds. 
Conterminous, a. bordering upon. 
Con'test, s. a dispute, debate, quarrel. 
Contest', v. to dispute, to contend, to vie with. 
Contestable, a. that may be contested. 
Contest'ingly, ad. in a contending manner. 
Contest'loss, a. not to be disputed. 
Con'text, s. the parts that precede and follow 

the sentence quoted : a. knit or woven 

together. 
Contex'ture, $. an interweaving or joining 

together of a discourse ; the system. 
Contigu'ity, s. actual contact. 
Contig'uous, a. meeting so as to touch. 
Contiguously, ad. without intervening spaces. 
Contig'uousness, s. the being contiguous. 
Continence, or Con'tinency, s. restraint, 

chastity, moderation, forbearance. 
Continent, s. a large extent of land contain- 
ing many countries. 
Con'tinent, a. chaste, abstemious, temperate. 
Continental, a. relating to a continent. 
Continently, ad. chastely; temperately. 
Contin'eence, Contin'goncy, s. a casualty or 

event which happens by chance. 
Contingent, a. accidental, uncertain. 
Contin'gent, S. chance ; proportion. 
Contingently, ad. casually, accidentally. 
Coutin'ual, a. incessant, uninterrupted. 



Contin'ually, ad. without pausing, always. 

Contin'uance, s. duration, permanence ; 
abode in one place. 

Continua'tion, s. a constant succession. 

Contin'uative, a. uninterrupted. 

Contin'ue, v. to remain in the same state ; 
to dwell, to persevere, to last, to prolong. 

Contin'uedly, ad. without interruption. 

Contin'uous, a. joined together, without in- 
terruption. 

Continu'ity, *. uninterrupted connexion. 

Contor'tion, s. a twist, a drawing awry. 

Contour', [Fr.] s. the outline of a figure. 

Con'tra, [Lat.] prep, against. 

Con'traband, a. unlawful, forbidden, illegal. 

Con'tract, S. a bargain, an agreement. 

Contract', v. to draw together ; to lessen ; to 
affiance or betroth ; to bargain. 

Contract'edly, ad. in a contracted manner. 

Contract'edness, s. contraction. 

Contract'ible, a. capable of contraction. 

Contractibil'ity, Contract'ibleness, s, capabi- 
lity of contraction. 

Contrac'tion, s. a drawing together ; an 
abridging ; a shrinking ; an abbreviation. 

Contractor, s. one who makes bargains. 

Contradict', v. to oppose verbally, to deny. 

Contradiction, s. denial, contrariety. 

Contradict'orily, ad. inconsistently. 

Contradict'oriness, s. blunt opposition. 

Contradictory, a. inconsistent with : s. an 
opposite proposition (in logic). 

Contradistinc"tion, s. a distinction by oppo- 
site qualities. 

Contradistin"guish, v. to distinguish by op- 
posite qualities. 

Con'traries, s. pi. propositions that oppo e. 

Contrariety, s. opposition, inconsistency. 

Con'trarily, ad. contradictorily. 

Con'trariness, s. contrariety ; repugnance. 

Con'trary, a. opposite ; contradictory. 

Con'trast, s. opposition of figures. 

Contrast', v. to place in opposition, so as to 
exhibit the difference. 

Contravalla'tion, s. a counter-fortification 
against the sallies of the besieged. 

Contrave'ne, v . to hinder, to oppose. 

Contraven'tion, s. obstruction, opposition. 

Contrib'utary, a. contributing to. 

Contrib'ute, v. to give to a common stock ; 
to bear a part ; to conduce. 

Contribu'tion, s. the act of contributing ; 
that which i3 given to a common stock. 

Contrib'utive, Contrib'utory, a. contributing 
to or promoting the same design. 

Contrite, a. truly penitent, very sorrowful. 

Contritely, ad. penitently ; with sorrow. 

Con'triteness, s. sorrow for sin ; penitence. 

Contri"tion, s. sorrow for sin ; penitence. 

Contri'vance, s. a plan, a scheme, an art. 

Contri've, v. to plan, project, invent. 

Contri'ver, s. an inventor, a schemer. 

Contro'l, v. to check ; to govern ; to over- 
power : s. restraint ; power, authority. 

Controllable, a. subject to control. 

Controller, s. one who has power to control, 

Contro'llership, s. the office of a controller. 

Controversial, a. relating to disputes. 

Controversialist, s. a disputant. 

Controversy, s. a debate ; a dispute, quarreL 

Controvert', v. to debate, to dispute. 



CON 

Controvertible, a. disputable, dubious. 

Contuma'cious, a. obstinate, perverse. 

Contumaciously, ad. obstinately ; inflexibly. 

Contunia'ciousness, s. obstinacy. 

Con 'turn acy, s. obstinacy ; wilful disobedience 
to any lawful summons or judicial order. 

Contumelious, m. reproachful, rude, brutal. 

Contume'liously, ad. reproachfully. 

Contumeliousness, s. rudeness ; reproach. 

Con'tumely, s. rudeness, contemptuousness. 

Contu'se, v. to bruise, to beat together. 

Contu'sion, s. tbe act of bruising ; a bruise. 

Conun'drum, s. a quibble, a riddle. 

Convalescence, s. a renewal of health. 

Convalescent, a. recovering, getting health. 

Conve'ne, v. to call together, to assemble. 

Conven'er, s. one who convenes. 

Convenience, s. fitness, propriety, ease. 

Convenient, a. fit, suitable, well adapted. 

Conve'niently, ad. commodiously, fitly. 

Con'vent, s. a religious house, a nunnery. 

Conven'ticle, s. a dissenting place of worship. 

Conven'tion, s. an assembly ; a contract or 
agreement for a limited time. 

Conven'tional, a. agreed on by compact ; sti- 
pulated ; tacitly understood. 

Conven'tionary, a. settled by contract. 

Convcr'ge. v. to tend to one point. 

Convergence, s. near approach to a point. 

Convergent, Converging, a. tending to ene 
point trom different places. 

Convers'able, a. fit for conversation, sociable, 
communicative. 

Convers'ableness, s. fluency of talk. 

Con'versant, a. acquainted with, skilled in. 

Conversation, s. familiar discourse, chat. 

Conversa'tion il, v. relating to conversation ; 
colloquial ; conversable. 

Conversazio'ne, [Ital.] s. a meeting of com- 
pany for the purpose of conversation. 

Con'verse, a. contrary, opposite ; s. conver- 
sation ; the contrary. 

Converse, v. to talk familiarly with. 

Con'versely, ad. by a change of order or 
place ; reciprocally ; contrarily. 

Conversion, s. change from one state or form 
into another ; change from one religion to 
another. 

Con'vert, s. one who changes his opinion. 

Convert', v. to change into another form or 
state, to turn. 

Convert'er, s. one who makes converts. 

Convertible, a. that may be converted. 

Convertibility, v. the being convertible. 

Convertlbly, ad. reciprocally. 

Con'vex, a. rising in a circular form, as the 
outside of a globe ; opposite to concave ; s. 
a convex or spherical body. 

Convexity, s. a spherical form ; rotundity. 

Convex'ly, ad. in a convex form. 

Convex'o-con'cave, a. convex on one side, 
and concave on the other. 

Convey', v. to carry, to transmit, to send. 

Convey'able, a. that may be conveyed. 

Conveyance, s. the actof removing anything ; 
a deed or writing by which property is 
transferred. 

Convey'ancer, s. a lawyer who draws up 
writings by which property is transferred. 

Convey'er, s. one who carries or transmits. 

Convict', v. to detect ; to prove guilty. 



56 COP 

Con'vict, s. one found guilty. 

Convic'tion, .?. a detection of guilt, full proof. 

Convin'cc, v. to make a person sensible of a 
thing by full proofs ; to prove. 

Convin'cible, a. capable of conviction. 

Convincing] y, ad. without room to doubt. 

Convin'cingness, s. the power of convincing. 

Convivial, a. social, festive, gay, pleasing. 

Conviviality, s. sociability, festivity. 

Convocation, s. an ecclesiastical assembly. 

Convo'ke, v. to summon or call together. 

Convol've, v. to roll together, to turn. 

Convol'vulus, 5. the flower bindweed. 

Convoluted, a. rolled upon itself, twisted. 

Convolution, s. a rolling together. 

Convoy 7 , v. to accompany for defence. 

Con'voy, s. an attendance for defence. 

Convul'se, v. to give a violent motion. 

Convulsion, s. an involuntary and irregular 
contraction of the muscles, fibres, &c. 

Convulsive, a, tending to convulsion. 

Convulsively, ad. in an agitated manner. 

Co'ny, s. a rabbit ; a simpleton. 

Coo, v. to cry as a dove or pigeon. 

Cooing, s. the note of the clove. 

Cook, s. one who dresses victuals. 

Cook, v. to dress or prepare victuals. 

Cook'ery, s. the art of dressing victuals. 

Cool, v. to make or grow cool ; to quiet : a. 
somewhat cold ; indifferent to, displeased 
with : s. moderate coldness ; indifference. 

Cool'-headed, a. without passion. 

Cooling, a. adapted to cool and refresh. 

Coolly, ad. without heat ; with indifference 

Cool'ness, s. freedom from passion, indif- 
ference, want of affection ; gentle cold. 

Cooly, s. an Indian road-porter. 

Coom'b, s. a corn measure of four bushels. 

Coop, s. a wooden cage for poultry ; a bar. 
rel : v. to put into a coop ; to confine. 

Coop'er, s. a maker of barrels. 

Coop'erage, $. tho price paid for cooper's 
work ; the work or workshops of a cooper. 

Coop'cry, s. the art of making casks. 

Co-op'erate, v. to labour for the same end. 

Co-opera'tion, s. exertion for tho same end. 

Co-op'crator, s. one that co-opcratos. 

Co-or'dinate, a. holding the same rank. 

Co-ordinately, ad. in the same rank. 

Co-ordina'tion, s. equality of rank. 

Coot, s. a small black water-fowl. 

Cop, s. the head, the top of any thing. 

Co'pal, s. the gum or resin of a Mexican 
tree, from which a fine varnish is made. 

Copart'ment, s. division, compartment. 

Copart'ncr, .v. a joint partner in business. 

Copartnership, s. the having an equal share. 

Cope, s. a priests cloak ; a concave arch. 

Cope, v. to contend with, to strive, to oppose. 

Coper'nican, a. relating to the astronomical 
system of Copernicus. 

Copier, s. one who copies or imitates. 

Co'ping, s. the covering of a wall. 

Co'pious, a. abundant, plentiful, full. 

Co'piously, ad. plentifully ; diffusedly. 

Co'piousness, s. plenty ; diffusion. 

Cop'per, s. a metal ; a largo boiler : a. con- 
sisting of copper : v. to cover with copper. 

Cop'pcras, s. a sort of mineral, vitriol. 

Cop'per-bot.tomed, a. having a bottom 
sheathed with copper. 



COP 

Cop'perish, a. containing or like copper. 

Cop'per-nose, s. a red or burly nose. 

Cop'per-plate, s. an impression from a figure 
engraved on copper ; the plate on -which 
any thing is engraved for printing. 

Cop'persmith, s. one who works in copper. 

Cop'pery, a. tasting of cr mixed with copper. 

Coppice, s. a wood of small low trees. 

Cop'se, s. a small wood of low trees. 

Cop'tio, .?. the language of the Copts or ancient 
Egyptians. 

Cop'ula, s. that which joins the subject and 
predicate in a proposition. 

Cop'ulate, v. to connect, to unite ; to mix. 

Copula'tion, s. the act of joining ; connexion. 

Cop'ulativo, a. joining together. 

Cop'y, a', a manuscript, an imitation, a pat- 
tern to write after ; a duplicate of any origi- 
nal writing, or of apicturc : v. to transcribe ; 
to imitate. 

Cop'y-book, s. a booic in which copies are 
written for learners to imitate. 

Cop'yhold, s. a tenure under the lord of a 
manor, held by the copy of a court-roll. 

Cop'yholder, s. one having copyhold land. 

Cop'yist, s. a transcriber, a copier. 

Cop'yright, s. the solo right to print a book. 

Co'qiu'licot, [Fr.] s. the red corn rose. 

Coquet', v. to act like a coquette, to jilt. 

Co'quetry, 5. deceit in love, affectation. 

Coquet'te, s. a vain gay woman, who by va- 
rious arts endeavours to gain admirers. 

Coquet'ish, a. after the manner of a coquette. 

Cor'acle, s. a kind of light boat made by 
drawing leather over a frame of wicker 
work. 

Cor'al, s. the shells of a kind of marine in- 
sects or animals, of which there are three 
kinds, red, white, and black: a. made of 
coral. 

Cor'alline, a. consisting of coral : s. a kind 
of marine plant formed by insecls. 

Cor'al-tree, j. an American tree, with beau- 
tiful scarlet flowers. 

Cor'al-wort, s. a plant, tooth-wort. 

Corant', Coran'to, s. a kind of quick dance. 

Cor'ban, s. an alms-basket; a gift; an alms. 

Cor'beils, s. in fortification, baskets of earth. 

Cor'bel, s. in architecture, the representation 
of a basket ; the base of the Corinthian 
column ; a niche for figures. 

Cord, s. a string, a rope ; a sinew : v. to tic 
or fasten with cords. 

Cord'age, s. a quantity of ropes for a ship. 

Cord'ed, p. and a. bound with cords; striped 
or furrowed as with cords. 

CorMial, a. proceeding from the heart ; sin- 
cere, reviving : s. a medicine or drink for 
reviving or exhilarating the spirits. 

Cordial'ity, s. sincerity, affection, esteem. 

Cor'dially, ad. sincerely, heartily, truly. 

Cor'don, [Fr.] s. a line of military posts. 

Cord'ovan, Cord'wain, s. a fine Spanish lea- 
ther, originally from Cordova. 

Corduroy', s. a stout corded cotton cloth. 

Cord'wainer, Cor'diner, s. a shoemaker. 

Core, s. the heart or inner part of a thing. 

Co-re'gent, *. a joint regent or ruler. 

Corf, *. a coal measure of three bushels. 

Coria'ceous, a, consisting of or !iko leather. 

Corian'der, *. a plant, a hot seed. 



57 



COR 



Corin'thian, a. relating to Corinth : s. the 

name of the fourth order in architecture. 
Co-ri'val, s. a fellow rival ; a competitor. 
Cork, s. a tree resembling the ilex ; its bark ; 

the stopple of a bottle : v. to stop up. 
Cork'ing-pin, s. a pin of the largest size. 
Cork'screw, s. a screw to draw corks with. 
Cork'y, a. consisting of or resembling cork. 
Cormorant, s. a bird of prey, a glutton. 
Corn, s. a grain ; seeds which grow in ears, not 

in pod3 : v. to sprinkle with grains of salt, 

to salt slightly. 
Corn, s. a corneous excrescence on the foot. 
Cor'nage, s. an ancient tenure, which obliged 

the landholder to give notice of an invasion 

by blowing a horn. 
Corn'-chandler, s. a retailer of corn. 
Cor'nea, s. the horny coat of the eye. 
Cor'nel, s. a tree ; the cornelian cherry. 
Corne'lian, s. a precious stone. 
Cor'neous, a. horny, resembling horn. 
Cor'ncr, s. an angle ; a secret or remote place ; 

the extremity, or utmost limit. 
Cor'nered, a. having angles or corners. 
Cor'net, s. a musical instrument ; the officer 

who bears the standard of a troop of horse. 
Cor'nctcy, s. the commission of a cornet. 
Cor'nice, s. the uppermost ornament of a wall 

or wainscot ; the top of a column. 
Cor'nicle, s. a little horn. 
Corni"gerous, a. horned, having horns. 
Cor'nish, (1. belonging to Cornwall. 
Corn'rose. s. the cockle (a field flower). 
Cor'nu-ammo'nis, s. a shell like a ram's horn. 
Cornuco'pia, s. the horn of plenty. 
Cor'nutod,/?. and a. having horns; cuckolded. 
Cornu'to, s. a man with horns, a cuckold. 
Corn'v, a. strong or hard like horn. 
Corol'la, j. petals or leaves of a flower. 
Corolla'ceous, a. enclosing like a wreath. 
Cor'ollary, A', an inference or deduction. 
Cor'ollated, a. having flowers like a crown. 
Coro'na, [Lat.] s. a crown ; the flat part of a 

cornice which crowns the entablature. 
Cor'onal, s. a chaplet, a garland : a. pertain- 
ing to the top of the head. 
Corona'tion, s. the act or solemnity of 

crowning. 
Cor'oner, s. a civil officer, who, with a jury, 

inquires into casual or violent deaths. 
Coronet, s. a crown worn by the nobility. 
Cor'poral, s. the lowest officer of the infantry. 
Corporal'ity, s. the quality of being embodied. 
Cor'poral ly, ad. bodily, in bodily form. 
Corporate, a. united in a community. 
Cor porately, ad. in a corporate capacity. 
Corpora'tor, s. the member of a corporation. 
Corpo'real, Cor poral, a. bodily, material. 
Corpo'really, ad. in a bodily form. 
Corpora'tion, s. a body politic authorized to 

act as a single person, and to grant any 

thing within the compass of their charter. 
Cor'ps,[Fr.] s. a body of soldiers, a regiment. 
Corpse, s. a dead body, a carcass, a corse. 
Cor'pulencc, s. bulkincss of body, fleshiness. 
Cor'pulent, a. fleshy, bulky, gross. 
Cor'puscle, s. a small body, an atom. 
Corpus'cular, a. made up of small particles. 
Correct', a. free from faults ; accurate : v. to 

make right ; to amend ; to punish. 
Correction, s. punishment ; discipline. 
i>3 



COR 



58 



cou 



Correctional, a. tending to correct. 
Corrective, a. able to amend or correct: s. 

that which has the power of correcting. 
Correct'ly, ad. accurately, exactly. 
Correct'ness, s. accuracy, nicety, exactness. 

Correct'or, s. one who, or that which, corrects. 

Corregldor, s. a chief magistrate in Spain. 

Cbrrel'atire, a. having a reciprocal relation : 
s. that which has a reciprocal relation. 

Correl'ativoly, ad. in a correlative relation. 

Correspond', v. to suit, to agree ; to hold in- 
tercourse with another by letters. 

Correspond'ence, s. intercourse by letters ; 
friendship ; agreement ; relation. 

Correspondent, a. suitable, answerable : s. 
one who holds correspondence with another 
by letters. 

Correspond'ently, ad. suitably, fitly. 

Correspon'sive, a. answerable. 

Cor'ridor, s. a gallery round a building. 

Corrigen'da, [Lat. ] s.pl. words to be corrected. 

Cor'rigible, a. capable of being corrected. 

Corrob'orant, a. strengthening, confirming : 
s. a medicine that strengthens. 

Corrob'orate, v. to confirm, to establish- 

Corrobora'tion, s. the act of strengthening or 
confirming ; a confirmation. 

Corrob'orative, a. having the power of con- 
firming or establishing. 

Corro'de, v. to eat away by degrees. 

Corro'dent, a. having the power of wasting 
away : s. that which eats sway. 

Corro'dible, a. capable of corrosion. 

Corro'sion, s. the act of eating away. 

Corro'sive, a. able to corrode or eat away : *. 
that which corrodes or consumes. 

Corro'siveness, s. the quality of corroding. 

Cor 'rugate, v. to wrinkle or purse up. 

Corruga'tion, s. contraction into wrinkles. 

Cor'rugator, s. a muscle of the forehead which 
contracts the skin into wrinkles. 

Corrupt', a. rotten, tainted, unsound, vi- 
cious : v. to infect ; to deprave ; to bribe. 

Corrupt'er, s. one who corrupts or taints. 

Corruptibility, Corrup'tibleness, *. the pos- 
sibility of being corrupted. 

Corruptible, a. that may be corrupted. 

Corruptibly, ad. in a corrupt manner. 

Corrup'tion, s. wickedness; matter or pus. 

Corruptive, a. able to taint or corrupt. 

Corrupt'less, a. insusceptible of corruption. 

CoTrupt'ly, ad. in a corrupt manner. 

Corrupt'ness, s. putrescence, vice. 

Cor'sair, s. a pirate, a plunderer on the sea. 

Corse, s. See Corpse. 

Cor'selet, or Cors'let, s. a light armour for the 
forepart of the body. 

Cor'set, [Fr.] 5. a pair of stays ; a boddice. 

Corte'ge, [Fr. ] s. a train of attendants. 

Cor'tes, s. the members representing the 
Spanish states assembled in Madrid. 

Cortex, s. the outer bark or rind. 

Corticated, a. resembling the bark of a tree. 

Corvette, s. an advice boat ; a sloop of war. 

Co/vine, a. belonging to a crow or raven. 

Cor'vus, s. an ancient naval engine, with a 
hook like a crow's beak. 

< Jorus'cant, a. flashing, glittering. 

Coruscate, v. to glitter by flashes. 

Coruscation, s. a flashing of light. 

Ooryphe'us, s. the chief or leader of a chorus. 



Cose'cant, s. a term in geometry. 

Cosi'ne, s. a term in geometry. 

Cosmet'ic, s. a wash to improve the skin : sl 

beautifying or improving the skin. 
Cos'mical, a. rising or setting with the sun. 
Cos'micaliy, ad. with the sun. 
Cosmog'onist. s. one who studies cosmogony. 
Cosmog'ony, s. birth or creation of the world. 
Cosinogtaphy, s. the science of the general 

system of the world. 
Cosmop'olite, s. a citizen of the world. 
Cost, s. price, charge, expense, loss : v. to be 

bought for, to be had at a price. 
Cos'tal, a. relating to the ribs. 
Cos'tard, s. a large round apple ; a head. 
Cos'tardmonger, Cos'termonger, s. a dealer 

in apples ; generally applied to those who 

carry fruit and vegetables about for sale 
Cos'tive, a. constipated or bound in the body ; 

close ; formal. 
Cos'tiveness, s. the state of being costive. 
Cost'less, a. attainable without expense. 
Costliness, s. expensiveness, sumptuousness. 
Costly, a. expensive, dear; of great price. 
Costs, s. pi. expenses incurred in law-suits. 
CostUme, s. style or mode of dress. 
Cot, s. a hut ; a small house or cottage ; a 

child's bed ; a little boat. 
Cotempora'neous, a. living at the same time. 
Cotem'porary, s. one who lives at the same 

time with another : a. living at the sams 

time. 
Co-ten'ant, J. a tenant in common. 
Coterie', s. a select party or society ; a club. 
Cothur'nus, s. a sort of ancient buskin. 
Cotillon, s. a light brisk dance. 
Cots'wold, s. sheepcotes in an open country. 
Cot'tager, Cotter, Cot'tier, s. one who lives ia 

a cot or cottage. 
Cot'ton, *. a plant ; the down of the cotton- 
tree ; cloth or stuff made of cotton : v. t# 

unite with ; to agree with. 
Cot'tony, a. like cotton ; downy. 
Cot'yla, s. that cavity of a bone which receives 

in it the end of another. 
Cotyl'edon, *. the lobe that nourishes the seeds 

of plants, and then perishes. 
Cotyled'onous, a. having a seed-lobe. 
Cou'hage, (vulgarly Cow-itch) s. an Indian 

bean, the pods of which sting like a nettle. 
Couch, s. a seat of repose ; a layer or bed : v. 

to lie down, to recline, to stoop ; to fix a 

spear in the rest ; to remove a cataract or 

film from the eye. 
Cou'chant, a. squatting, lying down. 
Couch'grass, s. a weed. 
Couching, s. the act of bending or bowing ; 

a surgical operation on the eye. 
Cough, s. a convulsion of the lungs : v. to 

make a noise in endeavouring to evacuat# 

matter from the lungs. 
Could, v. the past tense of Can. 
Coul'tcr, s. the sharp iron of the plough. 
Coun'cil, s. an assembly for consultation. 
Coun'sel, s. advice, direction; a pleader : v. 

to give advice ; to direct. 
Coun'sel lable, a. willing to receive counsel. 
Coun'sel] or, s. one who gives advice. 
Count, s. number, reckoning ; a foreign title. 
Count, v. to number, to cast up, to tell. 
Count'able, a. which may be numbered. 



CQU 



59 



cov 



Cotn'tenance, s. form of the face ; look ; pa- 
tronage : v. to patronize, to support. 

Conn ter, s. fictitious money ; a shop table. 

Coun ter, ad. contrary to, in a wrong way. 

Counteract', v. to act contrary to ; to hinder. 

Counterac'tion, s. prevention by opposition. 

Counter-attrac'tion, 5. opposite attraction. 

Counterbalance, v. to act against with an op- 
posite weight : s. an opposite weight. 

Counterbuff ', v. to repel, to strike back : s. a 
blow in a contrary direction. 

Coun'terchange, s. an exchange, reciproca- 
tion : v . to exchange. 

Countercharm', s. that which breaks a charm. 

Countercheck', s. a stop ; v. to oppose. 

Coun'ter-current, a. running in an opposite 
way : s. an opposite current. 

Counterdraw', v. to trace the lines of a draw- 
ing through transparent paper. 

Counter-ev'idence, s. opposite evidence. 

Counterfeit, s. an imposture ; a forgery : a. 
fictitious : v. to imitate ; to forge ; to feign. 

Counterfeiter, s. a forger ; an impostor. 

Coun'terfeitly, ad. falsely ; fictitiously. 

Coun'terlight, s. a light opposite to a thing 
which makes it appear to disadvantage. 

Countermand', v. to contradict an order. 

Goun'termand, s. repeal of a former order. 

Countermarch', v. to march backward. 

Coun'termarch, *. a retrograde march. 

Coun'termark, s. a second or third mark put 
on goods belonging to different merchants. 

Coun'termine, s. a mine made to frustrate the 
use of one made by the enemy. 

Countermi'ne, v. to defeat secretly. 

Coun'ter-movement, s. an opposite movement. 

Coun'terpano, s. the upper covering of a bed. 

Counterpart, s. a correspondent part. 

Coun'terplea, s. a replication in law. 

Counterplead , v. to contradict, to deny. 

Coun'terplot, s. plot against plot : v. to oppose 
one machination by another. 

Coun'terpoint, s. a coverlet woven in squares ; 
a term in music. 

Coun'terpoise, s. an equivalence of weight. 

Coun'terpoise, v. to counterbalance. 

Coun'terpoison, s. an antidote to poison. 

Coun'ter-projeot, s. a project of one party 
given in opposition to another. 

Coun'terproof, s. a proof, inverted, of a print, 
taken by passing it through a rolling-press. 

Coun'terprove, v. to take a proof inverted. 

Counter-revolu'tion, *. a revolution succeed- 
ing another, and opposite to it. 

Coun'terscarp, s. the exterior slope of a ditch 
round a fortification ; the covered way that 
surmounts it. 

Coun'terseal, v. to seal with another. 

Counter-secu'rity,*. security given to a person 
who has become surety for another. 

Countersign, v. to undersign ; to confirm : s. 
the word given to soldiers as a watchword. 

Coun'ter-signal, 5. a corresponding signal. 

Coun'terstroke, s. a stroke returned. 

Counterten'or, s. a middle part of music. 

Countervail', v. to be equivalent to ; to havo 
equal force or value. 

Countervail, s. equal weight or strength. 

Coun'tcrview, s an opposition a contrast. 

Coun'tervote, v. to outvote, to oppose. 

Coun'torweigh, v. to counterbalance. 



Coun'terwheel, s. a wheel in machinery that 
acts in an opposite way to the rest. 

Counterwork', v. to counteract. 

Coun'tess, s. the lady of a count or earl. 

Count'less, a. innumerable, infinite. 

Coun'trified, a. rustic, rude. 

Coun'try, s. a tract of land ; a region ; rural 
parts : a. rural ; remote from towns. 

Coun'try-dance,*. a well-known kind of dasce. 

Coun'tryman, s. a rustic ; one born in the 
same country ; a husbandman. 

Coun'ty, s. a shire : a. relating to a shire. 

Coup-de-grace, [Fi\] s. a finishing stroke. 

Coup-de-main, [Fr.]*. a sudden enterprise. 

Coup-d'ceil, [Fr.] s. a glance of the eye. 

Coupee', *. a motion in dancing ; a caper. 

Coup'le, s. a pair, a brace ; man and wife : v. 
to join together ; to marry. 

Coup'let, s. two verses ; a pair. 

Cour'age, s. bravery, valour, activity. 

Coura'geous, a. brave, daring. 

Coura'geously, ad. bravely, nobly, daringly. 

Coura'geousness, s. bravery ; boldness. 

Courant', *. a sprightly dance ; any thing that 
circulates quickly, as a newspaper, &o. 

Cou'rier, s. a messenger sent in haste. 

Course, s. a race ; a career ; a race-ground ; 
track in which a ship sails ; order of suc- 
cession ; service of meat ; method of life : 
v. to run, to hunt, to pursue. 

Cours'er, s. a race-horse, a war-horse. 

Cours'ing, s. the pursuit of hares with grey- 
hounds ; hare hunting in view of the dogs. 

Court, s. the residence of a sovereign ; a seat 
of justice ; an enclosed place in front of a 
house ; address ; flattery : V. to pay court 
to ; to make love to. 

Court' -bred, a. brought up at court. 

Court'-breeding, s. education at a court. 

Court'-day, s. the day on which a court sits to 
administer j ustice. 

Court'-dress, *. a dress suitable for an appear- 
ance at court. 

Cour'teous, a. of elegant manners ; kind. 

Courteously, ad. respectfully ; civilly. 

Cour'teousness, s. civility ; complaisance. 

Cour'tesan, s. a prostitute, a lewd woman. 

Cour'tesy, s. civility, complaisance, favor ; 
kindness ; the act of respect or reverence 
made by women. 

Cour'tesy, v. to make a courtesy. 

Court'-hand, s. the hand or writing used in 
records and judicial proceedings. 

Cour'tier, *. an attendant on a court ; a lover ; 
one who solicits a favor. 

Courtleet', s. a court of the lord of the manor. 

Court'like, a. polite, well-bred, obliging. 

Court'liness, a. civility, complaisance. 

Court'ly, a. polite, elegant, flattering. 

Court-martial, s. a court appointed to inves- 
tigate military or naval offences. 

Court'ship, s. making love to a woman. 

Cous'in, s. the child of an uncle or aunt ; a 
a kinsman or blood relation. 

Cove, s. a small creek or bay ; a shelter : *k 
to arch over ; to make a shelter. 

CoVenant,*. a bargain, contract, deed : v. t» 
bargain, to contract, to agree. 

Cortmanter, s. one who makes a oovenant ; 
one of a religious body called Covenanters. 

Cor'euous, a. treacherous. See Cov'inou*. 



cov 



60 



CRE 



Cor'er, *. that which is laid over something 
else ; a concealment ; a screen ; a shelter : 
v. to lay or spread over ; to conceal. 

Cov'ering, *. dress ; any thing that covers. 

Cov'erlet, s. the upper covering of a bed, the 
quilt or counterpane. 

Cov'ert, s. a thicket ; a hiding place ; a defen- 
sive situation: a. sheltered; secret; in- 
sidious. 

Cov'ertly, ad. secretly ; closely. 

Cov'ertness, s. secrecy ; privacy. 

Cov'erture, s. shelter ; defence ; a legal term 
for the state of being a married woman. 

Cov'et, v. to desire earnestly ; to long for. 

Cov'etable, a. that which may be desired. 

Covetous, a. greedy, avaricious. 

Cov'etousiy, ad. avariciously ; eagerly. 

Cov'etousness, s. avarice ; eagerness. 

Cov'ey, s. a brood of birds. 

Cov'in, s. a deceitful agreement, a collusion. 

Co'ving, s. a projection in a building. 

Co/mous, a. fraudulent, deceitful. 

Cow, s. the female of the bull : v. to depress 
with fear ; to dispirit. 

Cow'ard, s. he who wants courage ; a pol- 
troon : a. timid ; void of spirit ; dastardly. 

Cow'ardice, s. fear, pusillanimity. 

Cow'ardlike, a. resembling a coward. 

Cow'ardliness, J. timidity ; cowardice. 

Cow'ardly, a. fearful, mean, timorous. 

Cow'er, v. to bend the knees, to crouch. 

Cow'kerd, s. one who tends or keeps cows. 

Cow'-bouse, s. house where kine are kept. 

Cow'-leech, s. a cow doctor. 

Cow'-pox, s. a pustular disease transferred 
from cows to the human body by inocula- 
tion, and acting as a preventive of the 
variola, or small-pox. 

Cow'ry, s. a small univalve sea-shell. 

Cowl, s. a monk's hood. 

Cow'slip, s. a species of primrose. 

Cox'comb, s. a fop (but formerly a licensed 
fool or jester, because he wore in his cap 
a comb like a cock's). The term is also 
applied to a flower. 

Cox'eombry, s. foppishness. 

Coxcom'ioal, a. conceited, foppish, pert. 

Coy, a. modest, reserved, decent. 

Coy'ish, a. rather shy, chaste, 

Coy'ly, ad. with reserve ; modestly. 

Coy'ness, J. reserve, shyness, modesty. 

Coz, s. a familiar word for cousin. 

Coz'en, v. to cheat, impose on, defraud. 

Coz'enage, s. cheat, fraud, deceit, trick. 

Coz'ener, s. a cheater, a knave. 

Co'zy, Co'sy, a. comfortably placed for chat- 
ting; snug. 

Crab, s. a shell-fish ; a wild apple ; a peevish 
person ; one of the signs of the zodiac. 

Crab'bed, a. peevish, morose, difficult. 

Crab'bedly, ad. peevishly ; morosely. 

Crab'bed ness, S. sourness of taste ; asperity. 

Crack, s. a sudden disruption ; a quick 
noise ; a chink ; a flaw : v. to break into 
chinks, to split. 

Crack'brained, a. crazy, whimsical. 

Crack'er, s. a kind of squib or firework ; a 
bard biscuit ; a boaster. 

Crackle, v. to mako slight cracks. 

Crack'ling, s. a noise made by slight cracks. 

Crack'nel, s. a kind of hard brittle cake. 



| Cra'dle, s. a movable bed on which children 
are rocked ; a case for a broken bone ; a 
frame of wood for launching a ship : v. to 
lay or rock in a cradle. 

Craft, s. cunning ; trade ; small trading-ships. 

Craftily, ad. artfully, cunningly. 

Craftiness, s. craft, cunning, fraud, deceit. 

Crafts' man, s. an artificer ; a mechanic. 

Crafty, a. cunning, deceitful, artful. 

Crag, s. a rough steep rock ; the neck. 

Crag'ged, Crag'gy, a. rough, rugged. 

Crag'gedness, Crag'gincss, s. roughness. 

Crake, s. a bird, the corn-crake. 

Cram, v. to stuff; to eat greedily. 

Cram'bo, s. a play at which one gives a word 
and another finds a rhyme. 

Cramp, ,y. a spasmodic contraction of the 
limbs: v. to pain with spasms; to con- 
fine, to hinder : a. knotty, hard, difficult. 

Cramp'iron, s. an iron to fasten together. 

Cran'berry, s. a small kind of acid fruit. 

Cranch, Craunch, v. to crush in the mouth. 

Crane, s. a bird ; a machine for raising heavy 
weights ; a siphon or crooked pipe. 

Craniol'ogist, s. ono who understands the 
science of craniology. 

Craniol'ogy, s. the art which affects to dis- 
cover the faculties and propensities of a 
person by the external form of his skull. 
(More commonly called Phrenology.; 

Cra'nium, s. the skull. 

Crank, s. the end of an iron axle turned 
down ; a bend ; an iron brace ; a twisting 
or turning in speech ; a conceit : v. to bend 
or wind, to turn. 

Crank'y, a. bent, crooked, cross. 

Cran'nied, a. full of or having chinks. 

Cran'ny, s. a chink ; a crevice ; a little crack. 

Crape, s. a thin stuff for mourning. 

Crap'nel, s. a hook or drag. 

Crash, v. to break, to crush, to bruise ; to 
make a crashing noise : s. a loud noise as 
of many things falling. 

Crashing, s. a violent complicated noise. 

Cras'situdc, s. grossness, coarseness. 

Cratch, s. a frame for hay or straw. 

Crate, s. a hamper to pack earthenware in. 

Cra'ter, s. a vent or aperture ; the bowl or 
funnel of a volcano. 

Cravat', s. a neckcloth. 

Crave, v. to ask earnestly ; to long for. 

Cra'ven, s. a coward, a recreant : a. cowardly. 

Cra'ving, s. unreasonable desire. 

Craw, s. the crop or stomach of birds. 

Craw'fish, Cray'rish, s. a river shell-fish. 

Crawl, v. to creep ; move slowly. 

Craw'ler, s. a creeper ; a reptile. 

Cray'on, s. a soft pencil ; a picture. 

Craze, v. to break ; to disorder the brain. 

Cra'ziness, 5. weakness, disorder of mind. 

Cra'zy, a. broken, feeble, weak; maddish. 

Creak, v. to make a harsh noise. 

Creak'ing, s. a harsh grating noise. 

Cream, s. the oily or best part of milk, 

Cream'faced, a. pale, wan, cowardly. 

Cream'y, a. full of cream ; luscious, rich. 

Crease, s. a mark made by doubling or fold- 
ing any thing : v. to mark by folding. 

Crea'te, v. to form out of nothing ; to make ; 
to cause ; to produce. 

Crca'tion, s. act of creating ; the universe. 



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Crea'tive, a. having the power to create. 
Crea'tor, s. the Maker of heaven and earth. 
Creafure, s. a created being, an animal. 
Cre'dence, s. belief, credit, reputation. 
Crcden'da, [Lat.] s. tilings to be believed. 
Cre'dent, a. easy of belief ; having credit. 
Cicden'tial, a. giving a title to credit : s. 

that which gives a title to credit. 
Credentials, s.pl. letters of recommendation. 
Credibility, s. claim to belief, probability. 
Cred'ibleness, s. worthiness of belief. 
Cred'iblc, a. worthy of credit ; likely. 
Cred'ibly, ad. in a manner that claims belief. 
Cred'it, s. belief, honor ; trust reposed : v. 

to believe, to trust, to admit as a debtor. 
Cred'itable, a. worthy of credit, reputable. 
Cred'itableness, s. reputation ; estimation. 
Cred'itably, ad. reputably, without disgrace. 
Cred'itor, s. one who trusts or gives credit. 
Credulity, s. easiness of belief. 
Cred'ulous, a. apt to believe, unsuspecting. 
Cred'ulousiy, ad. in an unsuspecting way. 
Cred'ulousness, s. easiness of belief. 
Creed, s. a confession of faith, a belief. 
Creek, s. a small bay ; a nook. 
Creek'y, a. full of creeks ; winding. 
Creep, v. to crawl ; to move slowly ; to fawn. 
Creep'er, s. a plant ; a small insect. 
Creer/holc, s. a subterfuge ; an excuse. 
Creep'ingly, ad. in the manner of a reptile. 
Crenio'na, s. the name given to a superior 

kind of violin made at Cremona, in Italy. 
Cre'mor, s. a milky or creamy substance. 
Cre'ole, s. a native of the West Indies, de- 
scended from European ancestors. 
Cres'cent, s. the moon on the increase ; any 

thing in the shape of the new moon ; the 

symbol of Mahometanisin. 
Cress, s. the name of a water herb. 
Cres'set, s. a light set on a beacon ; a torch. 
Crest, s. the feathers or other ornaments on 

the top of a helmet; the helmet itself; 

the ornament of the helmet in heraldry ; 

the comb of a cock ; a tuft ; pride ; spirit : 

v. to furnish with a crest. 
Crest'ed, a. adorned with a plume or crest. 
Crest'-fallcn, a. dejected, low, cowed. 
Creta'ceous, a. chalky, resembling chalk. 
Creux, s. a term in engraving, meaning cut 

below the surface. 
Crev'ice, s. a crack, a cleft. 
Crew, s. a ship's company ; a mean assembly. 
Crib, s. a manger, a stall ; a child's bed : 

v. to shut up or confine ; to pilfer. 
Crib'bage, s. the name of a game at cards. 
Crick, s. a painful stiffness in the neck. 
Criek'et, s. an insect that chirps about the 

hearth ; a game with bat and ball. 
Cri'er, s. one who cries goods for sale. 
Crime, s. an offence, wickedness, sin. 
Crim'inal, s. a person accused, a felon : a. 

guilty, faulty, relating to crime. 
Criminal'ity, s. a criminal action or case. 
Criminally, ad. wickedly, wrongfully. 
Crim'inate, v. to accuse, to charge with crime. 
Crimina'tion, s. an accusation, a censure. 
Crim'inatory, a. accusing, tending to accuse. 
Crimp, a. brittle, easily crumbled ; crisp : 

v. to crimple or pinch ; to indent. 
Crimp, s. one who decoys others into military 

service : v. to decoy for the army. 



Crim'ple, v. to pinch or crisp, co corrugate. 
Crim'son, s. a very deep red color. 
Crin'cum, s. a whim ; a cramp. 
Cringe, v. to bow, to fawn, to flatter. 
Crin'kle, s. a wrinkle ; a winding fold : V. to 

run in wrinkles. 
Crip'ple, s. a lame person : v. to make lame, 
Cri'sis, s. a critical time or turn. 
Crisp, v. to make brittle, to twist. 
Crisp, Crisp'y, a. curled, brittle, winding. 
Crisp'ing-iron, s. an instrument to crisp with. 
Crisp'ness, s. crispy state. 
Crite'rion, j. a standard whereby any thing 

is judged of, a distinguishing mark. 
Crit'ic, s. one skilled in criticism. 
Crit'ical, a. judicious, accurate, censorious. 
Crit'ically, ad. in a critical manner. 
Crit'icise, v. to pass judgment on the beauties 

or blemishes of a work. 
Crit'icism, s. the art of judging of the merits 

or defects of any performance. 
Criti'que, s. criticism ; animadversion. 
Croak, s. the cry of a frog, raven, or crow : 

v. to make a hoarse low noise. 
Croak'er, s. one who is perpetually descant- 
ing on dangers and difficulties. 
Cro'ats, s. troops, natives of Croatia. 
Crock', s. an earthen pot; an earthen vessel. 
Crock'ery, *. all kinds of earthenware. 
Croc'odile, s. a large voracious amphibious 

animal, in shape resembling a lizard. 
Cro'cus, s. an early flower ; saffron. 
Croft, s. a small enclosed home field. 
Croisa'de, s. See Cru'sade. 
Crom'lech, s. a large flat stone raised upon 

others, supposed tobe the remains of altars. 
Crone, s. an old ewe ; an old woman. 
Cro'ny, s. an intimate acquaintance, a friend. 
Crook, *. a hooked stick, a sheephook : v. to 

bend, to pervert. 
Crook'backed, a. having bent shoulders. 
Crook'cd, a. bent, curved, untoward. 
Crook'edly, ad. untowardly ; uncompliantly. 
Crook'edness, s. deviation from straightness. 
Croop, s. a disease in the throat to which 

children are subject. 
Crop, s. the harvest produce ; a bird's craw. 
Crop, v. to lop, to cut short ; to mow, to reap ; 

to yield a harvest. 
Crop'-eared, a. having the ears cropped. 
Crop'ped, a. cut off at the ends ; lopped. 
Crop'per, s. a pigeon with a large crop. 
Cro'sier, s. the pastoral staff or crook used 

by the bishops in the Church of Rome. 
Cross, s. one straight body laid at right angles 

over another; a misfortune, vexation. 
Cross, a. athwart, oblique ; peevish, fretful. 
Cross, v. to lay athwart, to pass over, to cancel ; 

to sign with the cross ; to vex. 
Cross'-barred, a. secured by transverse bars. 
Cross'-bill, s. a defendant's bill in Chancery. 
Cross'-bow, s. a weapon for shooting. 
Cross-bun', s. a cake marked with a cross. 
Cross'cut, v. to cut across. 
Cross'cut-saw, *. a saw with a handle at each 

end, to be used by two men. 
Cross-exam'ine, v. to examine witnesses by 

putting to them unexpected questions. 
Cross'-grained, a. ill-natured, troublesome. 
Cross'ly, ad. peevishly; adversely. 
Cross'ncss, s. perverseness, peevishness. 



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62 



Crass'-post, s. tlie post that conveys letters on 
cross-roads. 

Cross-pur'pose, s. a kind of enigma or riddle. 

Cross-ques'tion, v. to cross-examine. 

Cross'-road, s. not the direct highroad. 

Cross'-row, s. the alphabet, with a cross 
placed at the beginning. 

Cross'-trces, s. certain pieces of timber fas- 
tened to the masts of ships. 

Cross'-way, s. the place where one road 
crosses or intersects another. 

Cross'-wise, ad. across ; transversely placed. 

Crotch, s. a hook ; the fork of a tree. 

Crot'chet, s. one of the notes in music, equal 
to half a minim ; a mark in printing, 
formed thus [] ; a fancy, whim, conceit. 

Crouch, v. to stoop low, to fawn, to cringe. 

Croup, s. the buttocks of a horse ; the rump 
of a fowl. 

Croupier', s. a vice-president. 

Crout, Krout, s. a kind of pickled cabbage. I 

Crow, s. a bird, an iron lever : v. to make a | 
noise like a cock ; to boast, to vapor. j 

Crow'-bar, s. an iron bar or lever. 

Crowd, s. confused multitude ; the populace : 
v. to press close, to fill to excess ; to en- 
cumber. 

Crov/foot, *. a flower ; a caltrop. 

Crown, s. a diadem worn on the heads of 
sovereigns ; the top of the head ; a silver 
coin ; regal power ; a wreath or garland : 
v. to invest with a crown ; to complete, to 
finish. 

Crown'-glass, s. finest sort of window-glass. 

Crown-impe'rial, s. largest kind of daffodil. 

Crow's-feet, s. the wrinkles under the eyes, 
the effect of age. 

Cru'cial, a. transverse, running across. 

Cru'ciate, v. to torture, to torment. 

Crucia'tion, s. extreme torture. 

Cru'eible, s. a chemist's melting pot. 

Cru'cifix, s. a representation in statuary or 
painting, &c. of our Saviour on the cross. 

Crucifixion, s. the act of nailing to the cross, 

Cru'cify, v. to nail or fasten to a cross. 

Crude, a. raw, harsh, unripe, undigested. 

Cru'dely, ad. unripely ; not prepared. 

Cru'deness, Cru'dity, s. an undigested state. 

Cru'el, a. hard-hearted, fierce, inhuman. 

Cru'elly, ad. in a cruel manner ; painfully. 

Cru'elty, s. inhumanity, barbarity. 

Cru'et, s. a small vial for vinegar or oil. 

Cruise, s. a voyage without any certain 
course : v. to rove over the sea. 

Crui'ser, s. a ship that sails in quest of an 
enemy ; one that roves in search of plunder. 

Crumb, s. the soft part of bread ; a small 
piece or fragment of bread. 

Crum'ble, v. to break or fall into pieces. 

Crum'my, a. soft, full of crumbs. 

Crum'ple, v. to wrinkle, to ruffle, to disorder. 

Cru'or, s. gore, coagulated blood. 

Crup'per, s. a leather to keep a saddle right. 

Cru'ral, a. belonging to the leg. 

Crusa'de, s. an expedition against infidels ; 
a Portuguese coin stamped with a cross. 

Crusa'der, *. one employed in a crusade. 

Cruse, Cruise, s. a small cup. 

Cru'set, j. a goldsmith's melting-pot. 

Crush, v. to squeeze, to bruise ; to ruin : s. 
a collision, a falling down. 



CUL 

Crust, s. any shell or external coat ; outward 
part of bread ; an incrustation • v. to gather 
or contract a crust. 

Crusta'ceous, a. shelly, with joints. 

Crusta'tion, s. an adherent covering. 

Crust'ily, ad. peevishly ; snappishly. 

Crustiness, s. the quality of being crusty. 

Crust'y, a. like crust ; morose ; snappish. 

Crutch, s. a support used by cripples. 

Cry, v. to call, to weep, to exclaim, to pro- 
claim : s. a loud voice ; lamentation ; 
weeping. 

Crying, s. an outcry : a. notorious. 

Crypt, s. a subterranean cell or cave. 

Cryp'tic, Cryp'tical, a. secret, hidden. 

Cryp'tically, ad. occultly, secretly. 

Cryptogamlc, a. (in botany) having the fruc- 
tification concealed. 

Cryptog'raphy, s. art of writing in ciphers. 

Crys'ta), s. a transparent mineral ; a kind of 
glass : a. consisting of crystal ; transparent, 
clear. 

Crys'talline, a. resembling crystal. 

Crys'talline-humour, s. the second humour of 
the eye, that lies next to the aqueous. 

Crys'tallize, v. to form salts into small trans- 
parent bodies ; to congeal. 

Crystallizalion, s. congelation into crystals. 

Cub, *. the young of a beast, generally of a 
bear or fox : v. to brin? forth cubs. 

Cube, s. a regular solid body with six equal 
sides, as a die ; the product of a number 
multiplied twice into itself. 

Cu'bic, Cu'bical, a. formed like a cube. 

Cu'bically, ad. in a cubical method. 

Cubic'ular, a. belonging to a chamber. 

Cu'bit, s. a measure of eighteen inches. 

Cuck'ing-stool, s. a ducking-stool used for- 
merly for the punishment of scolds. 

Cuck'old, s. the husband of an adultress : v. 
to make a husband a cuckold. 

Cuck'oo, s. a well-known bird. 

Cu'cumber, s. a kind of plant, and its fruit. 

Cud, s. the food which ruminating animals 
bring from the first stomach to chew again. 

Cud'dy, s. an apartment in a ship. 

Cud'gel, s. a fighting-stick : v. to beat o» 
strike with a stick. 

Cue, s. the end of a thing ; hint, intimation. 

Cuer'po, [Sp.] s. bodily shape ; to be " in 
cuerpo," is to be without the coat or outer 
garment. 

Cuff, s. a box or blow with the fist ; the fold 
at the end of a sleeve : v. to strike with 
the fist. 

Cui'rass, s. a breastplate. 

Cuirassier', s. a soldier armed with a cuirass. 

Cuisse, s. armour that covers the thighs. 

Cu'linary, a. relating to the kitchen. 

Cull, v. to select from others. 

Cul'lender, s. See Colander. 

Cul'lion, s. a scoundrel ; a mean wretch. 

Cul'ly, j. a man deceived or imposed upon : 
v. to deceive, to trick, to impose on. 

Culm, s. a kind of small coal ; stalk of grass. 

Cul'men, *. the summit, the point. 

Cul'minate, v. to be in the meridian. 

Culmina'tion, s. the transit of a planet 
through the meridian ; the top or crown. 

Culpability, s. blamableness, culpableness. 

Cul'pable, a. criminal, guilty, blamablc. 



CUL 



63 



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Cnl'pableness, s. culpability ; blame. 
Cul'pably, ad. blamably ; guiltily. 
Cul'prit, s. a man arraigned before a judge. 
Cul'ter. See Coulter. 
Cultivable, a. that may be cultivated. 
Cultivate, v. to till ; to prepare for crops; to 

improve by culture. 
Cultiva'toT, 5. one that cultivates. 
Cultivation, j. the act of improving soils, &c. 
Cul'ture, s. the act of cultivation ; improve- j 

meut, melioration : v. to till, to improve. 
Cul'ver. 5. a pigeon, a wood pigeon. 
Cul'ver-house. s. a dove-cote. 
Cul'verin, s. a species of ordnance. 
Cum'bent, a. lying down ; reclining. 
Cum'ber, v. to embarrass, to entangle. 
Cum'bersome, Cum'brous, a. burdensome, 

embarrassing, vexatious, oppressive. 
Cum'brance, 5. hindrance, obstruction. 
Cum'brously, ad. in a cumbrous manner. 
Cum'frey, Com'frey, s. a medicinal plant. 
Cum'in, s. a kind of herb. 
Cu'mulate, v. to heap or pile up, to amass. 
Cumulation, s. the act of heaping together. 
Cumulative, a. consisting of parts heaped 

together. 
Cuncta'tion, s. delay ; procrastination. 
Cu'neated, a. formed like a wedge. 
Cun'ning, a. skilful, artful, crafty, subtle. 
Cun'ning, Cun'ningness, s. craft ; artifice. 
Cun'ningly, ad. artfully ; subtly ; skilfully. 
Cun'ning-maii. s. a conjurer. 
Cup, s. a drinking-vessel ; part of a flower. 
Cup. v. to draw blood by scarification. 
Cup'bearer, s. an officer of the household. 
Cup'board, s. a case with shelves, originally 

for cups. 
Cu'pel, *. a small cup used in refining metals. 
Cupid'ity, s. unlawful or inordinate desire. 
Cu'pola, s. a dome, an arched roof. 
Cup'ping, s. an operation in phlebotomy. 
Cup'phig-glass, s. a glass used by scarifiers, 

to draw out the blood by rarefying the air. 
Cu'preous, a. consisting of copper. 
Cur, s. a dog ; a snappish or mean man. 
Cu'rable, a. that may be cured. 
Cu'rableness, s. possibility to be healed. 
Cu'racy, s. the office of a curate. 
Cu'rate, s. a clergyman; one who officiates in 

the room of the beneficiary. 
Cu'rateship, s. the office of a curate. 
Cu'rat i ve, a. relating to the cure of diseases. 
Cura'tor, [Lat.] s. one that has the care and j 

superintendence of any thing. 
Curb, v. to restrain, to cheek, to bridle : s. 

part of a bridle ; check, restraint. 
Curd, s. the coagulation of milk : v. to turn 

into curds, to coagulate. 
Cur'dle, v. to coagulate, to turn into curds. 
Curd'y, a. coagulated; concreted. 
Cure, s. a remedy, a restorative ; the act of 

healing ; the benefice or employment of 

a curate : v. to restore to health ; to salt. 
Cu'red, p. and a. healed, restored, preserved. 
Cu'reless, a. having no remedy, incurable. 
Cur'few, s. an evening bell. 
Curios'ity, d. inquisitiveness ; a rarity. 
Curio'so, [Ital.] s. one who is fond of col- 
lecting rare and curious articles. 
Cu'rious, a. inquisitive, rare, nice, accurate. 
Cu'riously, ad. inquisitively ; elegantly. 



Cu riousness, s. singularity of contrivance. 

Curl, s. a ringlet of hair ; a wave : v. lutura 
into ringlets, to twist; to rise in waves ex 
undulations. 

Cur'lew, s. a kind of water fowl. 

Curl'iness, s. the state of any thing curled. 

Curl'ing-irons, Curl'ing-tongs, s. an iron in- 
strument for curling the hair. 

Curl'y, a. inclining to curl. 

Curmud'geon, s. an avaricious fellow, a churl, 
a miser, a niggard. 

Cur'rant, s. a well-known garden fruit ; a 
small kindof dried grape imported fromtfee 
Ionian Islands loriginally from Corinth). 

Currency, j. circulation, general reception ; 
paper established as, and passing for, the 
current money of the realm. 

Cur'rent, a. running ; passing ; generally re- 
ceived : s. a running stream ; course. 

Cur'rent! y, ad. in a constant motion. 

Cur'rentness, s. general reception ; currency. 

Cur'ricle, s. a chaise or carriage with two 
wheels, drawn by two horses abreast. 

Cur'rier, s. a dresser of tanned leather. 

Cur'rish, a. snappish, quarrelsome, sour. 

Cur'rishly, ad. in a currish manner. 

Cur'rishness, *. moroseness ; churlishness. 

Cur'ry, v. to dress leather ; to beat ; to rut 
the hide of a horse ; to tickle or please by 
flattery. 

Cur'ry, s. a mixture of various eatables sea- 
soned with hot and pungent spices. 

Cur'rycomb, s. an iron comb for horses. 

Curse, v. to wish evil to, to execrate, to tor- 
ment : s. a malediction ; a torment. 

Curs'edly, ad. miserably, shamefully. 

Curs'edness, s. the being doomed to evil. 

Curs'ing, s. execration ; act of swearing. 

Cur'sive, a. hasty, careless. 

Cur'soriness, s. slight attention. 

Cur'sitor, s. a clerk in Chancery. 

Cur'sory, a. superficial ; hasty, careless. 

Cursorily, ad. hastily, without care. 

Cur'sus, s. a course, a race. 

Curt, a. brief, short. 

Curtly, ad. briefly, shortly. 

Curtail', v. to cut off, to abridge. 

Cur'tain, s. the drapery of a bed or window ; 
a term in fortification : v. to hang or en- 
close with curtains. 

Ciir'tain-lecture, s. a lecture given by a wif« 
to her husband in bed. 

Cur'tal, a. brief, abridged. 

Curt'sy. See Courtesy. 

Cu'rule, a. belonging to a chariot ; senatorial. 

Curv'ated, a. bent ; crooked. 

Curva'tiou, *. the act of bending or crooking. 

Curv'ature, s. crookedness, bent form. 

Curve, v. to bend, to crook : a. crooked : *. 
any thing bent, or of a winding form. 

Curv'et, s. a leap, a bound, a frolic. 

Curvet', v. to leap, bound, prance, frisk. 

Curvilin'eal, Curvilin'ear, a. consisting ©f 
regularly bent or curved lines. 

Curv'ity, s. crookedness. 

Cush'ion, s. a soft seat for a chair. 

Cushioned, a. seated on a cushion. 

Cusp, s. the horns of the moon ; a point. 

Cusp'ated, a. terminating in a point, pomtea, 

Cusp'idal, a. sharp ; ending in a point. 

Cus'tard, s. sweet food, made of milk, &o> 



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64 



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Costo'clial, a. relating to custody. 
Cus'tody, s. imprisonment, security, care. 
Cus'tom, s. habitual practice, usage ; a tax 

or duty on exports and imports : v. to ac- 
custom, to make familiar. 
Cus'tomable, a. common, habitual ; subject 

to the payment of duties called customs. 
Cus'tom-house, s. a house where duties are 

received on imports and exports. 
Cus'toniarily, ad. habitually. 
Cus'tomariness, s. frequency ; commonness. 
Cus'tomary, s. a book of laws and customs : 

a. common, general. 
Cus'tomed, a. usual ; common ; accustomed. 
Cus'toiuer, s. one who buys any thing. 
Cus'tos, s. a keeper (as custos rotulorum, 

keeper of the rolls and records). 
Cut, v. to separate by an edged instrument ; 

to divide ; to hew, to carve : s. a wound 

made by cutting ; a part cut off ; a near 

cut or passage ; an engraving or printed 

picture ; shape. 
Cuta'neous, a. relating to the skin. 
Cu'tiele, s. a thin skin ; the scarf skin. 
Cutic'ular, a. belonging to the skin. 
Cut'lass, s. a bread eurving sword. 
Cut'Jer, s. one who makes knives, &c. 
Cut'lery, s. ware made by cutlers. 
Cut'let, s. a steak ; a chop. 
Cut'purse, s. a thief; a pickpocket. 
Cut'ter, s. a fast-sailing vessel ; one that cuts. 
Cut'throat, s. a murderer : a. murderous. 
Cut'ting, s. a piece cut off; a branch. 
Cut'tie, s. a fish, which when pursued throws 

out a black liquor : a. a foul-mouthed fellow. 
Cut'-water, s. the fore part of a ship's prow 

that cuts the water. 
Cyc'le, s. a circle ; a periodical space of time. 
Cyc'ioid, s. a figure of the circular kind. 
Cycloid'al, a. relating to a cycloid. 
Cyclopaedia, s. a body or circle of sciences ; 

a book of universal knowledge. 
Cyclope'an. Cyclop'ic, a. vast ; terrific. 
Cyg'net, s. a young swan. 
Cylinder, *. a long round body; a roller. 
Cylin'dric, Cylindrical, a. like a cylinder. 
Cyl'indroid, s. a solid body, having its bases 

elliptical, parallel, and equal. 
Cymar', s. a slight covering ; a scarf. 
Cym'bal, s. a musical instrument. 
Cyn'ic, s. a follower of Diogenes; asnarler. 
Cyn'ic, Cyn'ical, a. satirical, churlish. 
Cynically, ad. in a snarling morose manner. 
Cyn'icalness, s. moroseness, united with con- 
tempt of riches and pleasure. 
Cyn'icism, s. churlishness, moroseness. 
Cyn'osuro, s. the north polar star ; any thing 

which attracts attention. 
Cy'press, s. a tree ; an emblem of mourning. 
Cyp'rian, a. belonging to the island of 

Cyprus : s. a courtesan. 
Cy'prine, a. made of cypress wood. 
Cy'prus, s. a thin transparent stuff. 
Cyst, s. a bag in animal bodies containing 

morbid matter. 
Cys'tic, a. contained in a cyst or bag. 
Cyt'isus, s. a flowering shrub. 
Czar, s. the title of the emperor of Russia. 
Czari'na, s. title of the empress of Russia. 
Czaro'witz, s. the title of the eldest son of 

the czar and czarina. 



D is the numeral for 500 ; it is also used in 

certain abbreviations, as D. D. Doctor of 

Divinity, &c. 
Dab, v. to strike gently with something moist; 

to slap : s. a flat fish ; a gentle blow ; an 

adept. 
Dab'ble, v. to smear, to spatter; to meddle ; 

to play in water. 
Dab'bler, s. a superficial meddler. 
Dab'chick, s. a small water fowl. 
Dace, s. a small river fish. 
Dac'tyl, s. a poetical foot, consisting of one 

long syllable and two short ones. 
Dad, Dadda', Dad'dy, s. words by which a 

child is taught to call his father. 
Daffodil, Daffodilly, s. a Mower, a lily. 
Daft, a. idiotic ; imbecile in mind. 
Dag'ger, s. a short sword, a poniard ; an obe- 
lisk, or mark of reference, thus f- 
Dag'gle, v. to trail in the mire or water. 
Dag'glctail, a. bemired, bespattered. 
Dai'ly, a. and ad. happening every day ; 

very often. 
Dain'ty, a. delicate, nice : s. a delicacy. 
Dain'tily, ad. deliciously, delicately. 
Dain'tincss, s. delicacy ; softness. 
Dai'ry, s. a milk farm ; a house where milk 

is manufactured into butter and cheese. 
Dai'sied, a. full of or adorned with daisies. 
Dai'sy, s. a small common spring flower. 
Dale, €. a vale, a space between two hills. 
Dal'liance, s. mutual caresses, love ; delay. 
Dai'ly, v. to trifle, fondle, amuse ; to delay. 
Dam, s. a mother of brutes ; a mole or bank 

to stop water ; a floodgate. 
Dam, v. to shut up, to confine, to obstruct. 
Dam'age, s. mischief, loss, retribution : v. to 

injure, to impair, to hurt. 
Dam'ageable, a. which may be hurt. 
Dam'ask, s. linen or silk woven into regular 

figures : v. to weave in flowers. 
Dam'ask-rose, s. the rose of Damascus ; a 

red rose of a very sweet odour. 
Damaskeening, s. the art of adorning iron 

or steel, by making incisions, and filling 

them up with gold or silver wire. 
Dame, s. a lady ; a matron or mistress. 
Dam'n, v. to curse ; to doom to torments in a 

future state ; to censure, to condemn. 
Dam'nable, a. deserving damnation. 
Dam'nably, ad. in a damnable manner. 
Damna'tion, s. exclusion from Divine mercy, 

condemnation to eternal punishment. 
Dam'natory, a. containing a condemnation. 
Dam'ned, p. and a. cursed, detestable. 
Dam'nify, v. to injure, to hurt, to impair. 
Damp, a. moist; foggy; dejected: s. mois- 
ture ; fog ; depression of spirits : v. to 

moisten ; to dispirit. 
Damp'er, s. a discouragement. 
Damp'ish, a. moist ; inclining to wet. 
Damp'islmess, s. tendency to moisture. 
Damp'ness, s. moisture ; fogginess. 
Damp'y, a. moist ; dejected ; gloomy. 
Dam'sel, J. a young maiden, a girl. 
Dam'son, Damascene, s. a black plum. 
Dance, v. to move the feet to the sound oi 

music : *. regulated motion of the feet to 

music. 
Dan'cer, s. one that practises dancing. 



DAN 



65 



DEB 



Dan'cing, s. a motion of the feet to music. 

Dan'cing-master, 5. one who teaches dancing. 

Dandeli'ou, s. the name of a plant. 

Dan'diprat, s. a little fellow, an urchin. 

Dan'dle, v. to move an infant up and down 
on the hands to quiet or amuse it ; to 
fondle. 

Dan'driff, Dan'druff, s. scurf on the head. 

Dan'dy, s. a fop, a coxcomb. Compare 
D««rf/prat and Jackactawcfy. 

Dan'dyism, 5. foppery in dress and manners. 

Dane, s. a native of Denmark. 

Da'negelt, s. a tribute paid to the Danes. 

Da'nger, s. risk, hazard : v. to endanger. 

Da'ngerless, a. without hazard, very safe. 

Da'ngerous, a. full of danger, unsafe. 

Da'ngerously, ad. hazardously ; with danger. 

Da'ngerousness, s. danger, peril. 

Dan'gle, v. to bang loose, to follow. 

Dan'gler, a', one who dangles or hangs about. 

Da'nish, a. relating to the Danes. 

Dank, a. very damp, humid, wet. 

Dank'ish, a. somewhat damp. 

Dank'ishness, s. moisture ; dampness. 

Dap'per, a. little and active ; neat, tight. 

Dap'ple, v. to variegate, to streak. 

Dap'pled, a. of different colors, streaked. 

Dare, v. to challenge, to defy. 

Da'ring, a. bold, fearless, adventurous. 

Da'ringly, ad. boldly; courageously. 

Da'ringncss, s. boldness, fearlessness. 

Dark, a. wanting""light, gloomy, obscure : *. 
darkness, obscurity ; want of light. 

Dark'en, v. to make dark, to cloud, to perplex. 

Dark'ish, a. approaching to dark, dusky. 

Dnrk'ling, a. in the dark la poetic word). 

Dark'ly, ad. obscurely, blindly. 

Dark'ness, s. absence of light ; obscurity. 

Dark'some, a. gloomy, obscure. 

Dar'ling, s. a favorite : a. dear, beloved. 

Darn, v. to mend holes, to sew. 

Dar'nel, s. a common field weed. 

Dart, s. a weapon thrown by the hand : v. to 
let fly as a dart ; to move rapidly. 

Dash, v. to strike against ; to break by colli- 
sion ; to fly or start off abruptly ; to form 
or sketch in haste ; to obliterate with the 
stroke of a pen ; to confound or surprise 
with shame or fear : s. a sudden blow ; a 
collision; a mark in writing ( — ) ; show or 
flourish. 

Dash'ing, a. precipitately driving; showy. 

Das'tard, s. a coward: a. cowardly. 

Das'tardlincss, s. cowardliness. 

Das'tardly, a. cowardly, base, timorous. 

Da'ta, [Lat.] s. pi. facts or truths admitted. 

Date, v. to note the precise time : s. the 
time at which any event happened, or a 
letter is written ; a fruit. 

Da'teless, a. without any fixed term or date. 

Da'te-tree, s. a species of palin-treo. 

Da'tive, a. in grammar, the case that signifies 
the person to whom a thing is given. 

Daub, v. to smear ; to paint coarsely ; to 
flatter grossly : s. a coarse painting. 

Daui/ing, s. coarse painting ; gross flattery. 

Daub'y, a. slimy, adhesive, glutinous. 
Daugh'ter, jr. a female child. 
Daughterly, ad. like a daughter ; dutiful. 
Daunt, v. to diseourago, to intimidate. 
Daunt'less, a. fearless, bold. • 



Daunt'lessness, s. fearlessness, boldness. 

Dau'phin, s. the title of the heir apparent to 
the crown of France. 

Dau'phiness, s the wife of the dauphin. 

Daw, s. the name of a bird, the jackdaw. 

Daw'dle, v. to waste time ; to trifle. 

Dawn, v. to begin to show day or daylight ; 
to open upon : s. break of clay ; beginning. 

Dawn'ing, s. the light at break of day. 

Day, s. the time between the rising and set- 
ting of the sun ; the time from noon te 
noon, or from midnight to midnight ; light 
as opposed to darkness or night ; sunshine ; 
life ; an appointed time ; an age ; a con- 
test, as "to win the day." 

Day'book, s. a tradesman's account-book. 

Day'break, s. first appearance of day, dawn. 

Day'dream, s. a vision to the waking senses. 

Day'laborer, s. one that works by the day. 

Day'light, s. the light of the day. 

Day'spring, s. the rise of the day. 

Day'timc, s. the time in which there is light. 

Day's-work, s. the work of one clay. 

Daz'zfe, v. to overpower with light ; to sur- 
prise with -splendor. 

Daz'zling, a. striking with splendor. 

Dea'con, s. one of the lowest order of the 
clergy ; a corporate officer. 

Dca'conry, s. dignity or office of deacon. 

Dead, a. deprived of life ; spiritless, dull. 

Dead-drunk, a. helplessly intoxicated. 

Dcad'en, v. to deprive of life or sensation; to 
weaken. 

Dead'liness, *. the state of being deadly. 

Dead'ly, a. destructive, mortal, cruel : ad. 
mortally, irreconcilably. 

Deadly-night'shade, s. a poisonous plant. 

Dead'ncss, s. want of natural or vital power. 

Dead-reck'oning, s. a conjecture of a ship's 
place by the log-book, without the observa- 
tion of the heavenly bodies. 

Dead'-watcr, s. the water that closes in with 
a ship's stern. 

Deaf, a. wanting the sense of hearing. 

Deafen, v. to make deaf, to stupify. 

Deafness, s. want of the power of hearing. 

Deal, s. a share, a portion, a quantity ; a 
thin plank : v. to divide ; to distribute ; 
to traffic. 

Deal'er, s. one who deals cards ; a trader, 

Deal'ing, s. practice, intercourse, traffic. 

Dean, s. the second dignitary of a diocess. 

Dean'ery, *. the office or house of a dean. 

Dear, a. valuable, costly, beloved : s. a word 
of endearment ; darling. 

Deafly, ad. with fondness ; at a high price. 

Deafness, s. fondness, love ; high price. 

Dearth, s. scarcity, want, famine. 

Death, s. the extinction of life ; mortality. 

Dcath's-door, s. a near approach to death. 

Doath'lcss, a. immortal, perpetual. 

Death'like, a. resembling death, still. 

Death'watch, s. a small insect that makes a 
tinkling noiso, superstitiousJy supposed to 
prognosticate death. 

Debar', v. to exclude, preclude, hinder. 

Debark', v. See Dis'embark. 

Debarka'tion, s. act of disembarking. 

Doba'se, v. to degrade, to lower, to adulterate. 

Debasement, s. act of debasing or degrading. 
Deba'table, a. affording room for debate, 



DEB 



Co 



DEC 



Debate, s. a dispute, a contest, a quarrel : 

v. to deliberate, to dispute, to argue. 
Debateinent, S. controversy, deliberation. 
Debater, s. a disputant ; a controvertist. 
Debauch', s. excess, luxury, drunkenness : 

v. to corrupt, to vitiate, to ruin. 
Debauchee', s. a rake, a drunkard. 
Debauch'ery, s. lewdness, intemperance. 
Deben'ture, s. a writ, or written instrument, 

by which a debt is claimed. 
Debil'itate, v. to weaken, to enfeeble. 
Debilitating, a. calculated to weaken. 
Debilita'tion, s. the act of weakening. 
Debil'ity, s. weakness, langour. 
Deb'it, s. the debtor side of an account : v. 

to charge as a debtor. 
Debonair', [Fr.] a. elegant, civil, well-bred. 
Debonair'ly, ad. elegantly ; with a genteel air. 
Debou'ch, [Fr.] v. to issue or march out of a 

narrow place or defile. 
Debris, [Fr.] s.pl. fragments of rocks ; ruins; 

rubbish ; remains. 
Debt, s. that which one man owes to another. 
Debt'or, s. one that owes money, &c. 
Dec'ade, s. the sum or number of ten. 
Deca'dence, Deca'dency, s. a decay ; a fall. 
Dec'agon, s. a figure of ten sides and angles. 
Dec'alogue, s. the ten commandments. 
Decam'eron, ,y. the name of a book divided 

into ten parts. 
Decamp', v. to shift a camp ; to move off. 
Decamp'ment, s. the act of shifting the camp; 

marching or moving off. 
Decant', v. to pour off gently. 
Deeanta'tion, s. decanting or pouring off. 
Decan'ter, s. a glass vessel for liquor. 
Decap'itate, v. to behead, to cut or lop off. 
Decapitation, s. the act of beheading. 
Decay', s. a decline, a gradual falling away : 

v. to decline, to fail ; to fall or wither 

away. 
Decay'cr, s. that which causes decay. 
Dece'ase, s. departure from life, demise : v. 

to die, to depart from life. 
Dece'ased, a. departed from life, dead.' 
Deceit', s. fraud, craft, artifice, pretence. 
Deceit'ful, a. full of deceit, fraudulent. 
Deceittully, ad. fraudulently ; with deceit. 
Deceit'fulness, s. the being deceitful. 
Deceit'less, a. free from deceit. 
Dece'ivable, a. that may be deceived. 
Deceiv'ableuess, s. liableness to be deceived. 
Dece'ive. v. to delude, to impose upon. 
Dece'iver, s. one who deceives ; an impostor. 
Decem'ber, s. the last month of the year. 
Decern' virate, s. a government by ten rulers. 
Decem'viri, s. the ten governors of Rome. 
De'cency, s. propriety, modesty, decorum. 
Decen'mal, a. of or containing ten years. 
De'cent, a. becoming, suitable, modest. 
De'cently, ad. in a proper manner, modestly. 
Decep'tion, s. the act of deceiving ; fraud. 
Decep'tious, a. deceitful, fraudulent. 
Decep'tive, a. deceiving ; misleading. 
Decerpt', a. plucked, cropped. 
Deoi'dable, a. capable of being determined. 
Deci'de, v. to determine, settle, conclude. 
Deci'dod, a. determined, unequivocal. 
Deoi'dedly, ad. in a determined manner ; 

positively 
Decid'uous, a. falling off, not perennial. 



De"cimal, s. a tenth : a. numbered bv tens. 
De"c>mally, ad. by means of decimals. 
De"cimate, v. to take the tenth. 
Decima'tion, s. a tithing ; a seiection by let 

of every tenth soldier for punishment. 
Deci'pher, v. to explain, unravel, unfold. 
Decis'ion, s. the termination of a difference. 
Deci'sive, a. terminating, final, positive. 
Decisively, ad. in a decisive manner. 
Dcci'siveness, s. the quality of being deci- 
sive ; conclusiveness. 
Deck, v. to cover over ; to dress, to adorn. 
Deck, s. the floor of a ship ; a pile of cards. 
Deck'er, s. one who dresses or adorns ; spoken 

of a ship, as a two-decker ; that is, having 

two decks. 
Declaim', v. to harangue ; to speak to tho 

passions. 
Declaim'er, s. one who declaims. 
Declama'tion, s. a discourse addressed to thsj 

passions, an harangue. 
Deeiam'atory, a. full of declamation. 
Declarable, a. capable of proof; real. 
Declara'tion, s. an affirmation, a proclamation. 
Declar'ative, a. explanatory, proclaiming. 
Declar'atory, a. affirmative, clear, expressive. 
Decla're, v. to make known, to proclaim. 
Decla'redly, ad. avowedly ; undisguisedly. 
Declen'sion, s. declination, descent ; inflexion 

of nouns ; corruption of morals. 
Decli'nable, a. capable of being declined. 
Declina'tion, s. descent ; the act of bending ; 

(in astronomy) distance from the equator. 
Declina'tor, s. an instrument for taking the 

declination of the stars. 
Decli'ne, v. to lean, to bend, to decay ; to 

shun ; to refuse ; to inflect words : s. a 

decay, a tendency to worse. 
Decliv'ity, s. an oblique or gradual descent. 
Decoct', w.to prepare by boiling in ; to digest. 
j Decoc'tible, a. capable of being decocted. 
Decoc'tion, *. a preparation by boiling. 
Decompo'sable, a. that may be decomposed. 
Decompo'se, v. to dissolve or resolve a mixed 

body ; to unmix, to analyze. 
Decomposi"tion, s. the reduction of a body 

to the separate or elementary parts of 

which it is composed. 
Decompound', v. to decompose. 
Dec'orate, v. to adorn, to embellish. 
Decora'tion, s. an ornament; embellishment. 
Dec'orator, s. one who adorns or embellishes. 
Deco'rous, a. decent, suitable, becoming. 
Deco'rously, ad. in a becoming manner. 
Decor'ticate, v. to divest of bark, to peel. 
Decortication, s. the act of stripping off the 

bark of trees. 
Deco'rum, s. decency, order, seemliness. 
Decoy', v. to allure, to ensnare, to entrap : a. 

a place to catch wild fowl in. 
Decoy'-duck, s. a duck that lures others. 
Decre'ase, v. to grow less, to be diminished : 

s. a growing less, a decay. 
Decree', v. to determine, to ordain, to ap- 
point : s. an edict ; a law. 
Decrep'it, a. wasted and worn by age. 
Decrepitation, s. a crackling noise. 
Decrep'itude, s. the Jast stage ot old age. 
Decres'cent, a. growing less, decreasing. 
Decretal, a. appertaining to a decree. 
Decretal, ». a book of decrees or edicts. 



DEC 



67 



DEG 



Docre'tist, s. one who studies the decretal. 
Dec'retory, a. judicial, final, critical. 
Decri'al, s. clamorous censure. 
Decri'er, s. one who censures clamorously. 
Decry', v. to censure, to clamor against. 
Decuba'tion. Deeum'bence, s. the act of lying 

down, the posture of 1 ying. 
Decum'bent, a. lying on the ground ; low. 
Dec'uple, a. tenfold ; repeated ten times. 
Decur'rent, a. extending downwards. 
Decu'rion, 5. a commander of ten men. 
Ded'alous, a. (in botany l having a margin 

with various windings and turnings. 
Ded'icate, v. to devote to, to inscribe : a. 

consecrated ; appropriated. 
Dedica'tion, s. consecration ; a complimentary 

address prefixed to a book. 
Dedicator, s. one who inscribes his work to 

a patron. 
Ded'icatory, a. comprising a dedication. 
Dedu'ce, v. to gather or infer from. 
Dedu'cible, a. that which may be inferred. 
Deduct', v. to subtract, to separate. 
Deduc'tion, s. an abatement, an inference. 
Deduct'ive, a. that which may be inferred. 
Deductively, ad. by regular deduction. 
Deed, s an action, an exploit, a fact ; a writing 

containing a legal contract. 
Deem, v. to judge ; to conclude ; to think. 
Deeni'ster, s. a judge so called in Jersey and 

the Isle of Man. 
Deep, a. far to the bottom ; profound ; saga- 
cious ; artful : s. the sea, the ocean : ad. 

to a great depth. 
Deep'en, v. to make deep, to grow deep. 
Deep'ly, ad. to a great depth ; profoundly. 
Deep'-mouthed, a. having a loud, hollow 

voice. 
Deep'ness, s. depth, profundity, cunning, 

sagacity, insidiousness. 
Deep'-read, a. profoundly versed in books. 
Deep'-toned, a. having a low sonorous tone. 
Deer, s. a forest animal hunted for venison. 
Defa'ce, v. to destroy, to erase, to disfigure. 
Defa'cer, s. one who injures or disfigures. 
Defalcate, v. to cut or lop off, to abridge. 
Defalcation, s. a diminution, a cutting off. 
Defama'tion, s. slander, reproach, detraction. 
Defam'atory, a. calumnious, scandalizing. 
Defa'me, v. to censure falsely, to libel. 
Defa'mer, s. one that injures another by cast- 
ing unj ust reflections on his character. 
Default', s. an omission, defect, failure. 
Default'er, s. one who fails in payment, &c. 
Defeat', v. to overthrow, to frustrate : s. an 

overthrow, a frustration. 
Defecate, v. to cleanse, to purify. 
Defect', s. a fault, a blemish, an imperfeotion. 
Defectibil'ity, s. faultiness, imperfection. 
Defect'ible, a. imperfect, deficient, wanting. 
Defection, s. failure, apostasy, revolt. 
Defect'ive, a. full of defects, imperfect. 
Defectively, ad. wanting the just quantity. 
Defectiveness, s. the being defective. 
Defect'uous, a. full of defects, defective. 
Defen'ce, *. an act of resistance ; a verbal 

or written vindication ; a guard. 
Defcn'celess, a. naked, unguarded, impotent. 
Defen'celessness, s. an unprotected state. 
Defend', v . to protect, to vindicate, to uphold. 
Defend'able, a. that may be defended. 



Defend'ant, s. one who defends or opposes iia 
a court of lawthe demand or charge brought 
against him. 

Defend'er, s. a protector, a vindicator. 

Defensible, a. that maybe defended, right. 

Defensive, s. safeguard, in a state of de- 
fence : a. serving to defend. 

Defens'ively, ad. in a defensive manner. 

Defer', v. to put off, to delay ; to submit. 

Deference, s. regard, respect, submission. 

Deferen'tial, a. expressing deference. 

Deferlnent, s. delay ; a putting off. 

Defi'ance, s. a challenge ; an expression of 
abhorrence or contempt. 

Defi"ciency, s. a defect, want, imperfection. 

Defi"cient, a. failing, wanting, defective. 

Deficiently, ad. in a defective manner. 

Deficit, s. want, deficiency. 

Defi'er, s. a challenger, a contemner. 

Defi'le, v. to make foul, to pollute. 

Defi'le, s. a narrow pass in which troops ean 
pass only in file : v. to go off file by file. 

Defi'led, p. and a. polluted, corrupted. 

Defi'lement, *. pollution, corruption. 

Defi'ler, s. a corrupter, a violator. 

Defi'uable, a. that may be defined. 

Defi'ne, v. to give the definition, to explain. 

Definite, a. certain, limited, precise. 

Def initeness, s. certainty, limitedness. 

Defini"tion, s. a short description of a thing 
by its properties ; an explanation. 

Definitive, a. determinate, express, positive: 
s. that which ascertains or defines. 

Definitively, ad. positively ; decisively. 

Deflect', v. to turn aside, to deviate. 

Deflec'tion, s. deviation, a turning aside. 

Deflo'rate, a. having shed the pollen or fe- 
cundating dust (a botanical term). 

Deflora'tion, s. the act of deflouring. 

Deflour', v. to take away the flower or beauty 
of any thing ; to defile or pollute. 

Deflux'ion, s. flow of humours downwards. 

Deform', v. to disfigure, to spoil the form. 

Deformation, s. a disfiguring or defacing. 

Deform'ed, a. ugly, disfigured, crooked. 

Deformity, s. ugliness, crookedness. 

Defraud', v. to deprive of by fraud ; to cheat. 

Defraud'er, s. one who defrauds or cheats. 

Defraud'ment, *. the act of defrauding. 

Defray', v . to bear charges or expenses. 

Defray'er, s. one who discharges expenses. 

Defraytnent, s. discharge, payment. 

Deft, a. neat, handsome, proper, ready. 

Deftly, ad. neatly, dexterously. 

Defunct', a. dead, extinct : s. a dead person. 

Defy', v. to challenge, to dare. 

Degen'eracy, s. departure from ancestral 
virtue ; meanness, vice. 

Degen'erate, v. to decay in virtue or kind. 

Degen'erate, a. unworthy, base. 

Degen'erately, ad. in a degenerate manner. 

Degen'erateness, s. a degenerate state. 

Degradation, s. the act of degrading ; ;i 
placing lower ; baseness. 

Degra'de, v. to place lower ; to dishonor. 

Degra'dement, s. deprivation of rank or 
office ; degradation. 

Degra'dingly, ad. in a degrading manner. 

Degree', s. a step ; rank ; station ; descent ; 
rank or title at a university; the 360th 
part of a circle ; 60 geographical miles. 



DEH 



63 



DEN 



Dehort', v. to dissuade, to discourage. 

Dehort'atory, ft. belonging to dissuasion. 

Deifica'tion, s. the act of deifying. 

De'ify. v. to make a god of, to adore. 

Deign, v. to vouchsafe, to grant, to permit. 

De'ism, .?. th;? opinion of those who acknow- 
ledge one God, but deny revealed religion. 

De'ist, s. one who professes deism. 

Deist'ical, a. belonging to deism. 

De'ity, s. the Divine Being ; God. 

Deject', v. to cast down, to grieve, to afflict. 

Deject'ed, ft. cast down, depressed. 

Deject'edly, ad. in a dejected manner. 

Dcject'edness, s. the state of being cast down. 

Dejec'tion, s. lowness of spirits ; weakness. 

Deject'ory, ft. tending to cast down. 

Dejeune', [Fr.] s. a breakfast. 

Delay', v. to put off, to stop, to frustrate : s. 
a deferring ; a stop ; a hindcrance. 

Delayer, s. one that defers ; a putter off. 

Delec'table, a. delightful, phasing. 

Delec'tableness, s. delightfulness. 

Delec'tably, ad. delightfully ; pleasantly. 

Delecta'tion, s. pleasure, delight. 

Delegate, v. to send as a deputy ; to intrust. 

Del'egate, s. a deputy : ft. deputed. 

Del'egatcs, s. pi. an ecclesiastical court. 

Dclega'tion, s. a putting in commission ; 
persons representing any public body. 

Delete'rious, a. destructive, deadly. 

Del'etorv, s. that which blots out. 

Delf, Delft, s. a kind of counterfeit China 
ware, made originally at Delft. 

Deliberate, v. to weigh or balance in the 
mind ; to consider : a. circumspect, wary. 

Deliberately, ad. circumspectly ; slowly. 

Delib'erateness, s. circumspection. 

Deliberation, s. circumspection, thought. 

Deliberative, a. pertaining to deliberation. 

Del'icacy, s. daintiness, nicety ; scrupulous- 
ness ; tenderness. 

Del'icate, «. nice, dainty, polite, pure, fine. 

Delicately, ad. with delicacy. 

Del'icateno.ss, s. tenderness, effeminacy. 

DeIi"cious, ft. sweet, grateful, agreeable. 

Deli"ciously, ad. sweetly; pleasantly. 

Deli"ciousness, s. delight ; pleasure ; joy. 

Delight', s. joy, satisfaction, pleasure : v. to 
give delight; to please greatly. 

Delight'ful, «. charming, pleasant. 

Delightfully, ad. pleasantly ; with delight. 

Delight'fulness, s. pleasure ; satisfaction. 

Delight'some, a. very pleasing ; delightful. 

Delin'eate, v. to design, to sketch, to paint. 

Delinea'tion, s. an outline or sketch, either 
pictorial or descriptive. 

Delin'itnent, s. a mitigating or assuaging. 

Delinquency, s. default ; failure in duty. 

Delinquent, s. an offender, a criminal. 

Delicious, ft. light-headed, raving. 

Delir'iousness, s. the state of one delirious. 

Delir'ium, s. alienation of mind. 

Deliv'cr, v. to set free ; to release ; to give 
up ; to utter , to give birth to. 

Deliv'crable, a. that may be delivered. 

Deliverance, s. freedom from ; utterance. 

Deliverer, s. a saver; a rescuer. 

Dcliv'ery, s. release ; rescue ; childbirth. 

Dell. s. a hollow place ; a little valley. 

Del'ta, S. a triangular tract of land towards 
the mouth of a river. 



Delu'dablc, a. liable to be deceived. 
Delu'de, v. to cheat, to deceive, to beguile. 
Delu'der, s. a beguiler ; a deceiver. 
Delve, v. to dig, to fathom. 
Delv'er, s. one who digs with a spado. 
Del'uge, s. a general inundation: v. to drown, 

to overwhelm. 
Delu'sion, s. a cheat, a deception, an error. 
Delu'sive, Delu'sory, ft. apt to deceive. 
Delu'siveness, s. tendency to deceive. 
Dem'agogue, s. a leader or agitator of th« 

people ; a popular and factious orator. 
Demand', v. to ask or claim with authority , 

to question : s. a claim ; a question ; a call. 
Demand'able, ft. that may be demanded. 
Demarcation, s. separation of territories. 
Demean', v. to behave ; to conduct one's self. 
Demean'our, s. carriage, behaviour. 
Demen'ted, a. infatuated, insane. 
Demer'it, s. the opposite to merit ; fault. 
Deme'sne, Domain, s. the land attached to a 

manor or mansion-house. 
Dem'i, a. a prefix signifying half. 
Dem'i-devil, s. half a devil; a wicked wretch. 
! Dem'i-god, s . half a god ; a great hero. 

Dem'i-quaver, s. (in music) half a quaver. 
; Dem'irep, s. a woman of (half reputation) 

suspicious chastity. 
j Demi'se, 5. death, decease : v. to grant at 

one's death ; to bequeath ; to transfer. 
Demi-semi-quaver, s. the shortest note in 

music, (the half of a demiquaver.) 
Democ'racy, s. a form of government, in 

which the sovereign power is lodged in 

the body of the people. 
Dem'ocrat, s. one devoted to democracy. 
Democratic, Democrat'ical, ft. relating to 

democracy. 
Demol'ish, v. to destroy, to overthrow. 
Demoli"tion, s. the act of demolishing. 
De'inon, s. a spirit, generally an evil one. 
Demo'niac, s. one possessed with a demon. 
Demo'niac, Demoni'acal, a. devilish ; relat- 
ing to or influenced by demons. 
De'monism, s. the act of worshipping demons. 
Demonol'ogy, s. a treatise on demons. 
Demon'strable, a. that may be demonstrated. 
Demon'strably, ad. evidently ; beyond doubt. 
Demon'stratc, v. to prove with certainty. 
Demonstration, s. the act of demonstrating ; 

the highest degree of evidence ; certain 

proof. 
Demon'strative, ft. invincibly conclusive. 
Demon'strativcly, ad. clearly ; plainly. 
Dem'onstrator, 5. one that demonstrates. 
Demoraliza'tion, s. destruction of morals. 
Demoralize, v. to render immoral. 
Demuieent, s. any medicine that softens or 

mollifies: a. softening, mollifying. 
Demur', v. to delay, to hesitate; to delay a 

process in law by doubts and objections; 

s. doubt ; hesitation. 
Demu're, ft. sober, grave, affectedly modest, 
Demu'rely, ad. affectedly, solemnly. 
Demu'reness, s. gravity of aspect. 
Domur'rage, s. an allowance paid for delay- 
ing ships. 
Donuu'rer, s. a stop in a lawsuit. 
Demy', s. a kind of paper (demi-sized). 
! Den, s. a cavern ; cave for wild beasts, &o. 
i Denary, ft. relating to or containing ten. 



DEN 



69 



Denationalize, v. to deprive of national 

rights or to outlaw. 
Deni'able, a. that may be denied. 
Deni'al, s. refusal, negation, abjuration. 
Deni'er, s. a contradictor ; a disowner. 
Denier', [Fr.] a', a penny ; a small coin. 
Denization, s. the act of making a man free. 
Den'izen, ,?. a citizen ; a person enfranchised. 
Denominate, v. to give a name to. 
Denomination, s. a name given to; a title. 
Denom'inative, a. conferring a name. 
Denominator, *. the giver of a name ; the 

number below the line in a fraction. 
Deno'te, v. to mark, betoken, point out. 
Denou'ement, [Fr.] s. a winding up ; the 

discovery of the plot of a drama. 
Denoun'ce, v. to threaten, to accuse. 
Denouncement, s. a threat, an injunction. 
Denoun'cer, 5. one who denounces. 
Dens'e, a. close, compact, almost solid. 
Density, s. closeness, compactness. 
Dent. v. to indent, to mark with notches. 
Den'tal, a. relating to the teeth. 
Den'tate, Den'tated, a. toothed, notched. 
Den 'tides, s. pi. ornaments resembling teeth. 
Dentic'ulated, a. having small teeth or 

notches. 
Donticula'tion, s. a small indentation. 

Den'tifriee, s. a powder for the teeth. 
Dentil, s. a tooth-like oi-nament in cornices. 

Denti'lion, s. cutting or breeding the teeth. 

Den'tist, s. a tooth-doctor. 

Denu'de, v. to strip, to divest. 

Denuda'tion, s. the act of making naked. 

Denun'ciate, v. to denounce ; to threaten. 

Denuncia'tion, s. a public menace. 

Denunciator, s. he that proclaims a threat. 

Deny', v. to contradict ; to refuse, to disown. 

Deob'struent, a. removing obstructions : s. 
any aperient medicine. 

De'odand, s. any thing forfeited to the king ; 
originally intended to "be applied to piou3 
uses. 

Depart', v. to go away ; to leave ; to die. 

Dcpart'nicnt, s. a separate office or duty ; a 
division or province. 

Departmental, a. belonging to a department. 

Depar'ture, s. the act of going away. 

Depau'perate, v. to make poor. 

Depend', v. to hang from ; to rely on. 

Depend'ence, s. connexion, reliance, trust. 

Dcpend'ent, a. hanging from or down ; in 
the power of another : s. one who lives in 
subjection to another ; a retainer. 

Depict', v. to paint, to describe, to portray. 

Deple'tion, s. act of emptying out or from. 

Deplo'rable, a. sad, lamentable. 

Deplo'rableness, s. state of being deplorable. 

Deplo'rably, ad. lamentably ; miserably. 

Deplo're, v. to lament, to bewail, to mourn. 

Deploy 7 , v. to spread wide, to display. 

Deplu'me, v. to strip off the feathers. 

Depo'nent, s. a witness on oath : a. (in Latin 
grammar) verbs that have a passive form 
with an active signification. 

Depop'ulate, v. to unpeople, to lay waste. 

Depopulation, s. havoc, destruction, waste. 

Depop'ulator, s. one who depopulates. 

Depo'rt, v. to carry, to demean, to behave. 
Deporta'tion, s. transportation, exile. 
Depo'sal, s. the act of deposing. 



DEE 

Depo'se, v. to lay down ; to bear w'taess ; to 

displace from a throne ; to degrade. 
Deposit, s. any thing lodged in trust ; a 
pledge : v. to lay down ; to lodge as a pledge 
or security. 
Depositary, s. one with whom any thing is 

lodged in trust. 
Deposition, s. the act of deposing. 
Depository, s. a place in which deposits are 

lodged ; a store or warehouse. 
Depo't. [Fr.] s. a place in which stores are 

deposited for the use of an army. 
Deprava'tion, s. depravity, defamation. 
Depra've, v. to vitiate, to corrupt. 
Depra'vediy, ad. in a depraved manner. 
Dcpra'vemeut, s. a vitiated state. 
Depravity, Depra'vednoss, s. corruption ; 

taint; a vitiated state. 
Dep'recate, v. to pray deliverance from; to 

avert by prayer ; to regret deeply. 
Deprcea'tiou, s. a prayer against evil. 
Dep'recatory, Dep'recative, a. tending to re- 
move or avert evil by prayer. 
Depre'eiate, v. to lessen in price or value. 
Deprecia'tion, *. a lessening of the value. 
Depre'ciative, a. undervaluing. 
Depreda'tion, s. a robbing, a spoiling. 
Dep'redator, S. a robber, a plunderer. 
Depress', v. to press or east down, to humble, 

to deject. 
Depression, s. lowness of spirits ; the act of 

pressing down or humbling. 
Depres'sive, a. having the power to depress. 
Depri'vable, a. liable to deprivation. 
Depriva'tion, s. the act of depriving. 
Depri've, v. to take from, to bereave. 
Depth, 5. deepness, or measure from the sur- 
face downwards; profundity; abstruseness. 
Deputa'tion, *. act of deputing ; the persons 

deputed. 
Dcpu'te, v. to send with a special commis- 
sion, to empower to act. 
Dcp'uty, s. any one that transacts business 

for another, a substitute, a viceroy. 
Dera'nge, v. to turn out of the proper course ; 

to disorder. 
Dera'ngement, s. disorder ; insanity. 
Derelic'tion, s. an utter forsaking. 
Der'elict, a. utterly forsaken. 
Deri'de, v. to ridicule, mock, laugh at. 
Deri'der, s. a mocker; a scoffer ; a buffoon. 
Deri'diugly, ad. in a jeering manner. 
Deris'ion, s. the act of deriding, contempt. 
Deri'sive, a. ridiculing, scoffing. 
Deri'sively, ad. with derision. 
Deri'vable, a. that may be derived. 
Derivation, s. a tracing from its original. 
Derivative, a. derived from another : j. the 

word or thing derived from another. 
Deriv'atively, ad. in a derivative manner. 
Deri've, v. to deduce from its original ; t ; 

owe its origin to ; to descend from. 
Der'nier, [Fr.] a. the last, the only remaining 
Der'ogate, v. to disparage, to detract from ; 

a. lessened in value, damaged. 
Deroga'tion, s. the act of lessening or de- 
tracting from ; defamation. 
Derog'ative, Derogatory, a. detracting; les- 
sening the honor or value of. 
Derog'atorily, ad. in a detracting manner. 
Der'vis, s. a Turkish monk or priest. 



MS 



70 



jJET 



Des'cant, *. a song or tune in parts ; a dis- 
quisition ; a discourse. 

I)escant / , v . to discourse at large upon. 

Descend', v. to come down, to sink. 

Descend'ant, s. the offspring of an ancestor. 

Descend'ent, a. falling ; proceeding from. 

Deseen'sion, s. the act of falling or sinking. 

Descent', s. a declivity ; invasion; lineage. 

Descri'bable, a. capable of description. 

Descri'be, v. to represent by words, to deli- 
neate ; to mark out. 

Descrip'tion, s. the act of describing ; a re- 
presentation ; a delineation. 

Descriptive, a. giving a description. 

Descry', v. to spy out ; to detect ; to discover. 

Des'ecrate, v. to pervert from a sacred pur- 
pose ; to profane. 

Desecration, s. the act of desecrating ; a pro- 
fanation. 

Desert', s. merit, worth; claim to reward. 

Des'ert, s. a wilderness ; solitude ; waste. 

Desert', v. to forsake, to abandon, to quit. 

Desert'er, s. one who forsakes his cause ; he 
that deserts his regiment. 

Deser'tion, s. act of forsaking or abandoning. 

Deser've, v. to be worthy of, to merit. 

Deserv'edly, ad. worthily ; justly. 

Deserv'ing, p. and a. worthy of; good. 

Deserv'ingly, ad. worthily ; meritoriously. 

Deshabil'le, [Fr.] s. an undress. 

Desideratum, s. that which is desirable. 

Desi'gn, v. to purpose, to project, to plan ; 
to sketch out : s. a plan ; a scheme ; an in- 
tention. 

Designate, v. to point out; to distinguish. 

Designation, s. appointment; intention ; the 
act of pointing or marking out. 

Designedly, ad. intentionally, purposely. 

Desi'gner, s. a contriver ; an architect. 

Designing, a. deceitful, cunning, insidious. 

Desi'gning, *'. the art of delineating. 

Desi'rable, a. worthy of desire, pleasing. 

Desi'rableness, s. quality of being desirable. 

Desi're, s. wish ; eagerness to obtain or enjoy : 
v. to wish for ; to express wishes ; to ask 
or demand. 

Desi'rous, a. full of desire, eager, anxious. 

Desi'rously, ad. with desire, earnestly. 

Desist', v. to cease from any thing, to stop. 

Desk, s. an inclining table to write on. 

Des'olate, v. to lay waste, to make desert. 

Des'olate, a. laid waste, uninhabited, solitary. 

Des'olately, ad. in a desolate manner. 

Desolation, s. destruction ; destitution. 

Des'olatory, a. causing desolation. 

Despair', s. hopelessness, despondence : V. 
to be without hope, to despond. 

Despair'ing, p. and a. giving up to despair. 

Despair'ingiy, ad. in a hopeless manner. 

Despatch', v . to send away hastily ; to per- 
form quickly ; to conclude an affair ; to 
kill : s. hasty execution ; speed ; an ex- 
press or hasty message. 

Despera'do, s. a furious desperate man. 

Des'perate, a. having no hope ; furious, rash. 

Des'perately, ad. rashly, madly, furiously. 

Desperation, *. despair ; rashness. 

Des'picable, a. contemptible, worthless. 

Des'picableness, s. meanness ; vileness. 

Des'pieably, ad. meanly ; vilely. 

Despis'e, v. to scorn, to disdain, to slight. 



Despi'ser, s. a contemner ; scorner. 
Despite, s. malice, malignity; defiance. 
Despiteful, a. malicious, full of hate. 
Despi'tefully, ad. maliciously; malignantly. 
Despoil', v. to rob, to plunder, to deprive. 
Despoliation, s. the act of despoiling. 
Despond', v. to despair, to lose hope. 
Despond'ency, s. despair, hopelessness. 
Despond'ent, a. dejected, despairing. 
Despond'ingly, ad. in a hopeless manner. 
Des'pot, s. an absolute prince ; one that 

governs with unlimited authority. 
Despot'ic, a. absolute, arbitrary, tyrannical. 
Despotically , ad. in a despotic manner. 
Despotism, s. absolute power, tyranny. 
Despu'mate, v. to throw off in foam, to froth. 
Dessert, s. fruit served after dinner. 
Destination, s. the destined purpose or place. 
Destine, v. to doom, to appoint, to devote. 
Destiny, s. fate, doom ; invincible necessity. 
Destitute, a. forsaken, in want, friendless. 
Destitution, s. want, poverty. 
Destroy', v. to lay waste, to kill, to ruin. 
Destroy'able, a. that may be destroyed. 
Destroy'er, s. the person that destroys. 
Destructibil'ity, s. liableness to destruction. 
Destructible, a. liable to destruction. 
Destruction, s. demolition ; ruin ; death. 
Destructive, a. destroying, wasteful. 
Destructively, ad. ruinously; mischievously. 
Destructiveness, s. the quality of destroying 

or ruining. 
Des'uetude, s. disuse of a custom. 
Des'ultorily, ad. in a desultory manner. 
Bes'ultoriness, s. unconnectedness. 
Des'ultory, a. unsettled, unconnected. 
Detach', v. to separate ; to send off a party. 
Detach'ed, p. and a. sent off ; disengaged. 
Detach'ment, s. a body of troops detached. 
Detail', s. a minute and particular relation : 

V. to relate minutely and particularly. 
Detain', v. to keep back ; to delay. 
Detect', v. to discover, to find out. 
Detect'er, s. one who finds out what another 

tries to conceal. 
Detection, s. discovery of guilt or fraud. 
Detention, s. the act of detaining ; restraint. 
Detective, a. fit, or able to detect. 
Deter', v. to discourage, to dishearten. 
Deter'gent, a. cleansing, purging: s. a 

cleansing or purgative medicine. 
Dete'riorate, v. to impair ; to make worse. 
Deterioration, s. state of growing worse. 
Determinable, a. that which can be decided. 
Deter' minate, a. fixed, limited ; decisive. 
Deter'minately, ad. resolutely, decisively. 
Determination, *. a decision ; a resolution. 
Deter'minative, a. directing to a certain end. 
Detor'mine, v. to fix, to resolve, to decide. 
Deter'mined, p. and a. resolved; decided. 
Deter'sive, a. having power to cleanse : s. 

a cleansing or detergent medicine. 
Detest', v. to hate, abhor, dislike greatly. 
Detest'able, a. hateful, odiou3, abominable. 
Detest'ableness, *. extreme hatefulness. 
Detest'ably, ad. abominably ; hatefully. 
Detestation, *. hatred, abhorrence. 
Dctest'er, s. one that hates or abhors. 
Dethro'ne, v. to divest of sovereignty. 
Dethronement, s. the act of dethroning. 
Defoliate, v. to make a noise like thunder. 



tJET 



71 



DIE) 



Detona'tion, s. the act of exploding. 
Detor'tion, s. a wresting or perversion from 

the true import. 
Detou'r, [Fr.] s. a turning ; a way about. 
Detract', v. to derogate, to slander, to defame. 
Detract'er, Detract'or, s. one who detracts 

from the reputation of others ; a slanderer. 
Detraction, s. defamation, slander. 
Detract'ive, a. tending to detract. 
Detract'or y, a. defamatory, derogatory. 
Det.'Timent, s. loss, damage, harm. 
Detrimen'tal, a. hurtful, injurious. 
Detri"tion, s. the act of wearing away. 
Detru'de, v. to thrust down ; to lower. 
Detrunca'tion, s. the act of lopping off. 
Detru'sion, s. the act of thrusting down. 
Deuce, s. the two in cards or dice ; the devil. 
Dev'astate, Devas'tate, v. to lay waste. 
Devasta'tion, s. waste, havoc, destruction. 
Devel'op, v. to unfold, to unravel, to detect. 
Devel'opment, s. an unfolding of. 
Devex'ity, s. incurvation downwards. 
De'viate, v . to wander, to go astray ; to err. 
Deviation, s. quitting the right way ; offence. 
Devi'ce, s. a contrivance , an emblem. 
DeVil, s. Satan ; a very wicked person. 
Dev'ilish, a. diabolical ; very wicked. 
Devil ishness, s. the quality of being devilish. 
Dev'ilism, s. the state of devils. 
Devilry, s. devilment ; impiety. 
De'vious, a. out of the common track ; erring. 
Devi'se, s. a will or testament; a bequest: 

v. to contrive ; to give by will. 
Devi'sable, a. that may be devised. 
Devi'sor, s. one who grants by will. 
Devoid', a. empty, vacant, destitute of. 
Devoir', *'. service ; an act of civility. 
Devol've, v. to fall by succession into new 

hands ; to roll down. 
Devolution, s. the act of rolling down. 
Devo'te, v. to consecrate ; to give up. 
Devo'tedness, s. state of being devoted to. 
Devotee', s. a bigot, a superstitious person. 
Devo'tement, s. consecration, a giving up. 
Devo'tion, s. piety ; worship ; zeal ; ardour. 
Devo'tional, a. suited to devotion. 
Devour', v. to eat ravenously ; to consume. 
Devour'er, s. a consumer ; he that devours. 
Devour'ingly, ad. in a devouring manner. 
Devout', a. pious, religious, sincere. 
Devout'ly, ad. piously ; with ardent devotion. 
Devout'ness, s. piety, devotion. 
Dew, s. a thin cold vapour or moisture : v. 

to moisten or wet with dew. 
Dew-drop, *. a drop of dew, a spangle of dew. 
Dew'-impearled, a. covered with dewdrops. 
Dew'lap, s. the flesh hanging from the throats 

of oxen. 
Dew'y, a. resembling or moist with dew. 
Dexter'ity, s. activity, expertness, readiness. 
Dex'ter, a. the right, not the left. 
Dex'terous, a. expert; adroit; skilful. 
Dex'terously, ad. expertly, skilfully, artfully. 
Dex'terousness, s. dexterity ; adroitness. 
Dey, s. the title of a Moorish prince. 
Diabe'tes, s. a morbid excess of urine. 
Diabe'tic, a. pertaining to diabetes. 
Dia'blerie, [Fr.] s. devilry ; hocus-pocus. 
Diabol'io, Diabolical, a. devilish, impious. 
Diabol'ically, ad. in a nefarious manner. 
Diab'olism, s. devilishuess. 



Diach'ylon, s. an emollient plaster. 
Di'adem, s. a crown, an ensign of royalty. 
Difer'esis, s. the mark used to separate a 

diphthongal syllable ; as in aerial. 
Diab'olism, s. the actions of the devil. 
Diagnostic, s. a distinguishing symptom : a. 

characteristic ; distinguishing. 
Diag'onal, s. a line from angle to angle : a. 

reaching from one angle to another. 
Diag'onally, ad. in a diagonal direction. 
Di'agram, s. a mathematical scheme, or de- 
lineation for demonstration. 
Di'al, s. a plate on which a hand shows the 

hour of the day by the progress of the sun. 
Di'alect, s. a peculiar form or idiom of a 

language ; a peculiar manner or style of 

speaking. 
Dialec'tic, a. pertaining to logic. 
Dialecti"cian, s. a logician ; a reasoner. 
Dialec'tics, s. the art of logic. 
Di'alist, s. a constructor of dials. 
Di'alling, s. the art of constructing dials. 
Dialogist'ic, a. having the form of a dialogue. 
Di'alogue, s. a conversation between two or 

more persons ; alternate discourse. 
Diam'eter, *. a line which passes through 

the centre of a circle or globe. 
Diamet'rical, a. pertaining to the diameter. 
Diamet'rically, ad. in a diametrical direc- 
tion ; in direct opposition. 
Di'amond, s. the most valuable of all gems. 
Diapa'son, s. an octave in music ; a concord. 
Di'aper, s. a sort of fine flowered or figured 

linen : v. to variegate with flowers. 
Diaphon'ics, *. the science of refracted 

sounds passing through different mediums. 
Diaphoret'ic, s. a sudorific medicine : a. pro-' 

moting perspiration . 
Di'aphragm, s. the midriff. 
Diarrhce'a, s. a purging ; a flux. 
Diarrhcet'ic, a. purgative. 
Di'ary, s. a daily account ; a journal. 
Dias'tole, s. the making a short syllable long; 

the dilatation of the heart. 
Diates'saron, s. the four Gospels; (in music) 

a perfect fourth. 
Diaton'ic, a. (in music) proceeding by dif- 
ferent tones, in ascending or descending. 
Di'atribe, s. a long and tedious disputation. 
Dib'ble, s. a gardener's planting-tool : v. t» 

plant with a dibble. 
Dice, s. pi. of Die : v. to game with dice. 
Di'cer, s. a player at dice, a gamester. 
Dichot'omous, a. regularly divided by pairs. 
Dicotyl'edon, s. a plant whose seeds divide 

into two lobes when germinating. 
Dic'tatc, v. to tell what to write ; to instruet 

or order : s. a precept ; an instruction. 
Dicta'tion, s. the act of dictating. 
Dicta'tor, s. a ruler ; a Roman magistrate. 
Dictato'rial, a. authoritative, overbearing. 
Dictatorship, s. the office of a dictator. 
Dicta'trix, s. a female who commands. 
Dic'tion, s. stylo, language, expression. 
Dic'tionary, s. a book explaining the words 

of any language alphabetically ; a lexicon. 
Dic'tum, *. a positive saying or assertion. 
Didac'tic, a. preceptive, doctrinal. 
Didac'tically, ad. in a didactic manner. 
Did'apper, s. a bird that dives into the water. 
Did'dle, v. to totter like a child ; to trick. 



DID 



72 



DIE 



Diduc'tion, s. a separation effected by with- 
drawing one part from another. 

Die, v. to lose life, to perish. 

Die, s. a small marked cube to play with ; 
stamp used in coinage. 

Di'et, s. an assembly of princes or states. 

Di'et, s. food ; prescribed or regulated food ; 
v. to supply with food. 

Di'etary, a. pertaining to the rules of diet. 

Dietet'ic, Dietet'ical, a. relating to diet. 

Differ, v. to be unlike, to vary, to disagree. 

Difference, s. dissimilitude ; a dispute. 

Different, a. distinct, unlike, dissimilar. 

Differencial, a. belonging to the method of 
calculating by infinitely small parts. 

Differently, ad. in a different manner. 

Difficult, a. hard to be done, not easy; la- 
borious, troublesome, vexatious. 

Difficultly, ad. hardly; with difficulty. 

Difficulty, s. that which is hard to accom- 
plish ; an objection or obstacle ; distress, 
perplexity. 

Diffidence, s. distrust, want of confidence. 

Diffident, a. not confident, distrustful. 

Diffidently, ad. in an unassuming manner. 

Diffuse, v. to pour out, to scatter, to spread 
abroad. 

Diffu'se, a. widely spread, not concise. 

Diffu'sely, ad. widely ; copiously. 

Diffu'sion, s. dispersion, a spreading abroad. 

Diffu'sive, a. dispersed, scattered, extended. 

Diffu'sivcly, ad. widely, extensively. 

Diffu'sivcness, s. the quality of being dif- 
fusive ; want of conciseness. 

Dig, v. to turn up or cultivate land. 

Digest', v. to dissolve in the stomach ; to re- 
duce to a plan, to arrange. 

Di'gest, s. a collection or body of laws. 

Digest'er, s. that which assists the digestion. 

Digestibil'ity, s. the being digestible. 

Digest'ible, a. that may be digested. 

Diges'tion, s. the dissolving of food in the 
stomach ; reduction to a regular plan. 

Digest'ive, a. having power to cause diges- 
tion : s. a medicine to aid digestion. 

Dight, v. to deck, to dress, to adorn. 

Di"git, s. three quarters of an inch ; the 
twelfth part of the diameter of the sun or 
moon ; any number under ten. 

Di"gital, a. pertaining to a digit or the 
finger. 

Digita'lis, s. a powerful medicine ; foxglove. 

Di"gitated, a. branched out like fingers. 

Dig'nified, p. and a. exalted, having dignity. 

Dig'nify, v. to advance, to exalt, to honor. 

Digmitary, s. a clergyman advanced to some 
dignity above that of a parochial priest. 

Dig'nity, s. grandeur, honor, rank. 

Di'graph, s. two vowels pronounced as one. 

Digress', v. to turn aside, to expatiate. 

Digression, s. a deviation from the subject. 

Digres'sive, a. deviating, expatiating. 

Digres'sively, ad. in the way of digression. 

Dike, s. a ditch, a bank, a mound. 

Dilapidate, v. to fall to ruin. 

Dilapidation, s. decay for want of repair. 

Dila'table, a. capable of extension. 

Dilata'tion, s. expansion, extension. 

Dila'te, v. to extend, to widen; to enlarge 
upon, to tell diffusely. 

Dila'tor. s. a muscle that dilates. 



Dil'atorily, ad. in a dilatory manner. 
Dil'atoriness, s. slowness, sluggishness. 
Dil'atory, a. tardy, slow, loitering. 
Dilom'ma, s. a difficult situation or choice. 
Dilettan'te, [Ital.] s. a lover of the fino 

arts. In the plural, Dilcttan'ti. 
Dil'igence, s. industry, constant application 
Dil'igent, a. persevering, assiduous, not idle. 
Diligently^, ad. with assiduity and care. 
Dil'uent, a. making thin or more fluid : s. 

that which thins other matter. 
Dilu'te, v. to make thin, to weaken. 
Dilu'tion, s. the act of diluting. 
Dilu'vial, a. belonging to a Hood. 
Dilu'vian, a. relating to the deluge. 
Dim, a. not clear in sight : v. to darken. 
Dimen'sion, .?. bulk, extent, capacity. 
Diinin'ish, v. to lessen, to impair, to degrade. 
Diminu'tion, s. the act of making less. 
Dimin'utive, a. small : s. a word expressive 

of diminution ; that which diminishes. 
Dimin'utively, ad. in a diminutive manner. 
Dimin'utiveness, s. smallncss, littleness. 
Dim'issory, a. granting leave to depart. 
Dim'ity, s. a fine fustian or cloth of cotton. 
Dim'ly, ad. obscurely, imperfectly. 
Dim'ness, s. dulness of sight, obscurity. 
Dim'ple, s. a small hollow in the cheek or 

chin : v. to sink in small cavities. 
Dim'pled, Dim'ply, a. full of dimples. 
Dim'-sighted, a. having imperfect vision. 
Din, s. a loud noise : v. to stun with noise. 
Dine, v. to eat or give a dinner. 
Ding, v. to dash or throw down with violence 
Ding-dong', s. a word by which the sound of 

bells is intended to be imitated. 
Din"gle, s. a hollow between two hills. 
Din'giness, s. the quality of being dingy. 
Din'gy, a. dark, dirty, soiled, foul. 
Di'ning-room, s. a room used to dine in. 
Din'ner, *. the chief meal of the day. 
Dint, s. a blow, a mark ; violence, force. 
Di'ocesan, s. a bishop or head of a diocess : 

a. pertaining to a diocess. 
Di'ocess, A', the jurisdiction of a bishop. 
Diop'tric, Diop'trical, a. assisting the sight 

in the view of distant objects. 
Diop'trics, s. the science of refracted lights. 
Dioram'a, s. that which is seen through an 

opening, as when clouds break ; a kind of 

exhibition of paintings. 
Dip, v. to put into any fluid, to immerse ; to 

enter slightly into : s. an immersion. 
Dipef alous, a. having two flower-leaves. 
Dip'hthong, s. two vowels joined together. 
Diphthongal, a. belonging to a diphthong. 
Diplo'ma, *. a writing or document confer- 
ring some privilege. 
Diplo'macy, s. the art or practice of treating 

with foreign states by diplomas or letters 

interchanged ; the skill and tact necessary 

for an envoy. 
Diplomatic, a. relating to envoys. 
Diplo'matist, s. one skilled in diplomacy. 
Dip'ping-needle, s. a magnetic needle that 

dips or inclines to the earth. 
Dip'teral, a. having two wings only. 
Dip'tot9, s. a noun of two cases only. 
Diradia'tion, s. the diffusion of the rays oi 

light from a luminous body. 
Dire, Di'rcful, a. dreadful, dismal, horrible. 



13 IE 



73 



Direct', v.: straight, open, plain, express: v. 
to aim or drive on a straight line ; to re- 
gulate,- to command. 

Direction, s. an aim ; superscription. 

Directive, a. having the power of direction. 

Directly, ad. immediately, apparently. 

Direct'ness, s. tendency to any point. 

Dircc'tor, s. a superintendent; an instructor. 

Directo'rial, a. giving direction. 

Direc'tory, s. a hook of directions or ad- 
dresses : a. guiding, enjoining. 

Di'reful, a. dreadful, tcrrihle, calamitous. 

Di'reful ly, ad. dreadfully, terribly. 

Di'refulness, *. dreadfulness, horror. 

Di'reness, s. dismalncss, horror. 

Dircp'tion, s. the act of plundering. 

Dirge, s. a mournful or funeral ditty. 

Dirk, s. a kind of dagger or short sword. 

Dirt, s. mud, filth, mire : v. to dirty. 

Dirtily, ad. nastily, foully, filthily. 

Dirtiness, s. nastiness, sordidness. 

Dirt'y, a. foul, nasty, sullied ; base, mean : 
v. to soil or make foul. 

Dirup'tion, s. the act or state of bursting. 

Disability, s. want of power, weakness. 

Disa'ble, v. to render incapable, to impair. 

Disabu'se, v. to undeceive ; to set right. 

Disaccom'modafe, v. to inconvenience. 

Disadvan'tago, s. loss, injury to interest. 

Disadvantageous, a. hurtful, prejudicial. 

Disadvantageous] y, ad. prejudicially. 

(Disadvanta'geousness, s. loss ; injury. 

Disaffect', v. to fill with discontent. 

Disaffect'ed, p. and a. not wishing well to. 

Disaffect'edly, ad. in a disaffected manner 

Disaffect'edness, s. the being disaffected. 

Disaffection, s. want of loyalty or zeal. 

Disaffirm', v. to deny, to contradict. 

Disagree', v. to differ in opinion, to quarrel. 

Disagree'able, a. offensive, unpleasing. 

Disagree'ableness, 5. unpleasantness. 

Disagree'ably, ad. unsuitably, unpleasantly. 

Disagrcc'ment, s. difference, unsuitableness. 

Disallow', v. to deny ; to refuse permission. 

Disallow'able, a. not allowable, improper. 

Disannul', v. to annul, to make void. 

Disannul'ment, s. the act of annulling. 

DisapparCl, v. to disrobe ; to undress. 

Disappear', v. to bo lost to view, to vanish. 

Disappcar'ance, s. a becoming invisible. 

Disappoint', v. to defeat the expectation. 

Disappoint'ment, s. defeat of expectation. 

Disapprobation, s. dislik«, censure. 

Disapprobatory, a. not approbatory. 

Disappro'val, s. disapprobation. 

Disappro've, v. to censure, to dislike. 

Disarm', v. to take away or divest of arms. 

Disarm'cd, p. and a. deprived of arms. 

Disarrange, v. to unsettle. 

Disarrangement, s. disorder, confusion. 

Disarray', s. undress, disorder, confusion : v. 
to undress ; to overthrow. 

Disassociate, v. to disunite. 

Disas'ter, s. misfortune, grief, mishap. 

Disastrous, a. unlucky, calamitous. 

Disastrously, ad. in a disastrous manner. 

Disavouch', Disavow', v. to disown. 

DLsavow'al, Disavow'mont, s. denial. 

Disband', v. to dismiss from military service ; 
to separate, to break up, to scatter. 

Disbark', v. See Disembark. 



BIS 

Disbelief, s. a refusal of belief, discredit. 

Disbelie've, v. not to credit or believe. 

Disbelie'ver, s. one who refuses belief. 

Disbranch', v. to separate or lop off. 

Disbur'den, v. to unload, to discharge. 

Disbur'se, v. to spend or lay out money. 

Disbursement, s. a disbursing of money. 

Discard', v. to dismiss or eject from service. 

Disca'se, v. to strip, to undress. 

Discern', v. to descry, to distinguish, to judge. 

Discernible, a. perceptible, discoverable. 

Discemlbleness, s. visiblcness. 

Discern'ibly, ad. perceptibly; apparently. 

Discerning, p. and a. judicious, knowing : *. 
the power of accurately distinguishing. 

Discerning] y, ad. with discernment. 

Discern'ment, s. judgment, skill. 

Disccrp', v. to tear in pieces. 

Discerp'tion, s. the act of pulling to pieces. 

Dischar'ge, v. to unload ; to dismiss, to pay: 
S. a dismissing ; an acquittance. 

Discinct', a. ungirded ; loosely dressed. 

Discind', v. to divide ; to cut into pieces. 

Disci'ple, *. a scholar; a follower. 

Disciplina'rian, s. one who rules with strict- 
ness : a. pertaining to discipline. 

Disciplinary, a. pertaining to discipline. 

Discipline, s. military regulation, order : v. 
to instruct, to regulate, to keep in order. 

Disclaim', v. to disown, to deny, to renounce. 

Disclaimer, s. one that disclaims; a denial. 

Disclo'se, v. to reveal, to tell, to discover. 

Disclo'sure, s. revealing a secret, discovery. 

Discol'or, v. to change the color ; to stain. 

Discolora'tion, s. change of color. 

Discovered, p. and<2. changed in color. 

Discom'fit, v. to vanquish : s. a defeat. 

Discom'fituro, s. overthrow, loss of battle. 

Discom'fort, s. uneasiness ; sorrow : v. to 
grieve, to sadden 

Discommend', v. to censure, to blame. 

Discommend'able, a. blamable, censurable, 

Discommo'de, v. to put to inconvenience. 

Discommo'dious, a. inconvenient. 

Discompo'se, v. to disturb ; to ruffle ; to vex. 

Discompo'sure, s. disorder, perturbation. 

Disconcert', v. to unsettle ; to baffle. 

Disconform'ity, s. want of agreement. 

Disconnect', v. to disunite, to sever. 

Disconnect'ed, a. freed from connection with. 

Disconnection, s. disunion of parts. 

Disconsolate, a. comfortless, sorrowful. 

Discontent', s. want of content, sorrow. 

Discontent'ed, a. uneasy, dissatisfied. 

Discontcnt'edness, Discontentment, s. the 
state of being discontented ; uneasiness. 

Discontinuance, Discontinua'tion, s. a cessa- 
tion, separation, intermission. 

Discontinue, v. to leave off, to cease. 

Discontinuous, a. broken off, separated. 

Dis'cord, s. a disagreement ; opposition. 

Discord'ance, s. disagreement ; inconsist- 
ency. 

Discord'ant, a. disagreeing; inconsistent. 

Discord'antly, ad. in a discordant manner. 

Discount', v. to deduct a certain sum per 
cent, from the principal. 

Dis'count, s. a deduction or allowance. 

Discoun'tenance, v. to discourage, to abash. 

Discour'ago, v. to dishearten ; to deter. 

Discoar'agemcnt, s. tbat which disheartens. 



DIS 



74 



DIS 



Discourse, J. conversation : v. to converse. 
Discour'teous, a. uncivil, rough, impolite. 
Discourteously, ad. uncivilly; rudely. 
Discourtesy, s. incivility, rudeness. 
Dis'cous, a. broad, wide, flat. 
Discov'er, v. to disclose, to detect, to espy. 
Disco v'erable, -a. apparent ; exposed toview_ k 
Discov'erer, * one that finds out any thing. 
Discovery, s. the act of finding ; invention 
Discredit, s. ignominy, reproach, disgrace : 

v. not to believe ; to disgrace. 
Discreditable, a. disgraceful ; reproachful. 
Discreet', a. prudent, cautious, modest. 
Discreetly, ad. prudently ; cautiously. 
Discreet'ness, s. prudent cautiousness. 
Discrep'ance, Discrepancy, ». a difference. 
Discre'te, a. distinct, disjoined, separated. 
Discretion, s. prudence ;. liberty of acting. 
Discre"tional, a. left to discretion. 
Discre"tionally, ad. according to discretion. 
Discre'lionary, a. left at large ; unrestrained 
Discre'tive, a. separate, distinct. 
Discriminate, v. to distinguish between. 
Discrim'hiately, ad. distinctly, minutely. 
Discrimination, s. the act of distinguishing 

one from another ; a distinction or mark. 
Discriminative, a. that marks distinction. 
Discrim'jnatively, ad. with discrimination. 
Discum'ber, v. to unburden, to disengage. 
Di3cur'sive, a. progressive, argumentative. 
Diseui lively, ad. argumentatively. 
Discursiveness, a', range of argument. 
Discur'sory, a. argumentative, rational. 
Dis'cus, 4'. a quoit, a round iron for play. 
Discuss', v. to examine, to argue, to debate. 
Discus'sion, s. examination of a question. 
Disdain', s. contempt, scorn, indignation : 

v. to scorn ; to think unworthy. 
Disdain'ful, a. contemptuous, haughty. 
Disdain'fully, ad. contemptuously. 
Disdain'fulness, s. contemptuousness. 
Disea'se, s. distemper, malady, sickness : v. 

to afflict with disease, to infect. 
Disea'sed, p. andn. afflicted with distemper. 
Disembark', v. to put on shore, to land. 
Disembark'ment, s. the act of disembarking. 
Disembar'rass, v. to free from impediment. 
Di°embar'rassment, s. freedom from trouble. 
Disembodied, a. divested of the body. 
Disembod'y, v. to discharge from military 

incorporation ; to divest of body. 
Discmbo'gue, v . to discharge into the sea. 
Disembo'guement, s. the discharge of rivers 

into the ocean, &c. 
Disenibow'ei, v. to take out the bowels. 
Disembroil', v. to clear up, to disentangle. 
Disena'bie, v. to deprive of power. 
Disenchant', v. to free from enchantment. 
Disencum'ber, v. to disburden, to exonerate. 
Diseneuia'branoe, s. freedom from care. 
Disenga'ge, v. to extricate, to free from. 
pisenga'ged, p. and a. at leisure, clear from. 
Disenga'gement, s. freedom of attention. 
Disenno'ble, v. to degrade. 
Disenro'l, v. to erase out of a roll. 
Discnskt've, v. to free from slavery. 
Disentan"gle, v. to unravel, to disengage. 
Disenthral', v. to set free, to rescue. 
Diecnthro'ne, v. to depose a sovereign. 
Disentitle, v. to deprive of a title. 
Disentran'ce, v. to awaken from a trance. 



Disestecm", s. slight regard, dislike : v. *® 
regard with a slight degree of contempt. 

Disfa'vor, 5. slight displeasure, dislike : v. 
to discountenance. 

Disfigura'tion, s. the act of disfiguring. 

Disfig'ure, v. to deform, deface, mangle. 

Disfiglirement, s. defacement of beauty. 

Di3fran'chise, v. to deprive of franchise. 

Disfranchisement, s. depriving of privileges. 

Disgor'ge, v. to vomit, to pour out with force. 

Disgra'cc, s. dishonor, loss of favor : v. to 
put out of favor ; to shame. 

Disgraceful, a. ignominious, shameful. 

Disgra'cefully, ad. shamefully. 

Disgra'cefuiness, s. ignominy, reproach. 

Disgra'cious, a. unfavorable, unpleasing. 

Disgui'se, v. to conceal by an unusual dress 
to change the form of : s. dress to conceal . 
false appearance, a pretence. 

Disgust', s. an aversion, dislike, offence : r. 
to fill with aversion. 

Disgusting, a. nauseous, causing aversion. 

Disgustingly, ad. in a manner to disgust. 

Dish, s. a vessel used to serve up meat in : 
v. to put or serve up meat in a dish. 

Dishabille, s. See Deshabille. 

Dish'cloth, s. a cloth used for cleaning 
dishes. 

Bishear'ten, v. to discourage, to terrify. 

Disherit, v. to cut off from inheritance. 
[ Dishevel, v. to spread the hair disorderly. 
1 Dishevelled, a. flowing disorderly. 
! Dishon'est, a. void of probity, faithless. 
j Dishon'estly, ad. without probity. 
j Dishon'esty, s. want of honesty, knavery. 
I Dishon'or, s. reproach, disgrace, ignominy: 
I v. to disgrace ; to refuse the acceptance or 
payment of a bill ; to violate. 

Dishon'orable, a. shameful, reproachful. 

Dishon'orably, ad. in a dishonorable way. 

Dishu'mour, s. peevishness, ill humour. 

Disinclina'tion, s. dislike, want of affection 

Disincli'ne. v. to produce dislike to. 

Disinclined, a. not favorably disposed to. 

Disincorporate, v. to deprive of corporate 
powers ; to dissolve. 

Disingen'uous, a. illiberal, unfair, mean. 

Disir.gcn'uously, ad. in a disingenuous way. 

Disingcnliousness, s. mean subtlety. 

Disinherit, v. to deprive of inheritance. 

Disinter', v. to take out of a grave. 

Disinterested, a. void of private advantage. 

Disinterest'edly, ad. in a disinterested 
manner. 

Disin'torcstedness, s. freedom from self- 
interest. 

Disinter'mcnt. s. the act of unburying. 

Disjoin', v. to separate, to disunite. 

Disjoint', v. to put out of joint; to make in- 
coherent : a. disjointed. 

Disjointed, p. and a. separated, divided. 

Disjoint'! y, ad. in a divided state. 

Disjunct', a. disjoined, separate. 

Disjunction, s. a disunion, a separation. 

Disjunctive, a. separating. 

Disjunctively, ad', distinctly ; separately. 

Disk, s. the face of the sun, &c. ; a quoit. 

Disli'ke, s. aversion, disapprobation: v. t» 
disapprove, to hate. 

Disli'ken, v. to make unlike. 

Dislocate, v. to disjoint, to displace. 



DIS 



75 



Dislocation, s. the act of displacing; a joint 

displaced. 
Dislodge, v. to drive out, to move away. 
Disloy'al, a. not true to allegiance, faithless. 
Disloyalty, s. a want of allegiance. 
Dis'mal, a. sorrowful, gloomy, dark. 
Dis'mally, ad. sorrowfully, horribly. 
Dis'rnalness, s. gloominess, sorrow. 
Dismantle, v. to strip, to overthrow, to 

destroy. 
Dismast', v. to deprive of, or cut off masts. 
Dismay', v. to terrify, to affright, to deject. 
Dismay', s. a fall of courage, terror. 
Dismcra'ber, v. to cut off a limb; &c. 
Dismem'berment, s. separation by cutting. 
Dismiss', v. to send away, to discard. 
Dismiss'al, s. dismission, deprivation. 
Dismis'sion, s. a sending away ; deprivation. 
Dismissive, a. proclaiming leave to depart. 
Dismortgage, v. to redeem from mortgage. 
Dismount',^, to throw or alight from a horse. 
Disobe'dience, s. a breach <>f duty. 
Disobe'dient, a. undutiful, froward. 
Disobe'diently, ad. in a disobedient manner. 
Disobey', v. to neglect to obey. 
Disobli'ge, v. to give offence ; to disappoint. 
Disobli'ging, p. and a. uncivil, unpleasing. 
Disorder, s. want of order, confusion, dis- 
temper : v. to put out of order; to confuse ; 
to make sick. 
Disorderly, a. confused, irregular; lawless. 
Disor'dinatc, a. vicious, living irregularly. 
Discrganiza'tion, s. subversion of order. 
Disorganize, v. to destroy union or order. 
Disown', v. to renounce ; to deny. 
Dispar'age, v. to undervalue, to injure. 
Disparagement, s. injurious comparison. 
Disparity, s. inequality, dissimilitude. 
Dispart', v. to divide in two, to separate. 
Dispassionate, a. cool, moderate, impartial. 
Dispassionately, ad. in a calm manner. 
Dispas'sioned, a. free from passion. 
Dispatch', s. See Despatch'. 
Dispen'sable, a. that may be dispensed with. 
Dispen'sary, s. a place where medicines are 

dispensed to the poor. 
Dispensation, s. a distribution; the dealing 
outof any thing; the method of Providence; 
an exemption from some law ; an indul- 
gence from the Pope. 
Dispcn'ser, s. one that dispenses or distri- 
butes. 
Dispen'satory, s. a directory or book for 
making medicines : a. having the power 
of granting dispensation. 
Dispcn'se, v . to distribute ; to excuse. 
Dispeo'ple, v. to depopulate, to lay waste. 
Disperse, v. to scatter, to drive away. 
Dispers'ediy, ad. in a scattered manner. 
Disper'sion, s. the act of spreading abroad. 
Dispir'it, v to dishearten or discourage. 
Dispir'itedncss, s. want of vigour or vivacity. 
Displa'ce, v. to put out of place, to remove. 
Displacement, S. the act of displacing. 
Display', v. to spread wide, to exhibit. 
Display', J. an exhibition, a show. 
Displea'so, v. to oftVnd, to provoke, to disgust. 
Displeas'ure, s. offence, anger, disgrace. 
Displu'me, v. to deprive of feathers. 
Dispo'rt, s. play, sport, pastime : v. to play. 
DLspo 'sable, a. that may fce disposed of. 



DIS 

Dispo'sal, s. a regulation ; management. 
Dispo'se, v. to arrange ; to adapt ; to incline 
or frame the mind to ; to apply to any 
purpose ; to part with, to sell (with of, as 
to " dispose of"). 
Dispo'ser, s. a bestower ; a director. 
Disposition, s. order; method ; distribution ; 

temper of mind ; tendency. 
Dispossess', v. to put out. 
Dispossession, s. putting out of possession. 
Disprai'se, s. blame, censure: v. to blame, 

to condemn, to censure. 
Disproof, s. a confutation, a refutation. 
Disproportion, s. want of symmetry ; nn- 
snitableness : v. to mismatch ; to join un- 
fitly. 
Disproportionate, Disproportional, Dis- 
proportionate : a. unsuitable in form or 
quantity, without proportion. 

Disproportion ableness, Dispropor'tionate- 
ness, s. want of proportion ; inadequacy. 

Dispro've, v. to prove false or erroneous. 

Dis'putable, a. liable to be disputed. 

Dis'putant, s. an arguer, a controvertist. 

Disputation, s. controversy. 

Disputa'tious, Dispu'tativc, a. inclined or 
disposed to dispute ; captious. 

Dispu'te, v. to argue, to debate, to contend : 
S. controversy ; contest. 

Dispu'ter, s. one given to argument. 

Disqualification, s. that which disqualifies. 

Disqualify, v. to make unfit, to disable. 

Disqui'et, s. uneasiness, anxiety : v. to make 
uneasy, to disturb or annoy 

Disqui'etly, ad. without rest, anxiously. 

Disqui'etness, 5. uneasiness; restlessness. 

Disquisition, s. an argumentative inquiry. 

Disqui'etude, s. uneasiness, anxiety. 

Disregard', s. slight notice ; neglect, con- 
tempt : v. to slight, to despise. 

Disregard'ful, a. negligent, contemptuous. 

Disregard'fully, ad. heedlessly; negligently. 

Disrel'ish, s. bad taste ; dislike ; nauscoua- 
ness ; v. to make nauseous; to dislike. 

Disrep'utablc, a. disgraceful, unbecoming. 

Disrepute, s. want of reputation ; dishonor. 

Disrespect', s. rudeness, want of reverence. 

Disrespect'ful, a. irreverent, uncivil, rude. 

Disrespectfully, ad. irreverently ; uncivilly. 

Disro'be, v. to undress, to uncover, to strip. 

Disroot', v. to tear up by the roots. 

Disruption, *. a breaking asunder, a rent. 

Dissatisfae'tion, *. the state of being dis- 
satisfied. 

Dissatisfac'toriness, s. inability to satisfy. 

Dissatisfac'tory, a. not giving satisfaction. 

Dissat'isfy, v. to displease, to disoblige. 

Dissect', v. to anatomize, to cut in pieces. 

Dissee'tion, s. anatomy ; nice examination. 

Dissect'or, s. one who dissects ; an anatomist. 

Dissei'se, [a law term] ». to dispossess. 

Dissei'sin, s. an unlawful ejectment. 

Dissem'blance, s. want of resemblance. 

Dissem'ble, v. to play the hypocrite. 

Dissem'bler, *. a hypocrite, a pretender. 

Dissem'bling, *. fallacious appearance. 

Dissem'blingly, ad. with dissimulation. 

Dissem'inate, v. to scatter, to sow, to spread. 

Dissemina'tion, v. the act of disseminating. 

Dissem'inator, s. one who disseminates. 

Dissen'sion, s. disagreement, discord, strife. 
E2 



BIS 7 

Dissent', s. disagreement in opinion : v. to 
differ in opinion ; to differ from the Esta- 
blished Church 
Dissent'er, j. one who dissents from the Esta- 
blished Church. 
Dissentient, a. disagreeing: s. one who de- 
clares his dissent. 
Dissen'tious, s. contentious, quarrelsome. 
Disserta'tion, s. a discourse ; a treatise. 
Disser've, v. to do an injury to, to hurt. 
Disservice, s. injury, mischief, ill turn. 
DisserMceable, a. injurious, mischievous. 
Disser'viceablc-ness, s. injury, harm. 
Dissev'er, v. to part in two, to disunite. 
Dis'sidcnt, a. varying ; not agreeing. 
Dissimilar, a. unlike, heterogeneous. 
Dissimilarity, s. unlikeness. 
Dissimilitude, s. want of resemblance. 
Dissimulation, s. dissembling ; hypocrisy. 
Dis'sipate, v. to scatter ; to spend lavishly. 
Dissipation, s. dispersion ; dissolute living. 
Disso'ciate, v. to separate, to disunite. 
Dissociation, 5. separation ; division. 
Dissolubility, s. liableness to be dissolved. 
Dis'soluble, a. dissolvable. 
Dis'solute, a. loose, unrestrained, debauched. 
Dis'solutely, ad-> loosely ; in debauchery. 
Dis'soluteness, s. laxity of manners. 
Dissolu'tion, s. a dissolving ; death ; destruc- 
tion ; act cf breaking up an assembly. 
Dissolv'able, a. capable of being melted. 
Dissolv'e, v. to melt, to disunite, to separate. 
Dissolv'ent, a. having power to dissolve : s. 

that which has power to dissolve. 
Dis'souance, s. discord, harshness. 
Dis'sonant, a. unharmonious, harsh. 
Dissua'de, v. to advise to the contrary. 
Dissua'sion, $■.■• importunity against anything. 
Dissua'sive, a. apt or proper to dissuade : s. 

argument employed to dissuade. 
Dissyllabic, a. consisting of two syllables. 
Dissyllable, s. a Avord of two syllables. 
Distaff, s. a staff used in spinning. 
Distain', v. to stain, to tinge ; to defame. 
Dis'tance, s. space between two objects; re- 
moteness in time or place : v. to leave be- 
hind in a race. 
Distant, a. standing apart ; remote in time 

or place ; stand off or reserved. 
Distantly, ad. remotely; at a distance. 
Dista'ste, s. aversion, disgust, dislike. 
Dista'steful, a. nauseous, offensive. 
Dista'stefulness, 5. disagreeableness ; dislike. 
D^stem'per, s. disorder, indisposition, dis- 
ease, malady : v. to disorder, to disease. 
Distem'perature, s. intemporateness ; excess 

of heat or cold, or other qualities. 
Distem'pered, a. diseased ; disturbed. 

Distend', v. to stretch out in breadth. 

Distention, S. act of stretching ; breadth. 

Dislich, s. a couple of lines ; a couplet. 

Distil', v . to drop ; to draw by distillation* 

DistilJable, a. fit to be distilled. 

Distillation, s. the act cf distilling. 

Distiller, s. one who distils spirits. 

Distil'lcry, s. a. plaee for distilling. 

Distinct', a. different, separate, clear. 

Distinc'tion, s. a difference ; honorable note 
of superiority ; eminence ; quality. 

Distinctive, a. marking a distinction. 

Distinctively} ad. with distinction. 



D1Y 

Distinctly, ad. clearly apparent; obviously.; 
Distinctness, s. clearness, plainness. 
Distinguish, v. to mark or note distinctly ; 

to discern ; to honor. 
Distinguishable, a. worthy of regard. 
Distinguished, a. eminent, celebrated. 
Distin"guisher, s. a judicious observer. 
Distin"guishment, 5. the act of distinguishing. 
Distort', v. to writhe, to twist, to deform ; to- 

misrepresent. 
Distortion, s. grimace ; misrepresentation. 
Distract', v. to draw, to perplex, to make mad. 
Distract'ed, p. and a. perplexed ; frantic. 
Distract'edly, ad. madly, franticly. 
Distract'edness, s. madness ; distraction. 
Distraction, s. madness, confusion, discord. 
Distraetlve, a. causing perplexity. 
Distrain', v. to seize for a debt. 
Distrain'able, a. liable to be distrained. 
Distraint', s. a seizure of goods for debt. 
Distress', s. misery, want ; a distraining of 

goods : v. to make miserable. 
D istress'edj a. miserable, full of trouble. 
Distress'ful, a. in a state of misery. 
Distress'fully, ad. In a miserable manner. 
Distressing, a. harassing ; afflicting. 
Distrib'ute, v. to divide among many. 
Distributer, s. one who deals out any thing. 
Distribution, s. the act of distributing. 
Distributive, a. that which distributes. 
Distrib'utively, ad. singly ; particularly 
Dis'trict, s. a circuit ; region; province. 
Distrust', v. not to trust, to disbelieve : s. 

suspicion, loss of confidence. 
Distrust'ful, a. apt to distrust ; timorous. 
Distrust' fully, ad. in a distrustful manner. 
Distrust'fulness, s. want of confidence. 
Disturb', v. to perplex, to interrupt. 
Disturbance, *. confusion, tumult. 
Disturb'er, s. a violator of peace. 
Disu'nion, s. a separation ; disagreement. 
Disuni'te, v. to divide ; to separate. 
Disu'nity, s. state of actual separation. 
Disu'sage, s. gradual disuse of a custom. 
Disu'se, v. to disaccustom, to leave off. 
Disval'ue, v. to undervalue, to slight. 
Ditch, s. a trench : v. to make a ditch. 
Ditch'er. s. a man who makes ditches. 
Dithyram'bic, *-. a song in honor of Bacchus. 
Dithyram'bic, a. wild ; enthusiastic. 
Dit'to, s. the aforesaid, the same repeated. 
Dit'ty, s. a song ; a musical poem. 
Diuretic, Dimetleal, a. promoting urine. 
Diuretics, 5. drugs that promote urine. 
Diur'nal. a. performed in a day, daily : s. 

a day-book, a journal. 
Diur'nally, ad. daily, everyday, day by day. 
Divan', s. the Ottoman grand council. 
Divaricate, v. to divide by two. 
Divarica'tion, s. a division of opinions. 
Dive, v. to sink voluntarily under water ; 

to immerge into any business or science. 
Divellicate, v. to pull in pieces ; to tear. 
Di'ver, s. one who dives ; a water-fowl. 
Diverge, v. to tend in various directions from 

one point. 
Diver'gence, s. tendency to various points. 
Diver'gent, a. going farther asunder. 
Di'vers, a. several, sundry, more than one. 
Di'verse, a. different, unlike, various. 
Diver'sify, v. to distinguish, to variegate. 



DIV 



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Dlv-cr'skm, s. a turning aside ; sport, play. 
Divcr'sity, J. dissimilitude, variety. 
Di'versly", ad. differently, variously. 
Divert', v. to turn aside ; to amuse. 
Diverting, a. amusing, agreeable. 
Divert'isement, s. diversion, reereation. 
Divest', v. to strip ; to dispossess. 
Dives'ture, *. the aet of putting off. 
Divi'dable, a. capable of division. 
Divi'de, v. to part, to separate ; to deal out 

or give in shares. 
Dividend, s. a share, a part allotted in a 

division, a number to be divided. 
Divi'ders, s. a pair of compasses. 
Divhia'tion, s. a foretelling of future events. 
Divi'ne, a. godlike, heavenly, not human : s. 

a clergyman : v. to forctel, to presage. 
Divi'nely, ad. in a divine manner ; excel- 
lently, in a supreme degree. 
Divi'neuess, s. participation in the divine 

nature ; supreme excellence. 
Divi'ner, s. one who professes divination ; to 

forctel, to presage. 
Di'ving-bell, s. a machine for enabling a 

person to descend and remain below water 

in safety. 
Divinity, s. the Deity ; the Supreme Bsing ; 

science of divine things ; theology. 
Divis'ible, a. capable of being divided. 
Divis'ibleness, Divisibility, s. the quality 

of being divisible. 
Divi"sion, s. the act of dividing ; a partition ; 

the part separated. 
Divisional, a. pertaining to division. 
Divi'sor, s. the number that divides. 
Divo 'rce, v. to separate ; to force asunder. 
Divo'rce, s. the legal separation of husband 

and wife ; disunion. 
Divo'rcement, *. dissolution of marriage. 
Divul'ge, v. to make public ; to proclaim. 
Divul'sion, s. a plucking away; laceration. 
Diz'en, v. to deck or dress gaudily. 
Diz'ziness, s. giddiness, thoughtlessness. 
Oiz'zy, a. giddy, whirling : v. to make giddy. 
Djer'rid, *. a blunt Turkish javelin. 
Do, v. to act, to practise, to perform. 
Do'cible, Do'cile* a. easily taught, tractable. 
Docility, s. aptness to be taught. 
Dock, s. a ship-builder's yard ; a weed : v. 

to cut short. 
Dock'et, s. a label or direction affixed to 

goods ; a register of cases : v. to abstract 

and enter in a docket. 
Dock'yard, s. a yard for naval stores, &c. 
Doo'tor, s. a title in divinity, law, physic, &c. 
Doc'tor, v. to attempt to cure. 
Doc'torato, s. the degree of a doctor. 
Doctors'-co>«/MO«s, s. the college of civilians 

residing in the city of London. 
Doc'torship, j. the highest academical degree. 
Doc'trinal, a. pertaining to doctrine or 

teaching. 
Doc'trinally, ad. in the form of doctrine. 
Doc'ument, s. a writing containing some 

precept, instruction, or evidence. 
Documentary, a. relating to written evi- 
dence. 
Dodec'agon, s. a figure of twelve sides. 
Dodge, v. to use craft ; to follow artfully 

and unperceivod ; to evade by shifting. 
Dod'ger, 6'. one who dodges or evades. 



' Do'do, s. a bird somewhat larger than a swan. 
| Doe, s. the female of a buck. 

Do'er, 5. one that does any thing; an agent. 

Doff, v. to put off dress, to strip. 

Dog, s. a domestic animal ; a lump of iron. 

Dog, v. to follow as a dog. 

Dog'berry, s. the berry of the dogwood. 

Dog'brier, s. the brier bearing the hip, 

Dog'days, s. the days in which the dog-star 
rises and sets with the sun. 

Doge, j. the chief magistrate of Venice. 

Dog'fish, s. a kind of shark. 

DogHy, s. a voracious biting fly. 

Dog'ged, a. sour, morose, sullen. 

Dog'gcdly, ad. sourly, sullenly, morosely. 

Dog'gedness, *. sullenness, moroseness. 

Dog'gcr, s. a Dutch fishing-vessel. 

Doggerel, s. despicable verses : a. vile, mean. 

Dog'gish, a. brutal, currish, snappish. 

Dog'hoie, s. a vile, mean habitation. 

Dog'ma, s. an established principle ; a tenet. 

Dogmatical, a. authoritative, positive. 

Dogmatically, ad. magisterially, positively. 

Dogmatleainess, s. the being dogmatical. 

Dog'matize v. to assert positively. 

Doglnatism, s. a positive assertion. 

Dog'matist, s. a positive teacher or assertor. 

Dog'matizcr, s. a positive and rude assertor. 

Dog'rose, s. the flower of the dogbrier. 

Dog's'-ear, s. the corner of a leaf in a book 
turned down like a dog's ear. 

Dog's'-meat, s. offal ; meat for dogs. 

Dog'sleep, s. pretended sleep. 

Dog'star, s. Sirius, a star, from which the 
dogdays derive their appellation. 

Doily, *. a small napkin used after dinner. 

Doings, s. pi. feats, actions. 

Doit, s. a small piece of Dutch money. 

Dole, s. a share, a part ; grief, misery : v. to 
deal, to distribute. 

Doleful, a. sorrowful, dismal, afflicted. 

Dolefully, ad. in a doleful way ; sorrowfully. 

Do'lesome, a. melancholy, heavy, gloomy. 

Doll, s. a little girl's puppet or baby. 

Dollar, s. a foreign coin of different value, 
from about 2*. Gd. to 4*. Citf. 

Doloriflc, a. causing pain or grief. 

Dol'orous, a. sorrowful, painful, doleful. 

Dol'orously, ad. sorrowfully ; mournfully. 

Dolour, s. grief, lamentation, pain. 

Dol'phin, s. a sea-fish peculiarly beautiful. 

Dolt, s. a heavy stupid fellow, a thickskull. 

Doltish, a. stupid ; blockheaded ; dull. 

Domain', s. a dominion ; empire ; estate. 

Dome, s. a building; cupola; arched roof. 

Domes'tic, a. belonging to the house ; pri- 
vate ; not foreign : s. a servant. 

Domes'ticate, v. to make domestic. 

Domicile, s. a house, a residence : v. to esta- 
blish a residence. 

Domiciliary, a. pertaining to private houses ; 
intruding into private abodes. 

Dominant, a. predominant; presiding. 
; Dominate, v. to prevail over ; to govern. 

Domina'tion, s. power; dominion ; tyranny. 
: Domlnator, s. a ruler ; ruling power. 
j Domineer', v. to hector, to behave with in- 
sol. nee ; to aet without control. 

Dominical, a. denoting the Lord's day. 

Dominican, s. one of the order of St. Do- 
minic. 



DOM 



78 



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Dominion, s. sovereign authority; power: 

territory ; an order of angels. 
Domino, s. a kind of hood ; a long dresa. 
Don, s. a Spanish title for a gentleman. 
Don, v. to do or put on. Compare Doff. 
Dona'tion, s. a gift, a present. 
Don'ative, s. a gift, a largess ; a benefice : a. 

vested by donation. 
Done ! interj. a word used to confirm a 

wager (let it be done). 
Donee', s. the receiver of a gift. 
Don'jon, s. the strongest tower in a castle. 
Don'key, s. an ass. 

Do'nor, s. a giver, a bestower, a benefactor. 
Doo'dle, s. a simple fellow ; a trifier. 
Doom, v. to judge ; to condemn ; to destine : 

s. a judicial sentence ; condemnation ; final 

judgment ; ruin ; destiny. 
Dooms'day, j. the day of judgment. 
Dooms'day-6ooA', s. a book made by order of 

William the Conqueror, in which all the 

estates in England were registered. 
Door, 5. the gate of a house ; a passage. 
Door'-case, s. the frame which encloses a door. 
Door' keeper, s. a porter 
Door'-post, s. the post of a door. 
Doq'uet. See Docket. 
Doree', s. a fish with yellow or gilt sides ; 

commonly called a John Dory. 
Dor'ic, a. relating to an order of architecture 

invented by the Dorians. 
Dor'mant, a. sleeping ; in a sleeping posture ; 

leaning ; not used ; concealed. 
Dor'mar, s. (in building) a beam or sleeper ; 

a window in the roof of a house. 
Dor'mitory, s. a sleeping room with many 

beds ; a burial-place. 
Dor'mouse, s. a small animal which passes 

a large part of the winter in sleep. 
Dorn, s. the name of a fish ; the thorhbaek. 
Dorr, s. a flying insect ; the hedge chafer. 
Dor'sal, a. belonging or fixed to the back. 
i)ose, s. the quantity of medicine given at a 

time : v. to give in doses. 
Dot, s. a small spot or point in writing. 
Do'tage, s. imbecility of mind; silly fondness. 
Do'tal, a. relating to a portion or dowry. 
Do'tard, s. one whose age has impaired his 

intellects ; a silly lover. 
Dote, v. to love to excess ; to grow silly. 
Dot'terel, s. the name of a bird. 
Do'ting, a. fond to ridiculous excess. 
Do'tingly, ad. with excessive fondness. 
Douanier, [Fr.] s. an officer of customs. 
Double, a. twofold, twice as much: v. to make 

twice as much ; to sail round a headland ; 

to turn back or wind in running ; to fold : 

5. a plait or fold ; a trick, a turn. 
Doub'le-dealer, s. a deceitful subtle person. 
Doub'le-dealing, s. dissimulation, cunning. 
Doub'le-edged, a. having two edges. 
Double-enten'dre, [Fr.] s. a phrase with a 

double meaning. 
Doub'le-faced, a. insincere, deceitful. 
Doub'le-minded, a. deceitful, treacherous. 
Doub'let, s. a garment that folds or doubles 

round the body ; a waistcoat ; a pair ; two. 
Doublets, *. the same number on both 

dice. 
Doub'le-tongued, a. deceitful, false, hollow. 
Doubling, s. an artifice, a shift 



Doubloon', ,9. a Spanish coin, double tha 

value of a pistole. 
Doubly, ad. with twice the quantity ; twice. 
Doubt, v. to hesitate, to suspect, to distrust: 

s. hesitation, suspense, difficulty. 
Doubt'fui, a. uncertain, not determined. 
Doubt'fully, Doubtlngly, ad. uncertainly, 
Doubt'fuhiess, s. uncertainty ; ambiguity. 
Doubtless, a. and ad. without doubt or fear- 
Doubtlessly, ad. unquestionably. 
Douceur', [Fr.] s. a conciliating' bribe. 
Do'ugh, s. unbaked paste, kneaded flour. 
Dou'ghty, a. brave, eminent, illustrious. 
Do'ughy, a. soft, not quite baked. 
Douse, v. to plunge suddenly into water. 
Dove, s. a sort of pigeon, a wild pigeon. 
Dov'eeot, Dov^ehouse, s. a pigeon-house. 
Dov'elike, a. meek, gentle, harmless. 
Dov'etail, s. a method of joining two pieces 

of wood together : v. to join by tenons. 
Dov'ctailed, a. joined by tenons. 
Dow'ager, s. a widow with a jointure. 
DoVdy, s. an awkward woman : a. awkward. 
Dow'er, or Dow'ry, s. a wife's portion ; a 

widow's jointure ; endowment, gift. 
Dow'ered, a. supplied with a portion. 
Dow'erless, a. without fortune, unportioned. 
Dowlas, s. a kind of coarse strong linen. 
Down, s. a large open plain, properly a flat 

on the top of a hill ; in the plural, Downs, 

which is applied also to the roadstead off 

the hilly coast of Kent. 
Down, s. the finest, softest feathers ; soft 

wool ; tender hair. 
Down, ad. in a downward direction. 
Down'cast, a. bent down, dejected. 
Down'fall, s. ruin, calamity, sudden change. 
Down'hill, a. descending : s. a descent. 
Downly'ing, s. near the time of childbirth. 
Down'right, a. open, plain, direct : ad. 

plainly, openly, straight down. 
Down'rightly, ad. in plain terms ; bluntly. 
Down 'ward, a. bending down, dejected. 
Down'ward, Down'wards, ad. towards the 

centre ; from a higher to a lower situation. 
Down'y, a. covered with a nap : soft, tender. 
Doxoi'ogy, s. a form of giving glory to God. 
Dox'y, *. a loose wench, a prostitute. 
Doze, v. to slumber, to stupify. 
Doz'en, s. the number twelve. 
Do'ziness, s. drowsiness, heaviness. 
Do'zy, a. drowsy, inclined to sleep. 
Diab, s. a thick woollen cloth ; a strumpet : 

a. of a dull brown or dun color. 
Drachm (dram\, s. an ancient Greek coin; 

the eiglith part of an ounce. See Dram. 
Dra'co, s. the dragon ; a constellation. 
Draff, s. refuse ; any thing cast away. 
Draf'fish, Draf 'fy, a. worthless, dreggy. 
Draft, s. a bill drawn on another for money ; 

a drawing of men for the army : v. to select 

or detach. 
Drag. v. to pull along by force, to trail : *. a 

kind of net ; an instrument with hooks to 

catch hold of things under water ; any 

thing that h dragged or drawn along, as a 

sledge. 
Drag'gle, v. to trail in the dirt. 
Drag'gletail, s. a sluttish woman. 
Dragnet, s. a net drawn along the bottom. 
I Drag'on, s. a winged serpent ; a constellation. 



DRA 

Drag'onlike, a. furious, fiery, fierce. 
Drag'on's-blood, s. a kind of resin. 
Drag'oman, s. an Eastern interpreter. 
Drag'on-fiy, s. a fierce stinging insect. 
Dragoon', J. a horse soldier : v . to force one 

into a measure. 
Drain, s. a channel to carry off water. 
Drain, v. to make quite dry, to draw of?. 
Drain'ahle, a. capable of being drained. 
Drain'age, s. a draining or flowing off. 
Drake, s. a fowl, the male of the duck. 
Dram, s. a small weight; a small quantity 
or portion of spirituous liquor. See Drachm. 
Dram'a, s. the action of a play ; a poem. 
Dramat'ic, Dramat'ical, a. represented by 

action ; theatrical. 
Dramatically, ad. by stage representation. 
Dram'atist, s. a writer of plays. 
Dram'atize, v. to adapt to scenic representa- 
tion. . 
Dra'per, s. one who sells or deals in cloth. 
Dra'pery, s. clothwork ; the dress of a picture. 
Dras'tic, a. powerful in operation. 
Draught, s. the act of drinking ; the quantity 
drunk at once ; a delineatica or sketch ; 
the act of pulling carriages. 
Draught'-horse, s. a horse used for drawing, 

as distinguished from a saddle-horse. 
Draughts, s.pl. a kind of play on chequers. 
Draughts'man, s. one who draws or sketches. 
Draw, v. to pull forcibly, to attract, to un- 
sheath ; to represent by picture; to allure, 
to win. 
Draw'back, s. money paid back on exports. 
Draw'bridge, s. a bridge made to draw up. 
Drawe'e, s. one on whom a bill is drawn. 
Draw'er, s. one who draws ; a sliding box ; a 

tapster or waiter. 
Draw'ers, s. a kind of light under-breeches. 
Drawing, s. a delineation, a representation. 
Drawing-room, s. a room for withdrawing 
to ; an assembly at court; a withdrawing- 
rcom. 
Drawl, v. to utter slowly and affectedly : s. 

a slow protracted utterance. 
DraVnet, s. a net for catching wild-fowl. 
Draw'woll, s. a deep well of water. 
Dray, s. a car used by brewers. 
Dray'horse, s. a horse which draws a dray. 
Dray'man, s. one that attends or drives a dray. 
Dread, s. great fear, terror, awe : v. to fear 

greatly : a. awful. 
Dread'ful, a. terrible, frightful, horrid. 
Dread'fully, ad. terribly, frightfully. 
Dread'less, a. fearless, undaunted, daring. 
Dream, s. thoughts in sleep ; an idle fancy : 

v. to rove in deep, to be sluggish. 
Dream'er, s. one who dreams ; a mope. 
Dreamless, a. free from dreams. 
Drear, Drear'y, a. dismal, gloomy, mournful. 
Drearily, ad. dreadfully, gloomily. 
Dreariness, s. gloominess, dulness. 
Dredge, s. an oyster-net : v. to gather with 

a dredge ; to sprinkle flour on meat. 
Dredglng-box, s. a box used for dredging. 
Dredglng-machine, s. an engine for taking up 
mud and gravel from the bottoms of rivers. 
Dreggy, a. containing dregs, not clear. 
Dregs, s. the sediments of liquors, lees. 
Drench, v. to wet thoroughly, to soak, to fill 
with drink : s. a horse's physical draught. 



JT9 DEO 

Dress, 5. clothes, ornaments, finery : v. to 

clothe, to deck, to adorn ; to cook ; to 

cover a wound ; to curry a horse. 
Dress'er, s. he who dresses ; a kitchen table. 
Dressing, s. the act of clothing ; the medica- 
ment applied to a wound. 
Dressing-room, s. a place used to dress in. 
Dress'y, a. showy in dress. 
Drib, v. to crop, to cut short, to lop off". 
Drib'ble, v . to drop slowly, slaver, drivel. 
Driblet, s. a small part of a large sum. 
Dri'er, s. that which absorbs moisture. 
Drift, s. a design, tendency, any thing driven 

at random ; a heap, a storm : v. to be driven 

along, to be driven into heaps. 
Drift-sail, s. a sail used under water. 
Drill, s. an instrument used in boring holes; 

the act of teaching the military exercise ; 

a row of grain ; an ape or baboon : v. tt 

perforate, to sow in rows, to train soldiers. 
HviW-husbandry, s. a mode of sowing land by 

a machine. 
Drill-plough, s. a plough for sowing grain. 
Drink, s. a liquor to be swallowed : v. to 

swallow liquors, to quench thirst. 
Drink'able, a. that may be drunk. 
Drink'er, s. one that drinks to excess ; a 

drunkard. 
Drinking, s. the practice of drinking to 

excess. 
Drip, v. to fall in drops : S. a drop. 
Drip'ping, s. the fat that drops from meat 

while roasting. 
Drip'ping-pan, &. the pan in which the fat of 

roast meat is caught. 
Drive, v. to force along ; to urge forward; to 

knock or force in. 
DriVel, v. to slaver or let the spittle fall in 

drops like a child or idiot ; and hence, to 

bo weak or foolish ; to dote : s. a fool or 

idiot. 
Driv'eller, s. a dotard, an idiot. 
Dri'ver, s. one who drives or urges on. 
Driz'zle, v . to fall in small drops. 
Driz'zly, a. raining in small drops. 
Droll, a. comical, humorous, merry : v. to 

play the buffoon, to jest : s. a jester, a 

buffoon, a farce. 
Drollery, *. buffoonery ; idle jokes. 
Drom'cdary, s. the Arabian camel, which 

has only one protuberance on its back. 
Drone, *. the bee which collects no honey ; 

an idler, a sluggard ; a low humming 

sound ; a pipe of a bagpipe : v. to live in 

idleness ; to emit a low humming sound. 
Dro'nish, a. idle, sluggish, inactive, dull. 
Droop, v . to pine away, to languish. 
Drop, s. a small globule of any liquid : v. to 

let fall, to fall in drops ; to utter slightly; 

to cease ; to come to nothing. 
Drop'pings, s. pi. that which falls in drops. 
Drop'sical, a. diseased with dropsy. 
Drop'sy, s. a collection of water in the body. 
Dross, s. the scum of metals ; refuse, dregs. 
Drosslncss, s. foulness, incrustation. 
Dross'y, a. full of dross, worthless, foul. 
Drought, s. dry weather, thirst. 
Drou'ghty, a. wanting rain, thirsty. 
Drouth'y, a. wanting drink, thirsty. 
Drove, s. a herd of cattle ; a crowd, a tumult, 
Dro'ver, s. one who drives cattle to market. 



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80 



J)¥A 



Drown, v. to suffocate in water, to overwhelm 

in water ; to immergc. 
Drowse, v. to slumber, to grow sleepy. 
Drow'sily, ad. sleepily, heavily, lazily, idly. 
Drow'siness, s. sleepiness, idleness. 
Drow'sy, a. sleepy, heavy, dull. 
Drub, s. a thump, a knock, a blow : v. to 

thresh, to beat, to bang. 
Drub'bing, s. a beating, a chastisement. 
Drudge, ». to labor in mean offices : s. a 

mean laborer, a slave. 
Drud'gery, s. hard mean labor, slavery. 
Drud'gingly, ad. laboriously, toilsomely. 
Drug, s. a medicinal simple ; a thing of little 

value or worth : v. to till with drugs. 
Drug'get, s. a coarse kind of woollen stuff. 
Drug'gist, s. one who sells physical drugs. 
Dru'id, s. an ancient British priest and bard. 
Druid'ical, a. pertaining to the druids. 
Dru'idism, s. religion of the druids. 
Drum, s. an instrument of military music : 
the tympanum of the ear : v. to beat a 
drum. 
Drum-ma'jor, s. the chief drummer. 
Drum'mer, s. one who beats a drum. 
Drum/stick, s. the stick for beating a drum. 
Drunk, Drunk'en, a. intoxicated with liquor. 
Drunk'ard, s. one addicted to drinking. 
Drunk'enness, *. intoxication, inebriety. 
Dry, a. arid, not rainy, thirsty, barren: v. to 

free from moisture, to drain. 
Dry'ad, s. a wood nymph. 
Dry'ly, ad. without moisture ; coldly. 
Dry'ness, s. want of moisture. 
Dry'nurse, *•. a woman who brings up and j 

feeds a child without the breast. 
Dr y'salter, s. a dealer in salted or dried meats, 

sauces, oils, pickles, &c. 
Dry'shod, a. having the feet dry. 
Du'al, a. expressing the number two. 
Dual'ity, s. that expresses two in number. 
Dub, v. to confer knighthood on a person. 
Du'biousness, s. doubt, uncertainty. 
Du'bious, a. doubtful, uncertain, not clear. 
Du'bitable, a. doubtful, very uncertain. 
Dubita'tion, s. the act of doubting. 
Du'cal, a. pertaining to a duke. 
Due'at. s. a foreign coin; in silver, valued 

at about 4s. 6d., in gold, 9s. 6d. 
Duch'ess, s. the wife of a duke. 
Duch'y, s. a territory giving title to a duke. 
Duck, s. a water-fowl, female of the drake ; a j 
term of fondness ; a dip under water : v. 
to dive or dip under water ; to decline or 
stoop the head. 
Duck'ing, 5. the act of dipping underwater. 
Duck'ir.g-stool, s. a chair for ducking scolds, j 
Duck'leggod, a. having short legs. 
Duckling, s. a young duck. 
Duck'meat, s. a plant growing in standing 

waters. 
Duct, s. a passage, a canal, a tube. 
Duc'tile, a. flexible, pliable, tractable. 
Duc'tileness, Ductility, s. flexibility. 
Dud'geon, s. malice, ill-will, a small dagger. 
Due, s. that which is owed ; a right or just : 
title to : a. just, fit, proper : ad. exactly, 
duly. 
Dull, s. a combat between two persons. 
Du'elling, s. the custom of lighting duels. 
Du'ellist, s. a fighter of duels. 



Duen'na, s. an old woman kept to guard a 

younger one. 
Duet', #. a song or air for two voices. 
Dug, s. the pap or teat of a beast. 
Duke, s. the dignity next below a prince. 
Du'kedom, s. the possessions of a duke. 
Dul'cet, a. sweet, harmonious. 
Dul'cify, v. to make sweet. 
Dul'cimer, s. a kind of musical instrument. 
Dull, a. stupid, slow, dejected, blunt : v. to 

stupify, to blunt, to sadden. 
Dul'lard, s. a blockhead : a. doltish, stupid. 
Dul'ly, ad. stupidly, doltishly, sluggishly. 
Dul'ness, s. stupidity, heaviness, dimness. 
Du'ly, ad. properly, fitly, exactly. 
Dumb, a. mute, silent; incapable of speech. 
Dumb'ness, s. an inability to speak, silence. 
Dump'ish, a. sad, melancholy. 
1 Dump'ling, s. a small round pudding. 
Dumps, s. melancholy, sullenness. 
Dumpy, a. short and thick. 
Dun, a. between brown and black, dark : s. 
a clamorous creditor : p. to press or impor- 
tune for a debt. 
Dunce, s. an unteachable person, a dolt. 
Dung, s the excrement of animals, manure : 

v. to manure or fatten land with dung. 
Dun'geon, j. a close, dark prison. 
Dung'hill, s. a heap of dung, a mean person : 

a. meanly descended, base. 
Dun'nish, a. inclined to a dun color. 
Duode"cimo, s. a book in which each sheet of 

paper contains twelve leaves. 
Dupe, v. to trick, to cheat, to impose on : s. 

a credulous simple person. 
Du'ple, a. double ; once repeated. 
Du'plicate, s. an exact copy of any thing : a. 

double, twofold : v. to double, to fold. 
Duplication, s. the act of doubling ; a fold. 
Dupli'city, s. deceit, doubleness of torrgue. 
Durability, s. the power of lasting. 
Du'rable, a. hard, strong, firm, lasting. 
Du'rableness, s. the quality of lasting. 
Du'rably, ad. in a firm and lasting manner. 
Du'rance, s. imprisonment, continuance. 
Dura'tion, s. continuance, length of time. 
Dure, v. See Endure. 
Duress', s. imprisonment, constraint. 
Du'ring, prep, for the time of continuance. 
Dusk, a. tending to darkness, dark-colored. 
Duskiness, s. incipient darkness. 
Dusk'ish, a. inclining to darkness, tending to 

obscurity ; gloomy. 
Dusk'y, a. tending to darkness, gloomy. 
Dust, *. earth or other matter dried to a 
powder ; mould ; the grave : v. to- free 
from dust, to sprinkle with dust. 
Dust'er, s. that which frees from dust. 
Dustiness, s. the state of being dusty. 
Dust 'man, s. one who carries away dust. 
Dust'y, a. clouded or covered with dust. 
Dutch, s. the people or language of Holland. 
Dut'chy, Dut'ehess. See Duchy and Duchess. 
Du'teous, a. dutiful, obedient. 
Du'tiful, a. obedient, submissive. 
Du'tifully, ad. respectfully, obediently. 
Du'tifulness, s. obedience, reverence. 
Duly, $■ whatever wo owo or are bound to 

perform ; a tax. 
Dwarf, s. a man below tho usual size : ». to 
hinder from full growth. 



DWA 



81 



EDG 



Dwarfish, a. low, small, stunted. 

Dwarf ishness, s. minuteness of stature. 

Dwell, v. to inhabit, to continue long. 

Dwelling, s. habitation, place of residence. 

Dvvin'dle, v. to shrink, to grow feeble. 

Dye, v. to tinge, to color : s. any coloring 
fluid used in dyeing, a hue or tinge. 

Dye'ing, s. the art of coloring cloth, &c. 

Dynamics, s. pi. the science of mechanical 
powers. 

Dyn'asty, s. rule, sovereignty ; a race or suc- 
cession of rulers. 

Dysenter'ic, a. tending to dysentery. 

Dys'entery, a. a looseness, bloody flux. 

Dyspep'sy, s. difficulty of digestion. 

Dyspep'tie, a. having a difficulty of digestion : 
s. one whose digestion is bad. 

E. 

E, a prefix, the same as ex, signifying from 

or out of. 
Each, a. either of two, every one. 
Ea'ger, a. ardent, zealous, sharp, keen. 
Ea'gerly, ad. ardently, keenly. 
Ea'geruess, s. earnestness, impetuosity. 
Ea'gle, s. a bird of prey, the Roman standard. 
Ea'gle-eyed, a. sharp-sighted as an eagle. 
Ea'glet, s. a young eagle. 
Ear, s. the organ of hearing, the power of 

judging of harmony ; a spiko of eorn : v. 

to shout into ears. 
Ear, v. to plough (now obsolete.) 
Earl,*, title of nobility next to a marquis. 
Earl'dom, s. the seigniory of an earl. 
Earl'iness, s. the state of being very early. 
Earl-mar'shal, s. a great officer of stata. 
Earl'y, a. and ad. soon, betimes. 
Earn, v. to gain by labor ; to merit or deserve. 
Ear'nest, a. ardent, zealous, eager, intent, 

fixed : s. seriousness ; money advanced as 

a pledge. 
Earnestly, ad. warmly, eagerly, zealously. 
Ear'nestness, s. eagerness, solicitude. 
Earning, s. that which is gained by labor. 
Ear'-ring, s. an ornament for the ear. 
Ear'shot, s. within reach of the ear. 
Earth, s. mould, land, the world. 
Earth, v. to cover with earth, to bury, to get 

under ground. 
Earth/born, a. born of the earth. 
Earth'en, a. made of earth or clay. 
Earth'liness, Earth'iness, s. the quality of 

being earthy ; world! iness. 
Earth'ling, s. an inhabitant of the earth, con- 
sidered as a poor frail creature. 
Earth'ly, a. not heavenly, vile, corporeal. 
Earthly-minded, a. having a sensual mind. 
Earthly-mind'edncss, s. extreme devotedness 

to worldly concerns. 
Earth'nut, s. a root like a nut. 
Earth'quake, jr. a tremor of the earth. 
Earth'worm, s. a worm, a mean wretch. 
Earth'y, a. consisting of earth, gross, foul. 
Ear'wax, s. wax that gathers in the ear. 
Eafwig, s. an insect; a whisperer. 
Ease, s. quiet, rest after labor, facility: v. to 

free from pain, to relieve, to slacken. 
Eas'el, s. a painter's frame for canvass. 
Eas'einent, s. assistance, support. 
Eas'ily, ad. gently, without difficulty. 
Easiness, s. the quality of being easy. 



East, s. the quarter -where the sun rises : a. 

from or towards the east. 
Eas'ter, s. the festival in commemoration of 

the resurrection of our Saviour. 
Eas'terly, a. towards the east. 
Eas'tern, a. belonging to the east, oriental. 
East' ward, ad. and a. towards the east. 
Eas'y, a. not difficult, quiet. 
Eat, v. to take food, to devour. 
Eatable, a. that may be eaten : s. any thing 

that may be eaten. 
Eat'ing-house, s. a house where provisions are 

sold ready dressed. 
Eaves, s. edges of the roof which overhang 

the house. 
Eaves'dropper, s. a listener under windows. 
Ebb, v. to flow back to the sea, to decline : 

s. the reflux of the tide, decline, decay. 
Eb'bing, s. the reflux of the tide. 
Eb'on, Eb'ony, s. a hard, black, valuable 

wood : a. made of ebony. 
Ebri'ety, s. drunkenness, intoxication. 
Ebulliency, *. a boiling over. 
Ebullient, a. boiling over. 
Ebulli'lion, s. act of boiling or bubbling up. 
Eccen'tric, a. deviating from the centre, ir- 
regular, incoherent, anomalous. 
Eccentri"city, s. deviation from a centre, de- 

^iation from what is usual ; irregularity. 
Ecelesias'tic, s. a clergyman, a priest. 
Ecclesiastical, a. relating to the church. 
Echelon', [Fr.] s. a term used in military 
tactics to express the movement in which 
each division follows behind the other like 
the steps of a ladder. 
Echi'nus, s. a shell-fish set with prickles ; (in 

botany) the prickly head of a plant. 
Eclro, s. the reverberation of a sound : v. to 

give back the sound of a voice. 
Eclairliissement, [Fr.] s. an explanation. 
Ecla't, [Fr.] s. splendor, show, renown. 
Eclec'tic, a. selecting, choosing at will. 
Eclip'se, s. the darkening of one heavenly 
body by the intervention of the shadow of 
another : v. to obscure, to disgrace. 
Eclip'tic, s. the sun's apparent annual path 

in the heavens. 
Ecloguo, s. a (select) pastoral poem. 
Economic, Economical, a. frugal, thrifty. 
Economically, ad. frugally ; with economy. 
Economics, s. household management. 
Econ'omist, s. one that is thrifty or frugal. 
Econ'omize, v. to retrench, to save. 
Econ'omy, s. thrifty management of house- 
hold affairs; frugality; regulation; system. 
Ec'stasy, s. excessive joy, enthusiasm. 
Ecstatic, a. enrapturing, transporting. 
Ec'urie, [Fr.] *. a stable or shed for horses. 
Eda'cious, a. eating ; voracious ; devouring. 
Eda"city, s. voracity, ravenousnoss. 
Ed'dy, s. a contrary current ; a whirlpool : 
a. whirling, moving circularlv : v. to movo 
as an eddy. 
Eden, s. a paradise, a place of delight. 
Edge, *. the sharp or cutting part of a blade ; 
a brink or border : v. to sharpen or giva 
an edge to ; to incite ; to border or fringe. 
Edgeless, a. unable to cut, blunt, obtuse. 
Edge'tool, s. a tool made sharp to cut. 
Edge'wiso, ad. with the edge forward. 
Edging, s. a fringe, an ornamental border. 
E3 



EDI 

Edible, a. fit to be eaten, eatable. 

E'dict, s. proclamation, an ordinance. 

Edifica'tion, s. improvement, instruction. 

Edifica'tory, a. tending to edification. 

Edifice, s . a building, a fabric. 

Edify, v. to build ; to instruct; to improve. 

E'dile, s. the title of a Roman magistrate. 

Ed'it, v. to prepare a work for publication. 

Edi"tion, s. the publication of a book; the 
number of copies published. 

Editor, s. one who revises or prepares any 
literary work for publication. 

Editorship, s. the office and duty of an editor. 

Edito'rial, a. pertaining to, or written by, an 
editor. 

Ed'ucate, v. to instruct, to bring up. 

Education, s. the instruction of children. 

Educational, a. pertaining to education. 

Educator, s. one that instructs youth. 

Edu'ce, v. to bring out, to extract. 

Educ'tion, s. the act of bringing out. 

Eel, 5. a serpentine slimy fish. 

Ef fable, a. that may be spoken ; utterable. 

Effa'ce, v. to blot out ; to destroy. 

Effect', s. that which is produced by a cause ; 
issue ; reality : v. to bring to pass, to ful- 
fil or accomplish. 

Effectlble, a., practicable ; feasible. 

Effective, a. operative, active ; efficient. 

Effectively, ad. powerfully, with effect. 

Effectless, a. without effect, useless. 

Effects', s. pi. goods, movables. 

Effect'ual, a. powerful, efficacious. 

Effec'tually, ad. efficaciously ; thoroughly. 

Effec'tuate, v. to bring to pass, to fulfil. 

Effeminacy, s. unmanly delicacy. 

Effeminate, a. womanish, tender. 

Effeminately, ad. womanly, weakly. 

Effemlnatencss, s. unmanly softness. 

Effervcs'ce, v. to grow hot ; to hiss or bubble. 

Efferves'eenee, s. the act of growing hot ; 
frothing or bubbling. 

Efferves'cent, a. gently boiling or bubbling. 

Effe'te; a. barren, worn out. 

Effica'cious, a. productive of effects ; power- 
ful to produce the consequences intended. 

Effiea'ciously, ad. effectually. 

LIT; callousness, s. quality of being efficacious. 

Efficacy, s. ability or power to effect. 

Effi"cience, Effi"ciency, s. effectual agency. 

Efii'lient, a. producing effects ; able. 

Efficiently, ad. with effect ; effectively. 

Effigy, s. an image or resemblance. 

EfSores'cence, s. production of flowers. 

Efflores'cent, a. shooting out in flowers. 

Effluence, s. that which issues from some 
other principle. 

Effluent, a. flowing from, issuing out of. 

Efflu'via, [Lat.] a. those minute particles 
which exhale from most bodies. 

Efiiu'vium, [Lat.] s. a vapour, an emanation. 

Efflux, s. an effusion ; a flowing out. 

Effort, s. a struggle, a strong exertion. 

Effron'tery, s. boldness, impudence. 

Efful'gence, s. lustre, brightness, splendor. 

Efful'gent, a. shining, bright, luminou»s. 

Eft'u'se, v. to pour out ; to spill ; to shed. 

Effu'sion, s. the act of pouring out ; spilling. 

Effu'sive, a. pouring out ; dispersing. 

"Eft, s. a newt or small lizard. 

Eft, ad. after, soon, quickly. [Obs.l 



S2 



ELE 



Eft'soon, Effsoons, ad. soon after. [Oha.] 
Egg, s. that which is laid by feathered ani- 
mals and various kinds of insects, from 
which their young are produced. 
Egg, v. to incite, to instigate, to spur on. 
Eglantine, s. a species of rose ; sweet brier. 
Eg'otism, s. talking much of one's self. 
Eg'otist, s. one who talks much of himself. 
Egotis'tical, a. self-conceited. 
Eg'otize, v. to talk much of one's self. 
Egrc'gious, a. remarkable, extraordinary. 
Egre'giously, ad. remarkably, enormously. 
E'gress, Egres'sion, s. the act of going out. 
E'gret, s. a fowl of the heron kind. 
E'griot, s. a species of sonr cherry. 
Eh ! interj. denoting a desire to hear again 
that which had been before imperfectly 
heard, or not properly understood. 
Ei'der, s. a species of duck. 
Ei'der-down, s. the down or soft, feathers of 

the eider duek. 
Eight, a. twice four. 
Eight' een, a. eight and ten united. 
Eighteenth, a. the ordinal of eighteen. 
Eighth, a. the ordinal of eight. 
Eighthly, ad. in the eighth place. 
Eightieth, a. the ordinal of eighty. 
Eight'score, a. eight times twenty. 
Eight' y, a. eight times ten. 
Elsel, s. vinegar ; any thing very acid. 
Either, pron. one of the two. 
Ejaculate, v. to throw out, to dart out. 
Ejacula'tion, s. the act of throwing out ; 

a short prayer suddenly expressed. 
Ejac'ulatory, a. hasty ; darted out. 
Eject', v. to throw out, to expel, to cast forth. 
Ejee'tion, s. the act of casting out, expulsion. 
Eject' ment, s. a legal writ, commanding the 
tenant wrongfully holding houses or lands 
to restore possession to the owner. 
Ejec'tor, s. one who ejects or expels another. 
Eke, v. to add to ; to spin out ; to supply : 

ad. also, likewise, moreover. 
Elab'orate, a. finished with great labour and 

exactness ; studied. 
Elab'orately, ad. laboriously, diligently. 
Elaboration, s. the act of finishing with 

great care and attention. 
Elan'ce, v. to throw out, to dart out. 
Elap'se, v. to pass away, to glide away. 
Elas'tic, a. springing back, recovering. 
Elasti'lity, s. the quality in bodies by which, 
on being bent or compressed, they spring 
back to their original form. 
Ela'te, a. flushed with success ; haughty : v. 

to puff up, to exalt, to heighten. 
Ela'tion, s. haughtiness from success. 
El'bow, s. the bending of the arm ; an angle : 

v. to push with the elbow ; to jut out. 
El'bow-chair, s. a chair with arms. 
El'bow-room, s. room to stretch out the 

elbows on each side ; freedom. 
Eld, s. old age, old people, old times. [Obs.] 
Eld'er, a. older : s. an ancestor ; a lay ruler 
in the Presbyterian church ; i,a well-known 
tree, properly Alder.) 
El'deily, a. somewhat in years, rather old. 
El'dersj s. pi. ancient rulers among the Jews 
El'dest, a. the oldest, the first born 
Elecampa'ne, s. the plant^starwort. 
Elect', v. to choose or select. 



ELE 



83 



EMB 



Elect', a. chosen, preferred : s. one chosen. 

Elec'tion, s. the act or power of choosing. 

Electioneer'ing, s. the practices used at the 
election of a member for Parliament. 

Elective, a. exerting the power of choice. 

Elect'or, s. a person entitled to vote at an 
election ; one of the princes of Germany 
who had a vote in the election of the em- 
peror. 

Elect'oral, a. pertaining to election or elec- 
tors. 

Elect'orate, s. the territory of an elector. 

Elcc'tre, s. amber; a mixed metal. 

Elec'tric, s. any substance capable of exhi- 
biting electricity ; a non-conductor. 

Elec'tric, Elec'trical, a. pertaining to, or 
containing electricity. 

Elec'trically, ad. by means of electricity. 

Electrf'cian, s. one skilled in electricity. 

Electrf'city, *. that property in bodies which 
by friction attracts light substances and 
emits fire. 

Elec'trify, v. to communicate electricity ; to 
excite suddenly as by a shock. 

Electro-magnct'ic, a. pertaining to magnet- 
ism as connected with electricity. 

Electrom'eter, s. an instrument for measur- 
ing the electricity in any electrified body. 

Elec'tuary, s. a soft compound medicine. 

Eleemos'ynary, a. living upon alms. 

El'egance, s. beauty, grace, symmetry. 

El'cgant, a. choice ; graceful, beautiful. 

El'egantly, ad. in a pleasing manner; neatly. 

Elegiac, a. used in elegies ; sorrowful. 

El'egy, s. a mournful pathetic poem ; a dirge. 

El'emcnt, s. a first or constituent principle 
of any thing ; an ingredient ; proper habita- 
tion or sphere of any thing ; rudiments of 
science; popularly, earth, air, water, and 
fire are called the four elements. 

Elemental, a. pertaining to elements. 

Element'ary, a. not compounded, simple. 

Ei'ephant, s. the largest of quadrupeds. 

Elephanti'asis, s. a species of leprosy. 

Elephan'tine, a. pertaining to the elephant. 

El'evate, v. to raise up ; to exa.lt ; to pro- 
mote ; to dignify, to make glad. 

El'evate, El'evated, p. and a. exalted, elated. 

Eleva'tion, s. a raising up, exaltation, height. 

Ele've, [Fr.] s. one brought up or protected. 

Elev'en, a. ten and one added. 

1'lcv'enth, a.^ihe ordinal of eleven. 

Elf, s. a fairy, a goblin. 

Elfin, Elfish, a. relating to fairies. 

Elf lock, s. a knot of hair twisted by elves. 

Elf'cit, v. to bring to light; to fetch out. 

Elicita'tion, s. the act of drawing forth. 

Eli'de, v. to cut off a syllable. 

Eligibility, s. fitness to be chosen. 

El'igiblo, a. fit to be chosen. 

Elis'ion, s. act of cutting off; a suppression. 

Elix'ir, s. tho liquid extract or quintessence 
of any thing ; a medicine, a cordial. 

Elk, s. a large stately animal of the stag kind. 

Ell, s. a measure of one yard and a quarto*. 

Ellip'sis, s. an oval figure ; an omission. 

Ellip'tic, Eflip'tical, a. like an ellipsis; oval. 

Elliptfcity, s. elliptical form. 

Elm, s. the name of a forest tree. 

Elm'y, a. abounding with elm-trees. 

Elocu'tion, 8. eloquence, fluency of speech. 



Eloin', Eloigne, v. to put at a distance. 

Elon'gate, v. to lengthen, to draw out. 

Elonga'tion, s. the act of lengthening. 

Elo'pe, v. to run away ; to get loose from 
confinement ; to go off clandestinely. 

Elo'pement, *. a departure from friends and 
family without their consent. 

El'oquence, s. speaking with fluency, &c. 

El'oquent, a. having the power of oratory. 

El'oquently, ad. in elegant language. 

Else, a. other, different : ad. otherwise. 

Elsewhe're, ad. in another place. 

El'sin, s. a shoemaker's awl. 
| Elu'cidate, v. to explain, to clear up. 

Elucida'tion, s. an explanation, exposition. 

Elu'cidative, a. throwing light; explanatory. 

Elu'cidator, s. an explainer, a commentator. 

Elu'de, v. to escape by stratagem ; to shun. 

Elu'dible, a. that can be eluded. 

Elu'sion, s . an escape by artifice. 

Elu'sive, Elu'sory, a. tending to elude. 

Elv'ish, a. relating to elves or fairies. 

Elys'ian, a. pleasant, exceedingly delightful. 

Elys'ium, s. in the heathen mythology, the 
place appointed for the souls of the vir- 
tuous after death ; any pleasant place. 

Ema"ciate, v. to lose flesh ; to pine ; to waste. 

Ema"ciate, Ema''ciated, a. sunk ; wasted. 

Emacia'tion, s. tho state of one grown lean. 

Em'anate, v. to issue from something else. 

Emana'tion, s. the act of issuing or flowing 
from any other substance ; that which flows. 

Emancipate, v. to set free from slavery. 

Emancipation, s. a deliverance from slavery, 
or civil disabilities. 

Emas'culate, v. to deprive of virility : a. un- 
manned ; effeminate. 

Emaseula'tion, s. castration ; effeminacy. 

Embalm', v. to impregnate a body with aro- 
matics that it may resist putrefaction ; to 
preserve from decay. 

Embar', v. to shut in, to block up, to stop. 

Embar'go, s. a prohibition from sailing. 

Embark', v. to go on shipboard ; to engage. 

Embarka'tion, s. the going on shipboard. 

Embar'rass, v. to perplex, to distress. 

Embarrassment, s. perplexity, trouble. 

Emba'se, v . to vitiate, to degrade, to lower. 

Emba'scment, s. depravation, deterioration. 

Em'bassage, Eui'bassy, s. a state or public 
message. 

Embassador. See Ambassador. 

Embat'tle, v. to range in order of battle. 

Eiubat'tled, a. indented like a battlement'- 
drawn up in battle array. 

Embay', v. to enclose in a bay. 

Embed', v. to lay as in a bed. 

Embel'lish, v. to adorn, to beautify. 

Embel'iishmont, *. ornament, decoration. 

Em'bers, s. hot cinders or ashes. 

~Em'h<iT-week, s. a week in which an ember 
day or day of humiliation falls. 

Embez'zle, v. to steal privately ; to waste. 

Embez'zlement, s. a misapplying of a trust. 

Embla'ze, v. to blazon, to adorn, to paint. 

Embla'zon, v. to adorn with ensigns armo- 
rial ; to set off pompously ; to deck. 

Embla'zoncr, s. a herald ; a blazoner. 

Embla'zonry, s. pictures upon shields. 

Em'blem, s. a moral device ; a representa- 
tion ; an allusive picture ; inlay ; enamel. 



EMB 



84 



ENC 



Emblematic, Emblematical, a. using em- 
blems ; allusive. 

Emblematically, ad. allusively. 

Embod'y, v. to incorporate ; to unite. 

Embolden, v. to give boldness or courage to. 

Embor'der, v. to adorn with a border. 

Emboss', v. to form with protuberances ; to 
engrave with relief or rising work. 

Emboss'ment, s. relief or raised work. 

Embouchu're, [Fr J s. the mouth-hole of a 
flute or other wind instrument. 

Embow'el, v. to take out the entrails. 

Embra'ce, v. to hold fondly in the arms ; 
to comprise, to contain, to include : s. 
fond pressure in the arms. 

Embra'ceinent, s. the state of being embraced. 

Embrasu're, 3. a battlement ; an aperture in 
fortifications for cannon. 

Em'broeate, v. to foment a part diseased. 

Embroca'tion, s. a fomentation, a lotion. 

Embroi'der, v. to adorn with figure-work. 

Embroi'derer, s. one who embroiders. 

Embroi'dery, s. variegated needle-work. 

Embroil', v. to involve in troubles. 

Embroil'ment, s. confusion ; disturbance. 

Ein'bryo, Em'bryon, s. the child in the womb 
before it has perfect shape ; any thing ua- 
iraished : a. not yet ready for production. 

Emend', v. to amend ; to correct. 

Emenda'tion, s. a correction, an alteration. 

Em'endator, 5. a corrector ; an improver. 

Em'erald, s. a precious stone of a green, 
color. 

Emer'ge, v. to rise out of; to issue from. 

Emergence, Emer'gency, s. the act of rising 
from any surrounding element ; any sud- 
den occasion or unexpected casualty. 

Emer'gont, a. rising into view ; sudden. 

Em'erods. See Hemorrhoids. 

Emer'sion, s. the act of rising into view again . 

Em'cry, s. a mineral used in jutting gems 
and polishing steel. 

Emet'ic, s. a vomit : a. provoking vomits. 

E'mew, E'mu, s. the cassowary, a bird of the 
ostrich kind. 

Emica'tion, ». a sparkling or glittering. 

Em'igrant, s. one who emigrates : a. remov- 
ing from one country to another. 

Emigrate, v. to quit one country or region 
and settle in another. 

Emigra'tion, s. removal of inhabitants from 
one country to another. 

Em'inence, s. loftiness ; summit ; a part 
rising above the rest ; a conspicuous situa- 
tion ; distinction ; a title given to car- 
dinals. 

Em'inent, a. high, dignified, conspicuous. 

Eminently, ad. conspicuously, highly. 

E'mir, s. a title of dignity among the Turks. 

Emissary, s. a secret agent, a spy. 

Einis'sion, s. act of throwing or shooting out. 

Emit', v. to seud forth, to discharge. 

Em'met, s. an ant, a pismire. 

EmmiV, v. to coop up, to confine. 

Emollient- a. softening, suppling. 

Emollients, s. pi. external medicines which 
have the power of relaxing the fibres. 

Emolli"tiou, s. the act of softening. 

Emol'ument, s. profit, advantage, gain. 

Emo'tion, s. disturbance of mind ; vehemence 
of passion ; a sudden motion. 



Empale, v. to enclose, to fence with pales; 

to put to death by fixing on a stake. 
Empa'lement, s. the act of empaling. 
Empan'nel, v. See Impannei. 
Empas'sion. See Impassion. 
Empe'ople, v. to form into a community. 

Em'peror, s. a monarch, in title and dignity 
superior to a king. 

Em'phasis, s. a particular stress laid on a 
word or sentence bj the speaker. 

Em'phasize, v. to utter with a particular 
stress of the voice. 

Emphatic, Emphat'ical, a. forcible. 

Emphatically, ad. strongly, forcibly. 

Em'pire, s. imperial power; command. 

Empir'ic, s. a pretended physician, a quack. 

Empir'ic, Empirical, a. practised without 
rational grounds ; expi-rimental. 

Empirically, ad. without rational ground. 

Empiricism, s. dependence on experience 
without the rules of art ; quackery. 

Emplas'tic, a. viscous, glutinous. 

Emplead', v. to indict, to prefer a charge. 

Employ', v. to keep at work ; to use. 

Employ', Employ'ment, .?. business; office 
or post of business ; business entrusted. 

Employ'er, s. one who sets others to work. 

Empoi'son, v. to destroy by poison. 

Empoi'sonment, s. the act of poisoning. 

Empo'rium, s. a place of merchandise, a 
mart ; a commercial city. 

Erupov'erish, v. See Impoverish. 

Empow'er, v. to authorize, to enable. 

Em'press, s. the wife of an emperor ; the 
female sovereign of an empire. 

Empri'se, s. an attempt of danger. 

Emp'tiness, s. a void space, vacuity ; want 
of substance, want of knowledge. 

Erup'ty, a. not full ; unfurnished; ignorant: 
v. to evacuate ; to exhaust. 

Empur'ple, v. to make of a purple color. 

Empyr'eal, Empyr'ean, a. aerial, heavenly. 

Empyr'ean, s. the highest heaven, where the 
pure elemental fire is supposed to subsist. 

E'mu. See E'mew. 

Em'ulate, v. to rival ; to imitate. 

Emula'tion, s. rivalry, envy, contention. 

Em'ulative, a. inclined to emulation. 

Em'ulator, s. a rival, a competitor. 

Emul'gent, a. milking or draining out. 

Em'ulous. a. rivalling, desirous to excel. 

Em'ulously, ad. with desire of excelling. 

Emul'sion, j. an oily, lubricating medicine. 

Emulsive, a. like milk ; softening. 

Ena'ble, v. to make able, to empower. 

Enact', v . to decree, to establish by law. 

Enact'ment, s. the making a law. 

Enae'tor, s. one who enacts. 

Enal'lage, s. a figure in grammar in which 
words are put out of their proper order. 

Enam'el, v. to inlay, to variegate with co- 
lors ; to form a glossy substance : *. sub- 
stance used in enamelling ; the smooth 
hard covering of the teeth. 

Enam'elltT, s. one who enamels or inlays. 

Enam'elling, s. the art of inlaying colors. 

Enam'our, v. to inspire with love. 

Enca'ge, v. to confine in a cage, to coop up. 

Encamp', v. to pitch tents, to form a camp* 

Encamp'ment, s. tents pitched in order. 

Enca'se, v. to enclose or cover in a case. 



ENC 



85 



EtfL 



Encaus'tic, a. pertaining to the art of paint- 
ing with burnt wax, or enamelling. 

Enceinte, [Fr.] a. in a state of pregnancy. 

Encha'fe, v. to enrage, to irritate, to provoke. 

Enchain', v. to fasten with a chain. 

Enchant', v. to bewitch, to delight highly. 

Enchant'er, s. a magician, a sorcerer. 

Enchant'ing, a. magical ; charming. 

Enchantlngly, ad. charmingly. 

Enchant'ment, s. magical charms, spells ; ir- 
resistible influence ; high delight. 

Enchant'ress, s. a sorceress ; a woman that 
fascinates by hor beauty. 

Encha'se, V. to set or fix in a case ; to chase 
or adorn by embossed work. 

Enchiridion, s. a small pocket volume. 

Encir'cle, v. to surround, to environ ; to en- 
close in a ring or circle. 

Enclit'ic, s. a particle which throws back the 
accent upon the preceding syllable ; a. 
leaning ; throwing back. 

Enclo'se, v. to surround ; to fence in. 

Enclo'sure, s. ground enclosed or fenced in. 

Enco'miast, s. a panegyrist, a praiser. 

Encomias'tic, Encomias'tical, a. laudatory. 

Enco'mium, s. a panegyric, praise, eulogy. 

Encom'pass, v. to encircle, to shut in, to 
surround, to environ. 

Encom'passment, s. a surrounding. 

Enco're, [Fr.] ad. again, once more : v. to 
call for a repetition. 

Encoun'ter, s. a duel, a battle ; sudden 
meeting ; engagement ; casual accident : 
v. to meet face to face ; to fight, to attack. 

Encour'age, v. to animate, to embolden. 

Eneour'agrnient, s. incitement, support. 

Encour'ager, s. one who encourages. 

Encour'aging, a. animating. 

Encroach', v. to make invasions upon the 
rights of another ; to pass bounds. 

Encroach'ment, s. an unlawful intrusion. 

Encrust', v. to cover as with a crust. 

Encam'ber, v. to clog, to impede. 

Encum'branee, s. an impediment, a clog. 

Encyclical, a. circular; roundabout. 

Encyclope'dia, s. the whole circle of the 
sciences ; a dictionary of general know- 
ledge. 

End, s. extremity ; conclusion ; death ; ob- 
ject or purpose : v. to finish. 

Endam'age, v. to injure ; to prejudice. 

Enda'ngcr, v. to bring into peril, to hazard. 

Endear', v. to render dear or beloved. 

Endear'ment, s. cause of love ; affection. 

Endeav'our, *. an effort, an attempt : v. to 
strive, to try or attempt. 

Ende'mial, Endemic, a. peculiar to a coun- 
try, as applied to genera! diseases. 

Ending, p. finishing : s. the end. 

En'dive, s. a common salad herb ; succory. 

Endless, a. infinite, incessant. 

End'most, a. remotest ; at the extreme end. 

Endor'se, v. to superscribe ; to accept a bill. 

Endorsement, s. superscription ; acceptance. I 

Endors'er, s. the person who writes his name 
on the back of a bill of exchange. 

Endow', v. to give a portion ; to endue. 

Endow'ment, s. wealth given ; a natural or 
acquired accomplishment. 

Endue', v. to supply with grace; to inves^- 

Endu'rable, a. tolerable ; sufferable. 



Endu'rance, s. continuance, sufferance. 

Endu're, v. to bear, sustain, brook, last. 

End'wise, ad. erectly; uprightly; on end. 

En'emy, s. a foe, an adversary, an opponent. 

Energetic, Energetical, a. forcible, vigorous. 

Energetically, ad. with energy. 

En'ergy, s. power, force, efficacy. 

Enervate, v. to unnerve, to weaken. 

Ener'vate, a. weakened, deprived of force, 

Enerva'tion, s. the state of being weakened. 

Enfamlsh, v. to starve ; to famish. 

Enfee'ble, v. to weaken, to render feeble. 

Enfee'blement, *. the act of weakening. 

Enfeoff', v. to invest with possessions. 

Enfeoffment, s. the act of enfeoffing. 

Enfet'ter, v. to put in chains, to confine. 

Enfila'de, *. a straight passage : v. to pierce 
in a straight line. 

Enfo'rce, v. to force, to strengthen, to urge. 

Enfo'rcenient, *. compulsion, exigence. 

Enfranchise, v . to make free, to liberate. 

Enfranchisement, s. the act of making free ; 
release from slavery or prison. 

Enga'ge, v. to embark in an affair ; to win 
by pleasing means ; to bind by a contract ; 
to attack, to fight. 

Enga'gement, s. an obligation, a bond ; em- 
ployment of the attention ; a battle. 

Enga'ging, a. winning by pleasing ways. 

Enga'gingly, ad. in an obliging manner. 

Engar'land, v. to encircle with a garland. 

Engarlison, v. to defend by a garrison. 

Engen'der, v. to beget, to produce or cause. 

Engild', v. to brighten, to illuminate. 

En'gine, s. any machine ; an agent. 

Engineer', s. one who manages engines, or 
directs the artillery of an army. 

En'ginery, s. engines of war, artillery. 

Engird', v. to encircle, to surround. 

Englut', v. to swallow up, to pamper. 

Engor'ge, v. to swallow, to gorge. 

Eugrai'n, v. to dye in grain, to dye deep. 

Engrap'ple, v. to close with ; to contend. 

Engrasp', v. to hold fast in the hand. 

Engra've, v. to cut characters on copper, 
brass, or other metals. 

Engra'ver, s. one who engraves. 

Engra'ving, s. a picture engraved. 

Engro'ss, v. to monopolize the whole of any 
commodity ; to copy in a large hand. 

Engrosser, s. he that purchases large quanti- 
ties of any commodity, in order to sell it 
at a high price. 

Engulf, v. to cast into a gulf. 

Enhan'ce, v. to raise ; to raise in value. 

Enhan 'cement, s. increase, augmentation. 

Enig'ma, s. a riddle, an obscure question. 

Enigmat'ic, Enigmatical, a. obscure ; am- 
biguously or darkly expressed. 

Enjoin', v. to direct, to order, to prescribe, 
to give charge. 

Enjoin'ment, s. a direction, a command. 

Enjoy 7 , v. to obtain possession of; to exhi- 
larate, to delight in. 

Enjoy'able, a. capable of enjoyment. 

Enjoy'er, ft one that has possession. 

Enjoy'ment, s. happiness, fruition, pleasure. 

Enkin'dle, v. to set on fire, to inflame. 

Enlard', v. to cover with lard, to baste. 

Enlar'ge, v. to increase ; to expatiate. 

Enlargement, s. an increase ; a release 



ENL 



86 



EPE 



Enli'ght, v. to supply with light. 

Enli'ghtcn, v. to illuminate, to instruct. 

Enli'ghtener, s. an illuminator, an instructor. 

Enlink', v. to chain to ; to bind together. 

Enlist', v. to enrol or register. 

Enlist'ment, * . the act of enlisting. 

Enli'ven. v. to make lively, to animate. 

Enmesh', v. to net, to entangle. 

En'mity, s. malevolence, malice, ill-will. 

Enno'ble, v . to dignify, to elevate. 

Enno'blement, s. exaltation, elevation. 

En'nui, [Fr.] s. weariness, lassitude. 

Enorm', a. irregular, wicked. 

Enor'mity, s. great wickedness, villany. 

Enor'mous, a. beyond rule or measure ; ex- 
cessive ; very wicked. 

Enor'mously, ad. beyond measure. 

Enor'mousness, s. immeasurable excess. 

Enough', a. sufficient : s. a sufficiency. 

Enoun'ce, t> . to declare. 

Enow 7 , the plural of Enough. 

Enqui're. See Inqui're. 

Enra'ge, v. to irritate, to provoke. 

Enrap'ture, v. to transport with pleasure. 

Enrav'ishment, s. ecstasy of delight. 

Enrich', v. to make rich ; to fertilize. 

Enrich'er, s. one that enriches. 

Enrich'ment, s. augmentation of wealth. 

Enri'pen, v. to ripen, to mature. 

Enrobe, 8. to dress, to clothe, to adorn. 

Enro'l, v. to register, to record, to enwrap. 

Enro'lment, s. a register, a record. 

Ens. s. any kind of being or existence. 

Ensam'ple, s. an example, a pattern. 

Ensan'guine, v. to stain or cover with blood. 

Enscon'ce, v. to cover, to shelter. 

Enseal', v. to fix a seal on, to impress. 

Enseam', v. to sew up, to close up. 

Ensear', v. to stop with fire ; to cauterize. 

Ensem'ble, [Fr.] s. a relative proportion of 
parts to the whole. 

Enshield', v. to cover, to defend, to protect. 

Enshri'ne, v. to preserve as a holy relic. 

En'sign, s. the flag or standard of a regiment ; 
the officer who carries it ; a badge or mark 
of distinction. 

En'sign-bearer, s. he that carries the flag. 

En'signcy, s. the office of an ensign. 

Ensla've, v. to deprive of liberty. 

Ensla'vement, s. state of slavery, bondage. 

Ensna're, v. to entrap, to allure. 

Enstamp', v. to impress as with a stamp. 

Ensue', v. to follow : to pursue ; to succeed. 

Ensu're. See Insu're. 

Entab'Jature, Enta'blement, *. the architrave, 
frieze, and cornice of a pillar. 

Entail', v. to settle the descent of any estate 
so tnat it cannot be bequeathed at pleasure 
by any subsequent possessor ; to fix inalien- 
ably : s. an estate entailed ; the rule that 
limits the succession. 

Entail'ment, s. the act of entailing. 

Enta'me, v. to tame, to subdue. 

Entan'gle, v. to twist or involve ; to puzzle 
pr perplex. 

Eman'glcinent, s. intricacy, perplexity. 

En'ter, v. to go or come into : to set down in 
writing; to engage in ; to initiate in. 

Enterla'ce, v. to intermix, to interweave. 

En'terpme, s. a hazardous undertaking. 

Eu'terpriser, s. a man of enterprise. 



Entertain', v. to talk with ; to treat at table 
to amuse ; to hold in the mind. 

Entertain'er, s. one who entertains. 

Entertain'ment, s. hospitable reception ; a 
feast ; any thing that entertains or amuses, 
as a dramatic performance. 

Enthro'ne, v. to set on a throne ; to exalt. 

Enthu'siasm, s. heat of imagination. 

Enthu'siast, s. one of a heated imagination ; 
one who thinks himself inspired ; one ex- 
travagantly fond of any thing. 

Enthusiastic, a. over-zealous in any thing. 

Enthusiastically, ad. with enthusiasm. 

En'thymeme, s. a syllogism, of which one of 
the premises is understood. 

Enti'ce, v. to allure, to attract, to invite. 

Enti'cement, s. an allurement, a bait. 

Enti'cingly, ad. in a winning manner. 

Enti're, a. whole, undivided, complete. 

Enti'rely, ad. completely, fully, wholly. 

Enti'tle, v. to give a title or right to. 

En'tity, s. a real being, real existence. 

Entoil', v. to ensnare or take with toils. 

Entomb', v. to put in a tomb, to bury. 

Entomol'ogist, s. one skilled in entomology. 

Entomol'ogy, s. that part of natural history 
which treats of insects. 

En'trails, s. pi. the intestines, the bowels. 

En'trance, s. a passage ; the act of entering. 

Entran'ce, v. to put into a trance. 

Entrap', v. to ensnare, to take advantage of. 

Entreat', v. to beg earnestly, to importune. 

Entrea'ty, s. a petition ; solicitation. 

Entremets, [Fr.] s. pi. small dishes set be- 
tween the principal ones at table ; dainty 
dishes. 

Entrepo't, [Fr.] s. a magazine ; a warehouse. 

En'try, s. the act of entrance, a passage. 

Entwi'ne, v. to twine or wreath together. 

Entwist', v. to twist or wreathe together. 

Enu'cleate, v. to solve ; to clear or explain. 

Enu'merate, v. to reckon up singly. 

Emimera'tion, s. the act of counting over. 

Enu'merative, a. reckoning up singly. 

Enun'ciate, v. to enounce or declare. 

Enuncia'tion, s. declaration ; manner of 
utterance. 

Enuu'ciative, a. declarative, expressive. 

Envel'op, v. to cover, to surroimd, to hide. 

En'velopo, s. a cover or wrapper. 

Envel'opment, s. perplexity, entanglement. 

Enven'om, v. to poison ; to fill with venom. 

En'viable, a. exciting envy ; desirable. 

En'vious, a. full of envy, malicious. 

En'viously, ad. with envy, with malignity. 

Envi'ron, v. to surround, to encompass. 

En'virons, s. pi. places adjacent ; suburbs. 

En'voy, s. a public minister sent from one 
power to another ; an ambassador. 

En'vy, v. to repine at the happiness of others, 
to hate another for any excellence : s. vexa- 
tion at another's good. 

Eo'lian-Harp, .y. a musical instrument pro- 
ducing sounds by the action of the wind. 

E'uact, k the excess of the solar above the 
lunar year. 

Ep'aulet, s. a shoulder-knot of lace, &c. 

Epen'thesis, s. the insertion of a letter in the 
middle of a word. 

Epcr'gne, [Fr.] s. an ornamental stand for 
the centre of a dining-table. 



EPH 



67 



E'pha, *. a Jewish measure. 

Ephem'era, *. an insect that lires but a day. 

Ephem'eral, a. only for a day ; short-lived. 

Ephem'eris, s. an account of the daily motions 
and situations of the planets. 

Ephial'tes, *. the nightmare. 

E'phod, s. the girdle worn by Jewish priests. 

Ep'ic, a. narrative, heroic : s. an epic poem. 

Epice'dium, s. an elegy, a funeral poem. 

Ep'icene, a. common to both sexes. 

Ep'icure, s. a luxurious and dainty eater. 

Epicurean, a. luxurious, contributing to 
luxury : s. a follower of Epicurus. 

Epicurism, s. luxury, voluptuousness. 

Epicy'cle, s. a little circle whose centre is in 
the circumference of a greater. 

Epicy'cloid, s. a geometrical curve. 

Epidemic, s. a generally prevailing disease. 

Epidem'ic, Epidem'ical, a. generally pre- 
vailing ; affecting great numbers. 

Epider'mal, Epider'mic, Epider/midal, a. 
pertaining to the skin or bark. 

Epider'mis, s. the outer skin of the body. 

Epiglot'is, 5. the thin movable cartilage which 
covers the aperture of the windpipe while 
food is passing over it to the stomach. 

Ep'igram, s. a short pointed poem. 

Epigrammatic, a. like an epigram; concise, 
pointed. 

Epigrani'matist, s. a writer of epigrams. 

Ep'ilepsy, s. the falling sickness. 

Epilep'ttc, Epilep'tical, a. affected with epi- 
lepsy ; pertaining to epilepsy. 

Ep'ilogue, s. a speech at the end of a p;ay. 

Epiph'any, s. a festival held on the 12th day 
after Christmas, in commemoration of our 
Saviour's being manifested to the world by 
the appearance of a star. 

Epis'copacy, s. a government by bishops. 

Epis'copal, a. relating to a bishop. 

Episcopalian, ■?. an adherer to the established 
church of England. 

Epis'copate, s. the office of a bishop. 

Epis'copy, s. superintendence ; survey. 

Episo'de, s. an incidental narrative or digres- 
sion in a poem. 

Episodical, a. contained in an episode. 

Episodically, ad. by way of episode. 

Epis'tle, s. a letter ; a writing sent. 

Epislolary, a. relating to letters ; transacted 
by letters ; suitable to letters. 

Epitaph, s. a monumental inscription. 

Epithala'mium, s. a nuptial song. 

Epithet, s. an adjective denoting a quality. 

Epit'ome, s. an abridgment, an abstract. 

Epitomize, v. to abridge, to reduce. 

E'poch, Ep'ocha,5.the time from which dates 
are numbered ; any fixed period. 

Ep'ode, s. the last part of an ode. 

Epopee', s. the subject of an epic poem. 

Ep'ujary, a. belonging to a feast or banquet. 

Equability, s. evenness, uniformity. 

E'quable, a. equal to itself, uniform ; just. 

E'quably, ad. evenly ; equally to itself. 

E'qual, s. one of the same rank and age. 

E'qual, a. like another; even, uniform, just. 

E'qual, E'qualize, v. to make one person 
equal to another, to make even. 

Equal iza'tion, s. state of equality. 

Equality, s. likeness, uniformity, 

E'qually, ad. in the same degree, impartially. 



ERO 

E'qualness, s. the state of being equal. 
Equanimity, s. evenness of mind. 
Equa'tion, s. bringing things to an equality 5 

a term in algebra and astronomy. 
Equa'tor, *. a great circle, equally distant 

from the poles of the world, dividing the 

globe into two equal parts. 
Equato'rial, a. pertaining to the equator. 
Eq'uerry, s. one who has the care of the 

horses belonging to a king or prince. 
Eques'trian, a. pertaining to a horseman ; 

belonging to the Roman knights. 
Equian'gular, a. consisting of equal angles. 
Equidis'tant, a. being at the same distance. 
Equilat'eral, a. having all sides equal. 
Equilibrium, s. equality of weight, equipoise. 
Equinoc'tial, a. pertaining to the equinox. 
Equinoc'tial line, s. the equator; so called, 

because when the sun is vertical to it, the 

days and nights are equal all over the 

world. 
Eq'uinox, s. the time when the days and 

nights are equal, about the 21st of March 

and 22d of September. 
Equip', v. to dress or fit out, to furnish. 
Eq'uipage, s. retinue ; horses and carriages ; 

accoutrements ; furniture. 
Equip'ment, s. the things equipped or fitted 

out ; the act of equipping. 
Eq'uipoise, *. an equality of weight. 
Equipollent, a. of equal force or power. 
Equipon'derant, a. of equal weight. 
Eq'uitable, a. just, right, impartial, fair. 
Eq'uitableness, s. justness, equity. 
Eq'uitabiy, ad. impartially, justly. 
Eq'uity, s. justice, right, impartiality. 
Equivalence, s. equality of worth or power. 
Equivalent, s. a thing of the same value : 

a. equal in value or power. 
Equiv'ocal, a. doubtful, ambiguous. 
Equivocally, ad. ambiguously, doubtfully. 
EquiVoealness, s. ambiguity, two meanings. 
Equivocate, v. to use ambiguous expressions. 
Equivoca'tion, s. ambiguity of speech ; double 

or doubtful meaning. 
EquiVocator, j. one who equivocates. 
Equivoque, [Fr.] s.a quibble, equivocation. 
E'ra, s. an epoch ; a point of time. 
Era'diate, v. to shoot like a ray, to beam. 
Eradia'tion, s. emission of radiance. 
Eradicate, v. to pull up by the roots. 
Eradica'tion, s. the act of rooting up. 
Era'se, v. to rub or scrape out ; to destroy. 
Era'sure, s. act of erasing; a rubbing out. 
Ere, ad. before, sooner than. 
Erect', v. to set upright ; to build ; to raise 

or exalt : a. upright ; bold. 
Erec'tion, s. a building or raising up. 
Erect'ness, s. uprightness of posture. 
Erelong', ad. before a long time passes. 
Er'emitc. s. a hermit ; a recluse. 
Eremitical, a. like a hermit. 
Erenow 7 , ad. before this time. 
Erewhi'lo, ad. some time ago, heretofore. 
Er'go, [Lat.] ad. consequently, therefore. 
Erin'go, s. the plant called sea-holly. 
Er'niine, *. a small animal that furnishes a 

valuable fur ; the fur of the ermine ; 

figuratively, the office or dignity of a judge. 
Er'niined. a. clothed with ermine. 
Ero'de, v. to eat away-, to canker. 



ERO 



£TY 



Eroga'tion, s. the act of giving or bestowing. 

Ero'sion, s. the act of eating away. 

Err, v. to go out of the way ; to mistake. 

Er'rand, s. a verbal message. 

Errant, a. wandering, roving ; very bad. 

Er'rantry, s. a roving or rambling about. 

Erra'ta, [Lat. pi. of Erratum] s. mistakes 

made in printing. 
Errat'ic, Errat'ical, a. wandering, irregular. 
Errat'ically, ad. without rule or order. 
Earing, a. committing error ; uncertain. 
Erro'ueous, a. mistaken ; full of errors. 
Erro'neously, ad. by mistake ; falsely. 
Er'ror, s. a mistake, a blunder, a sin. 
Erse, s. the Irish or Gaelic language. 
Erst, ad. when time was ; first, formerly. 
Erst' while, ad. till then : till now ; aforetime. 
Erubes'cent, a. somewhat red ; blushing. 
Eruct', v. to belch, to expel wind. 
Eructa'tion, s. a sudden burst of wind. 
Erudite, a. learned, well read. 
Erudi'"tion, s. learning, knowledge. 
Eru'ginous, a. copperish, rusty, brassy. 
Erup'tion, s. an issuing or breaking forth 

with violence ; a rash or breaking out of 

humors ; pustules. 
Erup'tive, a. bursting, or tending to burst. 
Erysip'elas, s. an eruptive disease, vulgarly 

called Saint Anthony's fire. 
Escala'de, [Fr.] s. the scaling of walls : v. to 

mount and enter by means of ladders. 
Escal'op, s. See Sealiop 
Escapa'de, [Fr.] s. a prank : fling of a horse. 
Esca'pe, v. to get out of danger, to avoid ; 

to pass unobserved : *. a getting out of 

danger ; fight ; oversight. 
E.'ca'pement, s. that part of a watch or clock 

that regulates its movements. 
Escarp'ment, s. a slope or steep descent. 
Eschalot', s. a kind of small onion. 
Es'ehar, s. a hard crust or scar made Dy 

caustic applications to a wound. 
Escharot'ie, a. burning, searing, caustic. 
Ex-heat', s. any thing that falls to the lord of 

the manor as a forfeit, or on the death of a 

tenant having no heir : v. to forfeit. 
Escheat'or, s. an officer who has to look after 

the escheats of the crown. 
Eschew 7 , v. to avoid, to shun. 
Es'cort, s. a guard : v. to convoy or attend as 

a guard to a place. 
Escot'. See Scot. 
Escritoi're, [Fr.] s. a box or bureau which 

forms a desk for writing. 
Escula'pian, a. pertaining to the medical art. 
Es'culent, a. eatable ; good for food : s. 

something fit for food. 
Escutch'eon, s. a shield with arms. 
Escutch'eoned, a. having an escutcheon. 
Esoph'agus. See CEsoph'agus. 
Esoter'ic, a. secret, mysterious. 
Espal'ier, s. a tree traiued on rails or stakes. 
Espe"cial, a. principal, chief, leading. 
Especially, ad. principally, particularly. 
Es'perance, [Fr.] s. hope, expectation. 
Espi'al, s. one sent out to espy; observation. 
Es'pionage, [Fr.] s. the act of procuring and 

giving intelligence by spies. 
Esplana'de, s. an open or flat space before a 

fortification. 
Espou'sal, a. relating to espousals. 



Espou'sals, s. pi. the act of affiancing a man 
and woman to each other in marriage. 

Espou'se, v. to betToth or engage for mar- 
riage ; to marry ; to take upon ; to main- 
tain. 

Espous'er, s. one who maintains a point. 

Espy 7 , v. to see at a distance ; to watch. 

Esqui're, s. a title next below a knight. 

Essay', v. to try, to attempt, to endeavour. 

Es'say, .?. an attempt ; a short treatise. 

Es'sayist, s. a writer of essays. 

Es'sence, s. the nature, substance, or being of 
anything; existence; perfume, scent : v. 
to perfume, to scent. 

Essen'tial, a. necessary to existence ; very 
important : s. existence ; the chief point. 

Essen'tially, ad. constitutionally, necessarily ; 
by the constitution of nature. 

Essoin', s. an excuse for non-appearance. 

Establish, v. to settle firmly ; to found. 

Estab'-lishment, s. a settlement ; fixed state ; 
foundation ; income. 

Estafet'te, [Fr.] *. a military courier. 

Esta'te, *. a fortune ; rank, condition of life. 

Esteem', v. to value, to think highly of : s. 
high value in opinion ; regard. 

Es'timable, a. worthy of esteem. 

Es'timate, v. to rate, to set a value on : s. a 
calculation ; a set price or value ; assign- 
ment of value. 

Estimation, s. esteem, opinion ; a valuing. 

Es'tival, a. relating to the summer. 

Esto'p, (in law) v. to impede or stop. 

Esto'vers, (in law; s. supplies ; allowance. 

Estra'de, [Fr.] s. au even or level place. 

Estra'nge, v. to alienate ; to become htrange. 

Estrangement, s. alienation. 

Estrapa'de, s . the rearing and kicking of an 
ungovernable horse. 

Estreat', v. to extract, to copy ; to take from 
by way of fine : s. a true copy. 

Es'tuary, s. an arm of the sea ; a frith. 

Estua'tion, s. a boiling, agitation, commotion. 

Esu'rient, a. hungry, voracious. 

Es'urine, a. corroding, eating, consuming. 

Etch, v. to make a print by etching. 

Etch'ing, s. a method of engraving on metal 
by eating in the figures with prepared aqua- 
fortis. 

Eter'ual, a. perpetual, endless, everlasting. 

Eter'nal, 5. one of the appellations of God. 

Eter'nize, v. to immortalize. 

Eter'nally, ad. unchangeably, perpetually. 

Eter'ne, a. eternal, perpetual, endless. 

Eter'nity, s. duration without end. 

E'ther, s. pure elemental air ; a light, vola- 
tile, and inflammable liquid. 

Ethe'real, a. heavenly ; refined, pure. 

Ethe'realize, v. to convert into ether. 

Eth'ic, Eth'ical.ct. moral, relating to morals. 

Eth'ics, s. pi. the doctrines of morality ; the 
science of moral philosophy. 

E'thiop, s. a native of Ethiopia. 

Eth'nic, a. heathenish : s. a heathen, one who 
has no faith in revealed religion. 

Eth'ically, ad. according to moral doctrines. 

Etiol'ogy, s. an account of the causes of any 
thing ; an account of the causes of a disease. 

Etiquett'e, s . the polite form or manner of 
doing any thing. 

Etvniolo"gical, a. relating to etymology. 



ETY 89 

;Etymolo"gically, ad. according to etymology. 

Etymol'ogist, s. one who searches out the 
original of words 

Etymol'ogy, s. the derivation of words. 

Et'ymon, s. an original or primitive word. 

Eu'charist, s. the act of thanksgiving ; the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper. 

Eu'logist, s. one who praises another. 

Eulogize, v. to praise ; to extol. 

Eulo'gium, Eulogy, s. praise, encomium. 

Eu'nuch, s. one who is emasculated. 

Eu'phemism, 5. the substitution of an agree- 
able for an offensive word. 

Euphonic, a. sounding agreeably. 

Eupho'nious, a. sweetly sounding ; musical. 

Eu'phony, s. a sweet and agreeable sound. 

Euphor'bia, s. spurge, a plant. 

Euphor'bium, s. a pungent medical gum. 

Eu'phrasy, s. the herb eyebright. 

Europe'an, a. belonging to Europe : s. a 
native of Europe. 

Eu'rus, s. the ea.-,t wind. 

Evac'uant, a. emptying: s. medicine that 
procures evacuation. 

Evac'uatc,i'. to make void or empty; to quit. 

Evacua'tion, s. a discharge ; an emptying ; 
a withdrawing from ; an ejectment. 

Eva'de, v. to avoid, to elude ; to equivocate. 

Evaga'tion, s. a rambling deviation. 

Evanes'ccnce, *. disappearance. 

Evanes'cent, a. vanishing from ; lessening 
beyond perception ; imperceptible. 

Evangelical, a. agreeable to the gospel. 

Evangelically, ad. according to the gospel. 

Evan'gelism,*. the promulgation ofthegospel. 

Evan'gelist, s. a writer or preacher of the 
gospel ; a bringer of good tidings. 

Evangelize, v. to preach the gospel. 

Evap'orate, v. to fly away in vapor ; to 
breathe or steam out. 

Evapora'tion, s. conversion into vapor. 

Eva'sion, s. an excuse, equivocation, artifice. 

Eva'sive, a. equivocating, shuffling, elusive. 

Eva'sively, ad. elusively, sophistical] y. 

Eva'siveness, s. the q-uaiity of being evasive. 

Eve, E'ven, s. evening or close of the day ; 
the day before a festival. 

E'ven, a. level ; smooth ; equal ; uniform. 

E'ven, ad. verily, notwithstanding, likewise. 

Evenhand'ed, a. impartial, just, equitable. 

E'vening, E'ven, •*. the close of the day. 

E'venly, ad. equally, uniformly, impartially. 

E'venncss, s. equality of surface ; smooth- 
ness ; regularity ; uniformity. 

E'ven-song, s. the evening worship. 

Event', s. any thing that happens ; an inci- 
dent ; the consequence of an action. 

Event'ful, a. full of incidents or changes. 

E'ven-tide, s. the time of evening. 

Ever/tual, a. consequential ; final. 

Even'tually, ad. in the event, last result. 

EvCr, ad. at any time ; eternally, always. 

Everdu'ring, a. enduring without end. 

Evergreen, s. a plant all the year green : 
a. verdant throughout the year. 

Everlasting, a. perpetual, without end. 

Everlasting, Everlastlngness, s. eternity. 

Everlivlng, a. living always, immortal. 

Evermo'rc, ad. eternally, without end. 

Evert', v. to overthrow, to destroy. 

Ev'ory, a. each one of all, belonging to all. 



ESC 



Ev'eryday, a. common, occurring on any day. 

Everywhere, ad. in every place. 
j Evict', v. to dispossess by legal process. 

Evic'tion, * . a proof, evidence ; dispossession. 

Evidence, s. testimony, proof; a witness. 

Evidence, v. to prove, to show. 

Evident, a. plain, apparent, obvious. 

Evidential, a. affording evidence. 

Evidently, ad. apparently, plainly, certainly. 

E'vil, a. wicked, mischievous, bad, corrupt. 

E'vil, E'vilness, s. wickedness ; badness. 

Evil-do'er, s. one that commits crimes. 

E'vil-eyed, a. having a malignant look. 

Evil-fa'vored, a. ill-countenanced. 

Evil-mi'nded, a. malicious, wicked. 

Evil-speaking, s. defamation, slander. 

Evin'cc, v. to prove, to make plain. 

Evin'cible, a. capableof proof ; demonstrable. 

Evis'cerate, v. to disembowel. 

E vltable, a. that may be avoided. 

Evoca'tion, s. a calling out or from. 

Evo'ke, v. to call forth or out of. 

Evola'tion, s. the act of flying away. 

Evol've, v. to unfold, to disentangle. 

Evolu'tion, s. the act of unfolding ; maneu- 
vering of troops, &c. 

Evul'sion, s. a plucking out or away. 

Ewe, s. a female sheep. 

Ew'er, s. a vessel in which water is brought 
for washing the hands ; a water jug. 

Exa"cerbate, v. to embitter ; to exasperate. 

Exacerba'tion, s. increase of malignity or 
irritation ; the height of a disease. 

Exacerva'tion, s. the act of heaping up. 

Exact', a. nice, accurate, precise, methodical ; 
v. to demand of ; to force or extort from. 

Exac'tion, s. extortion ; a severe tribute. 

Exac'titude, s. exactness ; nicety. 

Exactly, ad. accurately, nicely, fitly. 

Exact'ness, s. acourateness, regularity. 

Exaggerate, v. to heap up ; to heighten, to 
aggravate, to enlarge or amplify. 

Exaggcra'tion, s. the act of heaping up ; 
amplification ; aggravation. 

Exalt', v. to lift up ; to extol, to magnify. 

Exalta'tion, s. the act of raising up. 

Exalt'edness, s. state of dignity or greatness. 

Exa'men, s. an inquiry or examination. 

Examina'tion, s. inquiry ; critical disquisi- 
tion ; a questioning ; a trial or proof. 

Examlnator, s. an examiner. 

Examine, v. to interrogate ; to scrutinize. 

Examiner, s. one who examines. 

Exam'ple, s. a pattern, model, precedent. 

Exanimate, a. dead, lifeless, spiritless. 

Ex'arch, s. a viceroy. 

Exarch'atc, Ex'archy, s. the jurisdiction or 
office of an exarch. 

Exas'perate,-^. to vex, to provoke, to enrage. 

Exaspera'tion, s. strong provocation ; irrita- 
tion ; aggravation. 

Ex'cavate, v. to cut into or make hollow. 

Excava'tion, s. a hollow formed ; a cavity. 

Ex'cavator, s. one who digs ; a miner. 

Exceed', v. to surpass, to excel, to go be- 
yond proper bounds. 

Exceeding, p. and a. surpassing ; very great. 

Exceedingly, ad. to a great degree. 

Excel', v. to surpass, to outdo ; to be eminent. 

Excellence, Excellency, s. eminency, dig- 
nity ; purity, goodness ; a title of honor. 



EXC 



90 



EXI 



Excellent, a. being of great virtue ; eminent. 

Ex'cellently, ad. in an eminent degree. 

Except', v. to leave out, to object to. 

Except', Except'ing, prep. unles3 ; -with ex- 
ception of; exclusive of. 

Excep'tion, s. an exclusion ; objection, cavil. 

Exceptionable, a. liable to objection. 

Excep'tious, a. peevish, full of objections. 

Excep'tiousness, s. disposition to cavil. 

Excep'tive, a. including an exception. 

Excep'tor, s. one who makes exceptions. 

Excerp'tion, s. the act of selecting; the thing 
selected. 

Ex'cerpt, s. a passage selected ; an extract. 

Excess', s. superfluity, intemperance. 

Excessive, a. going beyond due bounds. 

Excessively, ad. exceedingly. 

Excess 'iveness, s. the state of being excessive. 

Excha'nge, v. to give one thing for another; 
to barter ; to truck : s. the act of barter- 
ing ; the place where merchants meet ; the 
balance of money of different nations. 

Exchangeable, a. that may bo exchanged. 

Exeheq'uer, s. the court in which all causes 
relating to the revenues of the crown are 
heard and determined ; the crown trea- 
sury : v. to sue in the court of exchequer. 

Exci'sable, a. liable to the excise. 

Exci'se, s. a tax levied upon commodities. 

Ex'cise, v. to make subject to excise. 

Exci'seman, s. an inspector of excised goods. 

Excis'ion, s. a cutting off; extirpation. 

Excitabil'ity, s. capability of being excited. 

Excitation, s. the act of exciting. 

Exci'table, a. easy to be excited. 

Exci'tative, a. tending to excite. 

Exci'te, v. to rouse, to stir up. 

Exci'tement, s. that which excites ; state of 
being excited. 

Exciler, s. one who stirs up others. 

Exclaim', v. to cry out, to vociferate. 

Exclama'tion, s. clamor, outcry ; a note 
thus (!) indicating emotion. 

Exelam'ative, a. relating to exclamation. 

Exclam'atory, a. pertaining to exclamation. 

Exclaim'er, s. one that makes loud outcries. 

Exclu'de, v. to shut out; to debar; to pro- 
hibit ; to except. 

Exclu'sion, s. a rejection ; act of shutting out. 

Exclu'sionist, s. one who would debar another 
from any privilege. 

Exclu'sive, a. debarring, excepting. 

Exclusively, ad. without admission of an- 
other ; in an exclusive manner. 

Exclu'sivcness, 5. the stateof being exclusive. 

Excoct', v. to make by boiling. 

Exoo"gitate, v. to strike out by thinking ; to 
contrive. 

Excogitation, s. invention by thought. 

Excommu'nieable, a. liable or deserving to 
be excommunicated. 

Excommu'nicate, v. to eject from the com- 
munion of the church : a. excluded from 
the pale of the church. 

Excommunica'tion, s. an ecclesiastical inter- 
dict, or exclusion from the church. 

Excc'riate, v. to strip off the skin. 

Excoria'tion, s. rubbing off the skin. 

Excortiea'tion. s. a pulling off the bark. 

Ex'crement, s. ordure, dung. 

Excremen'tal, a. voided as excrement. 



Excres'cence, s. that which grows unnatur 

ally and without use out of something 

else ; a wen. 
Excres'ccnt, a. growing outof somethingelse. 
Excru'ciate, v. to torture, to torment. 
Excru'ciating,«. painful in the highest degree. 
Excul'pate, v. to clear from imputation. 
Exculpa'tion, s. the clearing from blame. 
Exculpatory, a. clearing from imputation. 
Excur'sion, .?. a digression ; ramble ; inroad. 
Excur'sive, a. rambling, deviating. 
Excu'sable, a. pardonable. 
Excu'sableness, 5. capability to be excused. 
Excu'se, v . to pardon, to remit, to extenuate : 

s. an apology, a plea, a pardon. 
Ex'ecrable, a. hateful, detestable. 
Ex'ecrably, ad. cursedly, abominably. 
Ex'ecrate, v. to curse ; to abominate. 
Execra'tion, s. a curse ; an imprecation. 
Ex'ecute, v. to carry into effect ; to perform ; 

to put to death according to the sentence 

of the law. 
Execu'tion, s. a performance ; a seizure ; 

death inflicted by forms of law. 
Execu'tioner, s. he that inflicts punishments. 
Exec'utive, a. having power to act. 
Excc'utor, s. he that is entrusted to execute 

the will of the testator. 
Executorship, s. the office of an executor. 
Exec'utrix, s. a female executor. 
Exeget'ical, a. explanatory. 
Exem'plar, s. a pattern, a copy, an example. 
Exem'plarily, ad. in an exemplary manner. 
Ex'emplary, ad. so as to deserve imitation. 
Exemplifi ca'tion,^. an illustration by example. 
Exem'plify, v. to illustrate, to copy. 
Exempt', v. to privilege, to free from : a. 

free by privilege ; not subject to. 
Exemp'tion, .?. immunity, privilege. 
Ex'equies, s. pi. funeral rites. 
Ex/ercise, v. to employ, to practise, to train : 

s. labor, practice, employment. 
Exercita'tion, s. exercise, practice, use. 
Exer'gue, s. the plain circular space just 

within the edge of a medal. 
Exert', v. to put forth ; to use with effort, to 

perform. 
Excr'tion, s. the act of exerting ; an effort. 
Exfo'liate, v. to shell off, to peel off. 
Exha'lable, a. that may be exhaled. 
Exbala'tion, s. evaporation, fume, vapor. 
Exhale, v. to send or draw out vapor. 
Exha'lement, s. matter exhaled ; a vapor. 
Exhaust', v. to draw out totally, to consume. 
Exhaustible, a. capable of being exhausted. 
Exhaus'tion, s. the act of drawing or draining. 
Exhaust'less, a. not to be emptied. 
Exhibit, v. to display or offer to view. 
Exhibi'lion, s. display ; allowance, pension. 
Exhibi'lioner, *. one who receives a pension 

or an allowance in our universities. 
Exhibitor?, a. setting forth, showing. 
Exhil'arate, v. to make cheerful. 
Exhilara'tion, s. the state of being enlivened. 
Exhort', v. to incite to any good action. 
Exhorta'tion, s. an incitement to good. 
Exhort'ative, a. containing exhortation. 
Exhort'atory, a. tending to exhort. 
Exhuraa'tion, s. a removing out of the giave. 
Exic'cate. See Exsiccate. 
Exigence, Exigency, s. demand, want. 



EXI 



91 



EXP 



Extgent, s. a pressing business : a. pressing. 

Ex'ile, v. to banish, to transport. 

Extle, s. banishment ; a person banished. 

Exi'le, a. thin, slender. 

Exist', v. to be, to have a being, to live. 

Exist'ence, Exist'ency, s. a state of being. 

Exist'ent, a. in being, possessed of existence. 

Ex'it, s. a departure, a going out ; death. 

Ex'odus, s. a journey from a place ; the se- 
cond book of Aloses, which describes the 
journey of the Israelites from Egypt. 

Exon'erate, v. to unload, to free from. 

Exoneration, s. the act of disburdening. 

Exonerative, a. freeing from any charge. 

Ex'orable, a. movable by entreaty. 

Exorbitance, s. excess, extravagance. 

Exorbitant, a. excessive, extravagant. 

Exorbitantly, ad. enormously, excessively. 

Ex'orcise, v. to cast out evil spirits. 

Exerciser, Ex'orcist, s. one who pretends by 
magic to drive away evil spirits. 

Exordium, s. introduction to a discourse. 

Exoter'ic, a. external or public, as distin- 
guished from Esoteric. 

Exot'ic, a. foreign : s. a foreign plant. 

Expand', v. to spread, to open, to dilate. 

Expan'se, s. wide smooth extension. 

Expansibility, s. capacity of extension. 

Expan'sible, a. capable of being extended. 

Expan'sion, s. act of spreading out ; extent. 

Expan'sive, a. extensive, spreading. 

Expan'siveness,s. quality of being expand e. 

Expatiate, v. to range at large, to enlarge on. 

Expa'triate, v. to banish from one's native 
country. 

Expatria'tion, s. banishment, exile. 

Expect', v. to look for, to wait for. 

Expect'ancy, s. something expected ; hope. 

Expect'ant, a. waiting in expectation : s. one 
who is expecting some benefit. 

Expecta'tion, s. the act of expecting. 

Expectora'tion, s. a discharge by coughing. 

Expec'torant, s. a medicine which promotes 
expectoration : a. promoting expectoration. 

Expec'torate, v. to eject from the breast. 

Expe'dience, Expedien'cy, s. suitable to 
an end, fitness, propriety. 

Expe'dient, a. fit, proper, convenient : s. a 
method, means to an end, a device. 

Expe'dicntly, ad. suitably ; conveniently. 

Ex'pedite, v. to facilitate, to hasten, to de- 
spatch : a. quick, active. 

Ex'peditely, ad. with quickness or despatch. 

Expedition, s. haste, speed ; a voyage for 
hostile purposes ; a warlike enterprise. 

Expeditious, a. quick, nimble, alert. 

Expeditiously, ad. quickly, nimbly. 

Expel', v. to drive out, to banish, to eject. 

Expel'lable, a. that may be driven out. 

Expend', v. to lay out, to spend, to consume. 

Expenditure, s. cost, disbursement. 

Expcn'se, s. cost, charges, money expended. 

Expen'set'ul, a. costly, expensive. 

Expen'seless, a. free from cost or charge. 

Expen'sive, a. given to expense, costly. 

Expensively, ad. with great expense. 

Expen'siveness, s. costliness, extravagance. 

Expedience, s. practice, practical knowledge : 
v. to trv, to know by practice. 

Expe'ner.ced, p. and a. skilful by experience. 

Experiment, s. trial, practical proof. 



Experimental, a. founded on experiment. 

Experimen'talist, Experimenter, s. he who 
makes experiments. 

Experimentally, ad. by experience, by trial. 

Expert/, a. skilful, ready, dexterous. 

Expert'ly, ad. skilfully, readily, dexterously. 

Expert'ness, s. skill, art, readiness. 

Ex'piable, a. that may be atoned for. 

Ex'piate, v. to atone for. 

Expia'tion, s. the act of atoning. 
j Ex'piatory, a. having the power of expiation. 

Expi'rabie, a. that may come to an end. 

Expiration, s. respiration ; an end ; death. 

Expi're, v. to breathe out; to die, to end. 

Explai'n, v. to make plain or clear. 

Explainable, a. capable of being explained. 

Explanation, J. the act of explaining ; the 
sense explained ; adjustment of a mis- 
understanding. 

Explan'atery, a. containing explanation. 

Ex'pletive, s. a word or syllable used merely 
to fill up a space : a. filling up. 

Ex'plicable, a. that may be explained. 

Explicate, v. to unfold, to explain. 

Explication, s. act of unfolding or explaining. 

Ex'plicative, a. having a tendency to explain. 

Ex'plicatory, a. tending to explain. 

Expli"cit, a. unfolded, clear, plain, distinct. 

Explicitly, ad. plainly, distinctly, clearly. 

Expli'titness, s. the state of being explicit. 

Explo'de, v. to burst with noise ; to drive out 
or reject with contemptuous noise. 

Exploit', s. a great action, an achievement. 

Explo'ratory, a. searching, examining. 

Explo're, v. to search, to examine. 

Explo'sion, s. the act of exploding; a burst- 
ing or driving out with noise. 

Explo'sive, a. having power to explode. 

Expo'nent, .?. the number that points out the 
ratio of any two or more quantities. 

Ex'port, 5. goods sent to a foreign market. 

Export', v. to send out of a country. 

Exportable, a. which may be exported. 

Exportation, s. the act of exporting. 

Export'er, s. one who exports. 

Expo'se, v. to lay open ; to put in danger. 

Exposition, s.anexplanation, interpretation. 

Expos'itive. Expos'itory, a. explanatory. 

Expos'itor, s. an explainer, an interpreter. 

Expostulate, v . to remonstrate with. 

Expostulation, 5. discussion of an affair 
without anger ; remonstrance, debate. 

Expostulatory, a. containing expostulation. 

Expo'sure, s. the act of exposing to sight. 

Expound', v. to explain, to unfold. 

Expound'cr, 5. an explainer, an interpreter. 

Express', v. to press out, to utter, to declare, 
to denote, to represent : a. in direct terms, 
plain, clear : j. a courier; a messenger 
sent specially and speedily. 

Express'ible, a. that may be expressed. 

Expres'sion, s. a phrase; mode of speech; act 
of representing any thing ; act of pressing 
or forcing out. 

Express'ive, a. expressing with force. 

Express'ively,</e?.clearly, fully, emphatically. 

Expressiveness, s. power of expression. 

Exproba'tion, s. reproachful accusation. 

Expropriation, s. the act of relinquishing 
one's property to another. 

Expu'^n, v. to tako by assault, to conquer. 



EXP 

Expul'se, v. to expel or drive out. 

Expul'sion, s. act of expelling or driving out. 

Expul'sive, a. having power to expel. 

Expun'ge, v. to blot out, to efface. 

Expunc'tion, s. the act of obliterating. 

Ex'purgate, v. to purge away, to cleanse, to 
expunge. 

Expurga'tion, s. a purging or cleansing. 

Ex'purgator, *.one who corrects byexpunging. 

Expur'gatory, a. purifying ; cleansing. 

Expur'ge, v. to purge away ; to expunge. 

Ex'quisite, a. excellent, choice, curious. 

Ex'quisitely, ad. perfectly, completely. 

Ex'quisiteness, s. nicety, perfection. 

Exsan'guious, a. destitute of blood. 

Exsic'cant, a. drying, having power to dry. 

Exsic'cate, v. to dry, to dry up. 

• Exsicca'tion, s. the act of drying up. 

Exsuda'tion, See Exudation. 

Ex'tant, a. standing out to view, in being. 

Extat'ic. See Ecstatic. 

Extem'porally, ad. without premeditation. 

Exteni'porary, Extempora'neous, a. unpre- 
meditated ; not studied. 

Extem'pore, ad. without premeditation. 

Extem'porize, v. to speak extempore. 

Extend', v. to stretch out, to widen, to enlarge. 

Extendible, a. capable of extension. 

Extensibility, s. capacity of being extended. 

Extendible, a. capable of extension. 

Exten'sile, a. capable of being extended. 

Exten'sion, s. the act of extending; the state 
of being extended ; enlargement. 

Exten'sive, a. wide, general, capacious. 

Exten'sively, ad. largely, widely. 

Exten'siveness, s. largeness, diffusiveness. 

Extent', s. space, bulk, compass. 

Exten'uate, v. to lessen, to palliate. 

Extenua'tion, s. mitigation, palliation. 

Exte'rior, a. outward : s. the outside. 

Exter'minate, v. to root out, to drive away. 

Extermina'tion, s. destruction. 

Exterminatory, a. causing destruction. 

Exter'nal, a. visible, outward. 

Exter'nally, ad. outwardly. 

Externals, s. pi. the outward parts or rites. 

Extim'ulate. See Stimulate. 

Extinct', a. extinguished, put out; dead. 

Extinction, s. the act of extinguishing ; de- 
struction, suppression. 

Extin'guish, v. to put out ; to destroy. 

Extin'guishabie, a. that may be put out. 

Extin'guisher, s. a hollow cone placed on a 
burning candle to extinguish it. 

Extinguishment, s. extinction ; suppression. 

Ex'tirpate, Extir'pate, v. to root out. 

Extirpa'tion, s. the act of rooting out ; total 
destruction. 

Extol', v. to praise, to magnify, to laud. 

Extol'ler, s. a praiscr, a magnifier. 

Extort', v. to draw from by force ; to wrest. 

Extor'tion, s. illegal exaction ; oppression. 

Extor'tioner, s. one who practises extortion. 

Ex'tra, [Lat. ] prep, beyond ; over and above. 

Extract', v. to draw out of, to select. 

Ex'tract, *. that which is extracted ; a pas- 
sage from a book ; an essence or tincture. 

Extrac'tion, s. act of drawing out ; lineage. 

Extrajudicial, a. out of the regular course of 
legal procedure. 

Extrajudicially, ad. in an illegal manner. 



92 



lET-'E 



Extramis'sion, s. an emitting outwards. 
Extramun'dane, a. beyond the limits of the 

: universe ; in the infinite void space. 
Extra'ncous, a. foreign, irrelevant. 
Extraordinarily, ad. remarkably ; in a 

manner out of the common method. 
Extiaor'dinariness, s. remarkableness. 
Extraordinary, a. beyond ordinary, eminent. 
Extraparo'chial, a. out of the parish bounds. 
Extraprofes'sional, a. not within the usual 

limits of professional duty. 
Extrav'agance, s. prodigality, irregularity. 
Extrav'agant, a. wasteful, wild, irregular. 
Extrav'agantly, ad. wildly; wastefully. 
Extrav'asated, a. forced or let out of the 

proper vessels. 
Extravasa'tion, s. the state of being forced 

out of the proper containing vessels. 
Extre'me, a. utmost, last, urgent : s. the ut- 
most point, highest degree of any thing, 

extremity, end. 
Extrc'mely, ad. in the utmost degree. 
Extremity, s. the utmost point ; necessity, 

rigor, emergency, distress. 
Ex'triuable, a. that may be extricated. 
Ex'tricate, v. to disentangle ; to clear. 
Extrica'tion, s. the act of extricating. 
Extrin'sic, a. external, outward. 
Extrin'sically, ad. from without. 
Extru'de, v. to thrust out. 
Extru'sion, 5. act of thrusting out or from. 
Extu'berance, s. a swelling or bunching out. 
Extu'berant, a. swelling ; standing out. 
Extumes'cence, s. a swelling ; a rising up. 
Exu'berance, s. overgrowth, luxuriance. 
Exu'berant, a. overabundant, luxuriant. 
Exu'berantly, ad. very abundantly. 
Exu'berate, v. to abound greatly. 
Exuda'tion, s. a sweating out, perspiration. 
Exu'de, Exu'date, v. to sweat out or discharge 

by the pores ; to discharge as from a plant 

by incisions. 
Exul'cerate, v. to cause an ulcer ; to become 

ulcerous. 
Exulcera'tion, s. the beginning of an ulcer. 
Exult', v. to leap for joy, to triumph over. 
Exult'ance, Exulta'tion, s. joy, transport. 
Exult'ant, a. rejoicing ; triumphing. 
Exunda'tion, s. overflow, abundance. 
Exus'tion, s. consumption by fire. 
Exu'viag, [Lat.] s. pi. the cast skins or shells 

of animals. 
Ey'as, *. a young hawk taken from the nest. 
Eye, s. the organ of sight ; aspect, regard. 
Eye, v. to watch, to keep in view. 
Eye'ball, s. the pupil or apple of the eye. 
Eye'bright, s. the plant euphrasy. 
Eye'brow, s. the hairy arch over the eye. 
Eye'glass, s. a glass to assist the sight. 
Eyelash, s. hair on the edge of the eyelid. 
Eyeless, a. not having eyes or sight. 
Eyelet, s. a small hole to let in light ; a 

small perforation. 
Eyelid, *. the membrane covering the eye. 
Eye'salve, .y. ointment for the eyes. 
Eye'servant, s. one who works only while 

observed. 
Eye'servico, s. service performed only und«-r 

inspection. 
Eye'shot, s. a sight, glance, transient «icw. 
Eye'sight, s. sight of the eye. 



EYE 



93 



FAL 



Eye'soTe, s. something offensive to the sight. 
Eye'tooth, s. the tooth under the eye. 
Eye'witness, s an ocular evidence. 
Eyre, s. the court of judges itinerant, so 

called from their going the circuits and 

holding assizes. 
Ey'ry, *. a place where birds of prey build ; 

the nest of an eagle or hawk. 



Fa, *. the fourth sound of the scale of music. 

Faba'ccous, a. having the nature of a bean. 

Fa'ble, s. an instructive fiction ; a falsehood: 
v. to feign, to write fiction. 

Fa'bler, *. a writer of fables or fictions. 

Fab'ric, s. a building, an edifice ; a system. 

Fab'ricate, v. to build, to frame ; to forge. 

Fabrica'tion, s. the act of fabricating ; a for- 
gpry or falsehood. 

Fabricator, s. one who fabricates. 

Fabulist, s. one -who writes fables. 

Fab'ulous. a. fullof fables ; forged or feigned. 

Fab'ulously, ad. in fiction ; fictitiously. 

Fab'ulousness, s. the state of being fabulous. 

Faca'de, [Fr.] s. the front of a large building. 

Face, 5. the visage ; front ; superficies or 
surface of any thing ; appearance ; bold- 
ness : v. to meet in front, to oppose boldly ; 
to stand opposite to; to cover with another 
or an additional surface. 

Fa'cet, s. a small face or surface, as one of 
those on a diamond. 

Face'te, a gay, cheerful, witty. 

Faee'tely, ad. wittily, merrily. 

Face'teness, s. wit ; pleasant representation. 

Face'tiffi, [Lat.] s.pi. humorous compositions. 

Face'tious, a. witty, humorous, sprightly. 

Face'tiously, ad. jocularly, wittily. 

Face'tiousness, s. gaiety, drollery. 

Fa'eial, a. pertaining to the face. 

Fa"eile, a. easy, not difficult ; pliant, flexible. 

Fa"cileness, s. easiness to be persuaded. 

Facilitate, v. to make easy. 

Facilita'tion, s. the act of making easy. 

Facil'ity, s. easiness, readiness, affability. 

Facin'orous, a. atrociously wicked. 

Fa'cing, s. an ornamental covering. 

Facsim'iie, s. an exact copy or likeness. 

Fact, s. a thing done, a deed ; reality. 

Fae'tion, s. a party or cabal ; a tumult. 

Fac'tionist, s. one who promotes faction. 

Fac'tious. a. given to faction ; turbulent. 

Fac'tiously, ad. in a factious manner. 

Fac'tiousness, s. inclination to dissension. 

Factitious, a. made by art, artificial. 

F ic'tor, s. an agent for another ; a deputy. 

Factorship, s. the business of a factor. 

Fac'tory, ,v. a manufactory ; a house or resi- 
dence of factors; a body of merchants. 

Facto'tum, s. a servant employed to do all 
kinds of work. 

Fac'ulty, s. power of body or mind ; ability, 
dexterity ; a body of professional men. 

Fac'und, a. eloquent, fluent. 

Fad'dle, v. to trifle, to toy, to play. 

Fa'de, v. to wither ; to grow weak. 

Fadge, v. to suit, to fit, to agree. 

Fa'dingness, s. liableness to decay. 

Fa'dy, a. losmg color or strength. 

F»'cal, Fe'cal, a. excremcntaT. 

Fas'ces, *. pi. excrements, dregs, dross. 



Fa'ery, a. relating to or like fairies. 

Fag, v. to grow weary, to drudge. 

Fag, Fag'end, .y. the worst end of a thing. 

Fagot, s. a bundle of wood bound together 
for fuel ; a person hired to appear at the 
muster of a company : v. to tie up. 

Fail, v. to be deficient; to become a bank- 
rupt ; to desert ; to omit, to neglect ; to • 
decay. 

Failing, s. a minor fault, a lapse. 

Fail'ure, J. defeat ; a becoming insolvent. 

Fain, a. glad ; rejoiced : ad. gladly. 

Faint, a. weak, cowardly: v. to swoon. 

Faintheart'ed, a. cowardly, timorous. 

Faintheart'edly, ad. in a cowardly manner. 

Faintheartedness, s. cowardice. 

Faint'ing, a. growing faint, sinking. 

Faintlsh, a. rather faint or low. 

Faint'ly, ad. languidly, feebly. 

Faint'ness, s. feebleness, dejection. 

Faints, s. pi. the weaker portion or last ' 
runnings of distilled spirits. 

Fair, a. beautiful ; clear ; favorable ; just : 
ad. frankly ; justly; gently, civilly : *. the 
female sex ; a stated market. 

Fairing, s. a present given at a fair. 

Fairish, a. reasonably or moderately fair. 

Fairly, ad. honestly, plainly, beautifully. 

Fair'ness, s. honesty ; clearness ; beauty. 

Fairspo'ken, a. bland and civil in language. 

Fai'ry, s. an enchantress, an elf, a fay: a. 
given by or belonging to fairies. 

Fai'ryland. J. ideal residence of fairies. 

Fai'rylike, a. after the manner of fairies. 

Fai'rystone, s. a kind of fossil stone. 

Faith, s. belief, confidence, fidelity. 

Faith'ful, a. firm to the truth, sincere. 

Faith'fully, ad. sincerely, honestly. 

Faith'fulness, s. honesty, veracity, loyalty 

Faithless, a. unbelieving ; perfidious. 

Faithlessness, s. treachery; perfidy. 

Fa'kir, s. a Mahometan religious itinerant. 

Fal'cated, a. hooked, bent like a sickle. 

Falea'tion, s. a regular bending. 

Fal'chion, s. a kind of short crooked sword. 

Fal'eiform, a. in the shape of a sickle. 

Fal'con, s. a small hawk trained for sport. 

Fal'coner, s. one who trains falcons. 

Fal'conet, s. a small piece of ordnance. 

Fal'conry, j. the art of training hawks. 

Fald'stool, s. a kind of stool placed at the 
south side of the altar, at whicl the kings 
of England kneel at their coronat ion. 

Fall, v. to drop clown ; to decrease ; to happen : 
s. the act of falling ; ruin, downfal. 

Fallacious, a. producing mistake ; sophisti- 
cal, deceitful, false. 

Falla'ciousness, s. tendency to deceive. 

Fallacy, s. a sophism, a deceitful argument. 

Fallibility, s. liableness to be deceived. 

Fallible, a. liable to error, frail. 

Falling-sickness, s. the epilepsy. 

Falling-star, s. a meteorite; an aerolite. 

Fallow, v. to plough without sowing : a. un- 
cultivated, neglected : s. ground lying at 
Test. 

Fal'lowness, s. a fallow state; barrenness. 

False, a. not true, not just ; deceitful, 

Falseheart'ed, a. treacherous. 

Falscheart'edness, s. deceitfulness. 

Falsehood, s. a lie, an untruth. 



FAL 

Fal'sely, ad. not truly, erroneously. 

Fal'seness, s. duplicity; deceit; perfidy. 

Falset'to. [ltai.] *. in music, a feigned voice. 

Falsification, s. the act of making any thing 
appear what it is not ; confutation. 

Fal'sifier, s. one who makes any thing to 
seem what it is not ; a liar. 

Fal'sify, V. to make or prove false. 

Fal'sity, s. contrariety to truth. 

Fal'ter, v. to hesitate in speech. 

Fal'tcring, p. and a. stammering. 

Fal'teringly, ad. with hesitation. 

Fame, s. honor, renown, rumour : v. to 
make famous ; to report. 

Fa'med, a. renowned, celebrated. 

Fa'meless, a. not famed, obscure. 

Famil'iar, a. domestic, affable, unceremo- 
nious ; common : s. an intimate ; a demon. 

Familiar'ity, s. intimate correspondence, 
easy intercottrse, acquaintance. 

Famil'iarize, v. to make familiar. 

Famil'iaxly, ad. unceremoniously, easily. 

Fam'ily, s. a household ; race ; a class. 

Fam'ine, s. scarcity of food, dearth. 

Fam'ish, v. to starve, to die of hunger. 

Fa'mous, a. renowned, celebrated. 

Fa'mously, ad. renowned! y, with celebrity. 

Fa'ruousness, s. celebrity ; great fame. 

Fan, s. an instrument made of silk, paper, 
&c. used by ladies to cool themselves ; a 
machine to winnow coru : v. to winnow 
corn ; to cool by a fan. 

Fanat'ic, *. an enthusiast, a visionary. 

Fanat'ic, Fanat'ical, a. enthusiastic. 

Fanat'ieally, ad. in a wild enthusiastic way. 

Fanaticism, 5. a religious frenzy, enthusi- 
asm ; wildncss of conduct. 

Fan'ciful, a. imaginative, whimsical. 

Fan'cifully, ad. capriciously, imaginarily. 

Fan'eiiulness, s. addition to the pleasures of 
imagination ; unsteadiness of purpose. 

Fan'cy, *. imagination, thought ; taste ; ca- 
price, frolic ; inclination, idle scheme : v. 
to imagine; to like. 

Fan'cy-free, a. free from the power of love. 

Fandan'go, s. a Spanish dance. 

Fane, s. a temple ; a weathercock. 

Fan 'fare, [Fr.] s. a flourish of trumpets. 

Fan'faron, .? a bully, a blusterer. 

Fanfurona'de, s. bluster; swaggering. 

Fang, s a long tusk ; a claw or talon. 

Fang, v. to seize, to gripe. 

Fan'gle, 5. a silly attempt, a trifling scheme. 

Fan'gled, a. vainly fond of novelty. 

Fang'less, a. toothless ; having no fangs. 

Fan'ion, s. a small banner or ensign. 

Fan'light, s. a window generally in the form 
of an open fan. 

Fan'nel, s. a sort of scarf worn about the left 
arm of a priest when ho officiates. 

Fan'ner, s. one who fans. 

Fanta'sia, s. a kind of air in which all the 
freedom of fancy may be allowed. 

Fan'tasied, a. filled with wild imaginations. 

Fantastic, Fantas'tieal, a. irrational, ima- 
ginary, capricious, whimsical. 

Fantas'tieally, ad. capriciously; whimsically. 

Fantas'ticalness, s. caprice ; unsteadiness. 

Fan'tasy, s. imagination, humor. 

Fa'quir, s. See Fakir. 

Far, a. distant, remote ; ad. to great extent. 



94 FAS 

Farce, s. a ludicrous dramatic representa- 
tion : v. to stuff. Sec- Forced. 

Far'cical, a. relating to a farce ; droll. 

Far'cy, s . the leprosy of horses. 

Far'del, s. a bundle ; a little pack : v. to 
make up in bundles. 

Fare, s. provisions ; hire of carriages, &c. 

Fare, v. to go, to travel ; to happen to any 
one well or ill ; to feed, to eat. 

Fa'rewell, ad. the parting compliment, adieu: 
J. the act of departure : a. leave-taking. 

Far'-famed, s. widely celebrated. 

Far'fetehed, a. brought from places distant ; 
elaborately strained; unnatural. 

Fari'na, s. the pollen or fine dust in the 
anthers of plants ; flour. 

Farina'ceous, a. mealy, tasting like meal. 

Farm, s. land occupied by a farmer : v. to 
let out to tenants at a certain rent ; to 
cultivate land. 

Farm'able, a. capable of cultivation. 

Farm'er, s. one who cultivates a farm. 

Farm 'house, s. the residence of a farmer. 

Farm'ing, .?. the cultivation of land. 

Fa/most, a. most distant, most remote. 

Farm'yard, s. an enclosure surrounded by 
barns and other farm-buildings. 

Fa'ro, s. a game at cards. 

Farra"ginous, a. formed confusedly of dif- 
ferent ingredients. 

Farra'go, s. a medley; a confused mass. 

Far'rier, s. a horse-doctor ; a shoer of horses. 

Far'riery, s. the business of a furrier. 

Far'row, s. a litter of pigs : v. to bring forth 
pigs. 

Far'thcr, a. more remote, longer. 

Far'thost, ad. at or to the greatest distance. 

Far'thing, 5. the fourth part of a penny. 

Far'thingale, s. a hoop or hoops to spread 
the petticoat. 

Fas'ces, s. a bundle of rods with an axe, an- 
ciently carried before the Roman consuls. 

Fas'cia, s. a fillet; a bandage; a range of 
stone work to divide a building, 

Fascia'tion, s. a bandage, a tying up. 

Fas'cicle, s. a little bunch of flowers. 

Fascie'ulous, s. a little bundle ; a nosegay ; a 
part or regular division of a book. 

Fas'cinate, v. to bewitch, to enchant ; to 
charm, to captivate. 

Fascina'tion, s. enchantment, witchcraft ; 
inexplicable influence. 

Fas'cine, s. a fagot or bavin. 

Fash'ion, s. make, form ; manner or mode ; 
custom ; general practice ; high society. 

Fash'ion, v. to form, fit, mould, shape. 

Fash'ionable, a. approved by custom, modish. 

Fash'ionablencss, s. modish elegance. 

Fash'ionably, ad. conformably to fashion. 

Fash'ioner, s. a maker of any thing. 

Fash'ion-mongor, s. one who studies fashions. 

Fast, a. firm, strong, fixed, sound : ad. 
firmly, immovably. 

Fast, v. to abstain from food. 

Fast, s. an abstinence from food; religious 
humiliation. 

Fast'-day, s. a day on which fasting is ob- 
served ; a day set apart for a public fast. 

Fast'en, v. to make fist, or firm ; to cement. 

Fast'cner, s. one that makes fast or firm. 

Fast'ening, s. that which fastens. 



FAS 



95 



FEE 



Fast'er, 5. one who abstains from food. 

Fastid'ious, a. disdainful, squeamish, oyer 
nice, difficult to please. 

Fastid'iously, ad. disdainfully, squeamishly. 

Fastidiousness, s. disdain ; squeamishness. 

Fasting, s. the abstaining from food. 

Fast'ness, s. firmness ; a stronghold or place. 

Fas'tuous, a. proud, haughty. 

Fat, a. plump, fleshy, gross; rich : s. an oily 
concrete substance in animals ; the best or 
richest part of any thing : v. to make fat, 
to fatten, to grow fat. 

Fa'tal, a. deadly, mortal, inevitable. 

Fa'talism, s. the doctrine of necessity. 

Fa'talist, s. one who maintains that all 
things happen by inevitable necessity. 

Fatal'ity, ,s. predestination ; a decree of fate ; 
. an inevitable misfortune. 

Pa'tally, ad. by fate ; necessarily ; mortally. 

Fate, s. destiny ; death ; cause of death. 

Fa'ted, a. decreed by fate ; predetermined. 

Fa'teful, a. bearing fatal power. 

Fa'ther, s. the male parent ; one who acts 
with paternal care ; an ancestor ; one who 
has given origin to anything; one of the 
early ecclesiastical writers ; a title of the 
Creator. 

Father, v. to adopt as one's own. 

Fa'therhood, s. the state of a father. 

Fa'ther-in-law, .« the father of one's husband 
or wife. 

Fa'ther-land, s. the land of our ancestors. 

Fa'therless, a. having no father ; destitute. 

Fa'ther! iness, s. parental kindness. 

Fa'ther] y, a. paternal, tender, careful. 

Fath'om, s. a measure of six feet. 

Fa'thom, v. to penetrate into ; to sound. 

Fath'oinless, a. bottomless ; impenetrable. 

Fatid'ical, a. having power to fortel. 

Fatiferous, a. deadly, mortal. 

Fat'igate, v. to weary : a. fatigued. 

Fatigue, s. weariness, labor, lassitude. 

Fati'gue, v. to tire, to weary. 

Fat'ling, s. a young animal fattened for 
slaughter. 

Fat'ncss, s. plumpness, unctuousness. 

Fat'ten, v. to make fleshy, to grow fat. 

Fat'tineas, s. grossness ; fulness of flesh. 

Fat'tish, a. inclining to fatness. 

Fat'ty, a. unctuous ; greasy. 

Fatu'ity, s. foolishness, weakness of mind. 

Fat'uous, a. stupid, weak ; silly. 

Fat'witted, a. dull, stupid. 

Fau'cot, s. a small pipe for a barrel. 

Faugh ! an interjection of abhorrence. 

Faul'chion. See Fal'chion. 

Fau'lt, s. an offence, a slight crime ; a defect. 

Fault'iinder, 5. a censurer, an objector. 

Fault'ful, a. full of crime. 

Fau.lt/ily, ad. not rightly, blamably. 

Fault'iness, s. badness, defect. 

Fault'less, a. free from fault, perfect. 

Fault'lessness, s. state of being perfect. 

Fault'y, a. guilty of a fault, wrong, bad. 

Faun, s. a rural deity, a kind of satyr. 

Favil'lous, a. consisting of ashes. 

Fa'vor, v. to regard with kindness, to coun- 
tenance ; to assist. 

Fa'vor, s. kindness, support, advantage, 
lenity ; a knot of ribbons, worn as a token 
of favor from a lady. 



Fa'vorable, a. kind, propitious, tender. 

Fa'vorablencss, s. kindness ; benignity. 

Fa'vorably, ad. kindly, with favor. 

Fa'vored, p. and a. featured well or ill ; re- 
garded with kindness or partiality. 

Fa'vorer, s. one who favors. 

Fa'vcrite, s. a person or thing beloved : a. 
beloved ; regarded with favor. 

Favoritism, s. the act of favoring ; partiality. 

Fa'vorless, a. not regarded with favor. 

Fawn, v. to hatter, to cringe. 

Fawn, s. a young deer. 

Fawn'er, s. one that fawns; one that pays 
servile courtship. 

Fawn'ing, p. and a. cringing, flattering : s. 
the act of servilely flattering. 

Fawn'ingly, ad. in a cringing servile way. 

Fay, s. a fairy, an elf; faith. 

Fe'alty, s. homage, loyalty, submission. 

Fear, s. dread, terror, anxiety, awe : v. to 
dread, to be afraid of, to be anxious. 

Fear'ful, a. timorous, afraid ; terrible. 
! Fear'fully, ad. timorously, terribly; in fear. 

Fearl'ulness, s. timorousness, dread ; awe. 

Fearless, a. free from fear, intrepid. 

Fearlessly, ad. without terror ; intrepidly. 

Fearlessness, s. exemption from fear. 

Feasibility, 5. the practicability of a thing. 

Fea'sible, a. practicable, that may be done. 

Fea'sibleness, s. practicability. 

Fea'sibly, ad. in a feasible manner. 

Feast, s. a festival, a sumptuous treat. 

Feast, v. to entertain sumptuously ; to pam- 
per, to delight. 

Feast'er, s. one that fares deliciously. 

Feast'ful, a. festive, joyful, luxurious. 

Feasting, s. an entertainment ; a treat. 

Feast'-rite, s. a custom observed at feasts. 

Feat, s. a deed ; an exploit ; a trick or sleight. 

Feat, a. quick, ready, neat. 

Feath'er, s. the plume of birds; an ornament. 

Feath/er, v. to dress or fit with feathers. 

Feath'er-bed, s. a bed stuffed with feathers. 

Feath'ercd, a. clothed with feathers. 

Feath'er-edge, s. the edge of aboard made thin 

Feath'er-edged, a. made thin at the edge. 

Feath'erless, a. destitute of feathers, naked. 

Feath'ery, a. clothed with feathers. 

Featly, ad. neatly, nimbly, readily. 

Feat'ness, s. neatness, nicety, dexterity. 

Fea'ture, s. the cast or make of the face ; a 
lineament; a characteristic. 

Feat'ured, a. having features good or bad. 

Febrif'ic, a. tending to produce fever. 

Feb'rifuge, j. a medicine to cure fevers. 

Fe'brile, a. relating or belonging to a fever. 

Feb'ruary, s. the second month of the year. 

Fec'ulence, s. muddiness, lees, dregs. 

Fec'ulent, a. dreggy, foul, excrementitious. 

Fe'cund, a. fruitful, prolific, rich. 

Fecunda'tion, s. the act of making fruitful. 

Fec'undate, Fecun'dify, v. to make fruitful. 

Fecun'dity, s. fertility, fruitfulness. 

Fed'ary, s. See Federary. 

Fed'eral, a. relating to a league or contract. 

Federalist, s. a friend to federal government. 

Fed'erary, s. a confederate, an accomplice. 

Fed'eratc, a. joined in confederacy. 

Federa'tion, s. a league ; a compact. 

Fed'erative, a. havingpowerto makealeague. 

Fee, v. to reward ; to pay ; to bribe ; to hire. 



EEE 



26 



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Pee, s. a reward, recompense; lands, &c. 

held by any acknowledgment of superiority 

to a higher lord. 
Fee'ble, a. weak, sickly, debilitated. 
Fee'ble-minded, a. defective in resolution. 
Fee'bleness, s. weakness, infirmity. 
Fee'bly, ad. weakly ; without strength. 
Feed, v. to supply with food ; to take food : 

s. food, pasture. 
Feed'er, s. one who gives or eats food. 
Feed'ing, s. pasture ; the act of taking food. 
Fee'-farm, s. a tenure of estates by rent. 
Feel, v. to perceive by the touch ; to be af- 
fected by ; to try ; to experience : s. the 

sense of feeling, the touch. 
Feel'er, s. one that feels; the horns of insects. 
Feel'ing, *-. sensibility, tenderness, percep- 
tion ; the sense of touch : a. possessing 

great sensibility. 
Feel'ingly, ad. with great sensibility. 
Fee-simple, s. the highest tenure by which 

a person can hold a freehold estate. 
Fee'-tail, s. an entailed estate. 
Feet'less, a. having no feet. 
Feign, v . to invent, to dissemble, to pretend. 
Feign'ed, p. and a. dissembled, pretended. 
Feign'edly, ad. in fiction ; not truly. 
Feign'edness, s. fiction, pretence, deceit. 
Feign'er, s. the contriver of a fiction. 
Feign'ing, s. a false appearance ; a pretence. 
Feint, s. a false appearance, a mock assault. 
Feli'citate, v. to congratulate ; to make 

happy : a. made happy. 
Felicita'tion, s. congratulation. 
Feli"citous, a. happy; prosperous. 
Feli"eitously, ad. happily. 
Felf'city, s. happiness, prosperity. 
Fe'line, a. like or pertaining to a cat. 
Fell, a. cruelj barbarous, inhuman. 
Fell, v. to knock down, to cut down. 
Fell, s. the skin or hide of a beast. 
Fel'ler, «. one that hews down. 
Fell'monger, s. a dealer in hides or skins. 
Fell'ness, s. cruelty, savageness, fierceness. 
Fel'loe, Fel'ly, s. the rim or circumference 

of a wheel. 
Fel'low, s. an associate, an equal ; a mean 

person : v. to pair with ; to suit or match. 
Fellow-feel'ing, s. sympathy ; joint interest. 
Fellowship, s. companionship, society, 

equality ; establishment in a college. 
Fel'ly, ad. cruelly, barbarously. 
Felo-de-se, [Fr.] s. a self murderer, a suicide. 
Fel'on, s. one guilty of a capital crime : a. 

cruel, malignant. 
Felo'nious, a. wicked, villanous, malign. 
Felo'niously, ad. in a felonious manner. 
Fel'ony, s. a capital offence or crime. 
Fel'spar, s. a silicious mineral. 
Felt, s. stuff used in making hats; a skin: 

v. to unite without weaving. 
Felt'er, V . to clot together like felt. 
Feluc'ca, s. a small open boat with six oars, 

and a helm that may be shifted to either 

end. 
Fe'male, s. a woman; one of the sex that 

brings forth young : a. belonging to the 

female kind ; effeminate. 
Fe'me-covert, s. (in law) a married woman. 
Fe'me-sole, s. (in law) an unmarried woman. 
Feminal'ity, s. female nature. 



Fem'inine, a. belonging to a woman ; tended 

Fem'oral, a. belonging to the thigh. 

Fen, s. a marsh, a moor, low moist ground. 

Fen'berry, s. a kind of blackberry. 

Fence, s. a guard ; skill in defence ; an en- 
closure : v. to enclose, to bedge in ; to 
fight with the small-sword or foil. 

Fen'ceful, a. affording defence. 

Fen'celess, a. without enclosure ; open. 

Fen'cer, s. one who practises fencing. 

Fen'cible, a. capable of defeuee. 

Fen'cing, s. the art of defence by weapons. 

Fenc'ing-master, s. one who teaches the 
science of defence, or the use of weapons. 

Fenc'ing-school, s. a place in which the art 
of fencing is taught. 

Fend, v. to keep off, to shut out ; to dispute. 

Fen'der, s. a fence to keep in cinders, 

Fenera'tion, s. the gain of money by usury. 

Fenes'tral, a. belonging to windows. 

Fen'fowl, s. any fowl that frequents fens. 

Fen'nel, s. a plant of strong scent. 

Fen'ny, a. marshy, boggy. 

Fe'odal, a. held from another ; feudal. 

Feodal'ity, s. the possession of or seigniory 
over divers fiefs ; feudal tenure. 

Fe'odary, s. one who holds an estate under 
tenure of service, &c. to a superior lord. 

Feod'atary, s. a tenant who holds his estate 
by feudal service. 

Feod'atory, a. holding by tenure. 

Feoff, v. to put in possession, to invest. 

Feoffee', s. one put in possession. 

Feoff' er, s. one who gives possession. 

Feoffment, s, the act of granting possession. 

Fera'cious, a. fertile, fruitful. 

Fera"city, s. fruitfulness, fertility. 

Fe'ral, a. funereal, mournful. 

Fer'etory, s. a place for a bier. 

Fe'rial, a. pertaining to holidays ; pertaining 
to the week days. 

Feria'tion, s. the act of keeping holiday. 

Fe'rine, a. wild, savage, fierce, barbarous. 

Fe'rineness, Fer'ity, s. barbarity, wildness. 

Ferment', v. to excite intestine motion ; to 
effervesce : s. that which causes fermenta- 
tion ; intestine motion ; tumult ; yeast. 

Ferment'able, a. capable of fermentation. 

Fermenta'tion, s. an internal motion of the 
small particles of a mixed body. 

Fermen'tative, a. causing fermentation. 

Fern, s. a plant growing on heaths, &c. 

Fern'y, a. overgrown with fern. 

Fero'cious, a. savage, fierce, rapacious. 

Fero'ciously, ad. in a savage manner. 

Fero'ciousness, s. fierceness ; savageness. 

Fero"city, 5. fierceness, cruelty, wildness. 

Fer'reous, a. made of iron or containing iron. 

Fer'ret, s. a small animal of the weasel kind : 
v. to hunt or drive out of lurking places. 

Fer'ret, s. a kind of tape. 

Ferriferous, a. producing or yielding iron. 

Fer'rilite, s: a kind of iron stone. 

Ferru'ginated, a. resembling the rust of iron. 

Ferru'ginous, a. partaking of iron. 

Fer'rule, s. an iron ring at the end of a stick. 

Fer'ry, s. a boat for passage ; the passage 
over which the boat passes : v . to convey or 
carry over in a boat. 

Fer'ry-boat, s. a boat for conveying passen- 
gers across rivers, creeks, &c. 



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Fer'ryman, s. one who keeps or rows a ferry. 
Fer'tile, a. fruitful, abundant, plenteous. 

Fer'tilencss, s. fruitfulness ; fecundity. 

Fertility, s. abundance, fruitfulness. 

Fer'tilize, v. to make fertile. 

Fer'ula, Fcr'ule, s. an instrument for punish- 
ing young scholars on the hand. 

Fer'vency, s. ardour, eagerness, zeal. 

Fer'vent, a. hot, vehement, ardent, zealous. 

Fer'vcntly, ad. ardently, eagerly. 

Ferves'eent, a. growing hot. 

Fer'vid, a. hot, burning ; vehement. 

Fervid'ity, s. heat, zeal, passion, ardour. 

Fer'vidly, ad. with glowing warmth. 

FerMdness, J. ardour of mind, zeal; passion. 

Fer'vor, s. heat of mind, zeal, warmth. 

Fes'cennine, a. licentious ; wanton. 

Fes'cue, s. a wire to point out letters to 
children learning to read. 

Fes'se-point, s. the centre of an escutcheon. 

Fes'tal, a. pertaining to a feast ; joyous. 

Fes'ter, v. to corrupt, to rankle. 

Fes'tival, 5. a day of civil or religious joy: 
n. pertaining to feasts ; joyous. 

Fes'tive, a. pertaining to feasts ; joyous, gay. 

Festiv'ity, s. a festival ; a time of rejoicing. 

Festoon', s. an ornament of flowers in the 
form of a wreath. 

Fes'tucino, a. of a straw color. 

Fes'tucous, a. formed of straw. 

Fetch, v. to go and bring a thing, to draw, 
to reach ; to obtain as its price : s. a strata- 
gem, an artifice, a trick. 

Fetch'er, s. one that fetches any thing. 

Fet'ich, Fet'ish, s. an idol worshiped by 
certain of the African negroes. 

Fet'icism, s. the worship of any idol or in- 
animate thing, as practised by negroes. 

Fet'ixl, a. stinking, having an offensive smell. 

Fet idness, s. the quality of stinking. 

Fet'lock, *. a tuft of hair that grows behind 
a horse's pastern, from the ankle joint. 

Fe'tor, s. a strong offensive smell. 

Fet'tir, j. a chain for the feet ; v. to shackle, 
to enchain, to bind. 

Fet'tcrless, a. free from restraint. 

Fe'tus, Fce'tus, s. any animal in embryo. 

Feud, s. a quarrel, contention, opposition. 

Feud, s. a right to land on condition of mili- 
tary service. 

Feu'dal, a. dependent, held by tenure. 

Feudalism, s. the feudal system. 

Feudality, s. the state of a' chief lord. 

Feu'dary, a. holding tenure under a superior. 

Feu'datory, a. one "who holds of a lord or 
chief: a. held conditionally of a superior. 

Feu de joie, [Fr.] s. a firing of guns on any 
joyful occasion. 

Feu'ille-morte, [Fr.] s. the color of a faded 
leaf, a yellowish-brown color. 

Fe'ver, s. a disease characterized by quick 
pulse, increased heat, and great thirst ; v. 
to put into a fever. 

Fe'verfew, s. a plant of febrifuge qualities. 

Fe'verish, Fe'verous, a. troubled with a 
fever, tending to a fever ; hot, burning. 

Fe'vciishness, s. a slight disorder of the 
feverish kind ; mental restlessness. 

Fewel. See Fuel. 

Few, a. a small number, not many. 

Few'ness, s. smallness of number, brevity. 



Fi'at. s. an order, a decree. 

Fib, s. a falsehood : v. to tell lies, to lie. 

Fib'ber, s. a teller of lies. 

Fi'bre, J. a small thread or string. 

Fi'bril, s. a very small fibre or thread. 

Fi'brous, a. composed of fibres. 

Fib'ula, s. the outer and smaller bone of the 

leg, much less than the tibia. 
Ftc'kle, a. changeable, inconstant, unsteady. 
Fic'klcness, s. inconstancy, unsteadiness. 
Fi'co, [Ital.] s. a snap of the fingers in con- 
tempt, signifying " A fig for you!" 
Fio'tile, a. moulded into form. 
Fic'tion, s. a story invented ; a falsehood. 
Ficticious, a. imaginary ; false, counterfeit, 

not real, not true ; allegorical. 
Fictitiously, ad. falsely ; counterfeitly. 
Ficti"tiousness, s. feigned representation. 
Fic'tive, a. feigned, imaginary. 
Fid'dle, s. a musical instrument, a violin. 
Fid'dle, v. to play upon the fiddle ; to trifle. 
Fid'dler, s. one who plays on the fiddle. 
Fid'dlestick, s. the stick or bow of a fiddle. 
Fid'dlestring, s. the string of a fiddle. 
Fid'dling, s. the act of playing on a fiddle. 
Fidel'ity, s. faithfulness ; loyalty ; honesty. 
Fidg'et, *. restlessness : v. to be restless. 
Fidg'ety, a, restless, impatient. 
Fidu'cial, a. confident, undoubting. 
Fidu'cially, a. undoubtingly, confidently. 
Fidu'ciary, s. one who holds in trust : a. 

confident, steady, undoubting. 
Fief, s. a manor ; possession held by tenure 

of a superior. 
Field, s. a piece of land enclosed for tillage 

or pasture ; the place of battle ; a wide ex- 
tent ; a space. 
Field'book, j. a book used by surveyors. 
Field'fare, s. a bird ; a kind of thrush. 
Field'-marshal, s. the commander of an 

army; the officer of highest military rank. 
Field'mouse, s. a mouse that lives in the 

fields. 
Ficld'-oflicer, j. a military officer above the 

rank of a captain. 
Field'piece, s. a small cannon used in battle. 
Field'-preacher, s. an itinerant preacher who 

harangues in the open air. 
Ficld'-sports, s. pi. diversions of the field, 

such as hunting and shooting. 
Fiend, s. an infernal being ; an enemy. 
Ficnd'like, a. resembling a fiend ; rery 

wicked. 
Fierce, a. ferocious, savage, violent. 
Ficr'cely, ad. violently, furiously. 
Fier'ceness, s. ferocity, fury, violence. 
Fi'eriness, J. hot qualities ; heat ; ardour. 
Fi'ery, a. consisting of fire ; passionate, hot. 
Fife, s. a small pipe blown to the drum. 
Fi'fer, $. one who plays on a fife. 
Fiftce'n, a. five and ten added. 
Fifteo'nth, a. the ordinal of fifteen. 
Fifth, a. the ordinal of five; next to the 

fourth. 
Fifth'ly, ad. in the fifth place. 
Fiftieth, a. the ordinal of fifty. 
Fifty, a- five multiplied by ten. 
Fig, s. the fruit of the fig-tree. 
Fig'-tree, s. a tree that bears figs. 
Fight, v. to contend in battle, to combat. 
Fight, e . a battle, an engagement, a duel. 



FIG 



FIE 



Fight'cr, s. a warrior, a duellist. 
Fighting, a. qualified for war: s. conten- 
tion, quarrel, combat. 
Fig'ment, s. a fiction, an invention. 
Figurabil'ity, s. capability of figure. 
Fig'urable, a. capable of being formed. 
Fig'ural, a. represented by delineation. 
Fig'uratc, a. of a certain determinate form. 
Figuration, s. determination to a certain 

figure or form. 
Figurative, a. typical, metaphorical. 
Fig'uratively, ad. by a figure, not literally. 
Fig'ure, v. to form into any shape. 
Fig'ure, s. shape, external form ; eminence ; 

an image ; a character denoting a number. 
Fig'ured, a. adorned with figures. 
Fila'eeous, a. consisting of threads. 
Filacer, s. an officer in the Common Pleas. 
Fil'ament, s. a slender thread ; a fibre. 
Fiiamen'tous, a. like slender threads. 
Fil'bert, 5. a fine hazel nut with a thin shell. 
Filch, v. to steal, to pilfer. 
Filch'er, s. a petty thief, a pilferer. 
File, s. a steel tool to polish iron, &c. with; 

a wire for papers ; a line of soldiers : v. to 

string upon a thread ; to march in file. . 
Fi'le-cutter, s. a maker of files 
Fi'ler, s. one who files metals. 
Filial, a. pertaining to or beseeming a son. 
Filia'tion, s. the relation of a son to a father; 

the fixing or establishing the paternity of 

an illegitimate child. 
Fii'iform, a. of the form of threads ; of equal 

thickness throughout. 
Fiilgrane, Filigree- work, s. work curiously 

wrought in the manner of little threads or 

grains, usually in gold and silver. 
Fi'iings, s. pi. particles rubbed off by a file. 
Fill, v. to make full, to satisfy, to glut. 
Fill, s. fulness ; as much as will satisfy. 
Fil'libeg, s. the pouch worn in front of a 

Highlander's kilt. 
Fil'Jet, s. a little band tied round the head ; 

a bandage ; the fleshy part of the thigh of 

veal ; a small ornament or moulding. 
Fil'let, v. to bind with a bandage or fillet. 
Fil'lip, s.sx jerk of the finger from the thumb: 

v. to jerk or strike with the nail of the finger. 
Fil'ly, s. a young mare ; a female colt. 
Film, s. a thin pellicle or skin : v. to cover 

with a thin pellicle or membrane. 
Fiimlness, s. the state of being filmy. 
Film'}', a. composed of thin membranes. 
Fil'ter, v. to strain, to percolate : s. a twist 

of thread to draw off liquor ; a strainer. 
Filth, j. dirt, nastiness ; grossness, pollution. 
Filth'ily, ad. nastily, foully, grossly. 
Filthlness, s. dirtiness; impurity. 
Filth'y, a. dirty, nasty ; gross, obscene. 
Fil'trate, v. to strain, to filter, to percolate. 
Filtra'tion, s. the act or process of filtering. 
Fim'briate, v. to fringe. 

Fin, j. the wing of a fish by which he swims. 
Fi'nable, a. that which may be fined. 
Fi'nal, a. ultimate, conclusive ; mortal. 
Fina'le, [It.] s. the close, the end ; the closing 

performance of an opera or concert. 
Fi'nally, ad. ultimately, completely, lastly. 
Finan'ce, s. revenue, income, profit. 
Finan'ces, s. pi. public funds ; resources. 
Financial, a. respecting finance. 



Financier', s. an officer who superintends the 

state finances or public revenue. 
Finch, s. a small bird, of which we have 

three kinds, the goldfinch, chaffinch, and 

bullfinch. 
Find, v. to discover, to detect ; to meet with. 
Fi'nder, s. one that picks up any thing lost. 
Fi'ndfault, s. a censurer ; one who cavils. 
Fine, a. not coarse ; pure, thin, clear; ele- 
gant : v. to refine or purify. 
Fine, s. a pecuniary forfeit, penalty, mulct: 

v. to inflict a penalty. 
Fi'nedravv. v. to sew up a rent with so much 

nicety that it is not perceived. 
Fi'ncdrawing, s. the dexterous or neat sewing 

of rents. 
Fi'nely, ad. beautifully; elegantly; well. 
Fi'nelesa, a. boundless, endless. 
Fineness, s. elegance, beauty, show; purity; 

delicacy. 
Fi'ner, s. one who purifies metaJs. 
Fi'nery, s. show, gaiety in attire, splendor. 
Fi'ne-spoken, a. using a number of tine or 

holiday phrases. 
Fi'nc-spun, a. ingeniously contrived. 
Finess'e, [Fr.] s. an artifice, a stratagem. 
Finess'c, v. to use artifice or stratagem. 
Fin'-footed, a. having feet with membranes 

between the toes ; web-footcd. 
Fin'ger, s. a part of the hand : v. to touch 

lightly ; to pilfer. 
Fin'gerboard, s. the board at the neck of a 

fiddle, where the fingers act on the strings. 
f in'gercd, a. having fingers. 
Fin'gering, s. the act of touching lightly; 

the manner of touching or playing upon 

a musical instrument. 
Fin'ical, a. nice, foppish, affected, conceited. 
Fin'icalness, s. extreme nicety ; foppery. 
Fin'ically, ad. foppishly, too nicely. 
Fi'ning-pot, s. a pot for refining metals. 
Fi'nis, *. the end, the conclusion. 
Fin'ish, v. to end, to perfect, to complete: 

s. the last touch, the last polish. 
Fin'isher, s. one who completes or perfects. 
Fi'nite, a. limited, bounded, terminated ; 

created ; opposed to infinite. 
Fi'nitcless, a. unbounded; unlimited. 
Finitely, ad. within certain limits. 
Fi'nitencss, Fin'itude, s. limitation, confine- 
ment within boundaries. 
Fin'lcs.s, a. destitute of fins. 
Fin'iike, a. formed in imitation of fins. 
Fin 'ny, Fin'ncd, a. furnished with fi^s. 
Fir, s. a kind of tree, the tree of which deal 

boards are made. 
Fin;, 5. the igneous element; flame, light, 
lustre ; ardour, spirit ; v. to set on fire ; to 

discharge fire-arms. 
Fi're-arms, s. guns, muskets, &c. 
Fi'reball, s. a ball filled with combustibles. 
Fi'reblast, s. a disease in hops. 
Fi'rebrand, s. a piece of wood kindled ; an 

incendiary ; one who inflames factions. 
Fi'rebrush, s. the brush to sweep the hearth. 
Fi'rebucket, s. a bucket used by firemen. 
Fi'recock, s. a cock or spout whence water 

is obtained to extinguish fires. 
Fi'redrake, s. a fiery serpent or meteor. 
File-engine, s. a machine for throwing a 
stream of water on a fire. 



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Fi're-cscape, s. a machine for escaping from 

windows when houses are on fire. 
Fi'refly, s. a species of fly which emits light 

from under its wings. 
FAre'hook, s. a hook used for pulling down 

buildings when they are on fire. 
Fi'relock, s. a soldier's gun, a musket. 
Fi'reman, s. one who is employed to extin- 
guish burning houses. 
Fi're-ofrice, s. an office of insurance from fire. 
Fi'rcpan, s. pan for holding fire. 
Fireplace, s. the lower parts of a chimney ; 

a hearth. 
Fi'replug, s. a stopple placed over a cock in 

the streets, to get at water in cases of fire. 
Fjfreship, ft. a ship filled with combustibles 

to fire the vessels of the enemy. 
Fi'rcshovel, s. the iron shovel with which 

coals are thrown up. 
Firesi'de, s. the hearth ; the chimney ; home. 
Fi'restick, s. a lighted stick or brand. 
Fi'rest'vne, s. a metallic fossil ; the pyrite. 
Fi'rewood, *. w-ood to burn ; fuel. 
Fi'reworks, ,v. pi. pyrotechnical exhibitions. 
Fi'ring, s. fuel, something used for the fire. 
Fi'ring-iron.s.an instrument used by farriers. 
Firk, v. to whip, to beat. 
Fir'kin, s. a vessel containing nine gallons. 
Firm, a. fixed, compact, solid, strong. 
Firm. s. the name or names under which the 

busincssof any trading house is carried on. 
Fir'niament, s. the sky, the heavens. 
Firmarnen'tal, a. celestial, belonging to the 

firmament; ethereal. 
Firman, s. a written declaration from an 

Asiatic ruler granting certain privileges. 
Fir'mitudo, a-, stability ; firmness. 
Firmly, ad. steadily, with firmness ; strongly. 
Firm'ness, s. steadiness, stability, solidity. 
First, a. oiliest in time; chief, primary. 
First-begot'ten, a. first produced ; eldest. 
First'bom, a. eldest : s. the eldest child. 
First'fi nits, *. the first produce of any thing ; 

the earliest effects. 
First'ling, s. the first produce or offspring. 
First'rate, n. pre-eminent, superior. 
Fise, s. a state or public treasury. 
Fis'cal, s. the exchequer, the revenue: a. 

belonging to the public revenue. 
Fish, s. an animal existing only in water. 
Fish, v. to catch fish ; to sift, to catch by art. 
Fish'cr, Fish'erman, s. one whose employ- 
ment is to catch fish. 
Fish'cry, s. the waters where fish are caught. 
Fish'-hook, 5. a hook to catch fish with. 
Fish'ir.g, s. the practice of catching fish. 
Fish'kettle, s. a vessel for boiling fish in. 
Fish'like, a. resembling fish. 
Fish'market, s. a place for the sale offish. 
Fish'monger, s. ore who sells or deals in fish. 
Fish'pond, s. a small pool for fish. 
Fish 'room, s. a room in a ship between the 

after-hold and the spirit-room. 
Fish'spear, s. a spear for stabbing fish. 
Fish'wife, Fish'woman, s. a woman that cries 

or sells fish. 
Fish'y, a. consisting of or like fish. 
Fis'sile, a. capable of being cloven. 
Fissil'ity, s. the quality of being fissile. 
Fis'sure, s. a cleft, an opening, a small chasm ; 
v. to make a fissure, to cleave. 



Fist, s. the hand clenched or closed : v. to 

strike with the hand clenched. 
Fisticuffs, s. a battle with the fists. 
Fis'tula, s. a sinuous ulcer callous within. 
Fis'tular, a. hollow, like a pipe. 
Fis'tulate, v. to turn or grow to a fistula ; to 

make hollow, like a pipe. 
Fistulous, a. pertaining to a fistula. 
Fit, s. a sudden and violent attack of a dis- 
temper, a convulsion, a paroxysm, a tem- 
porary affection ; an interval ; the parts or 
divisions of a song or poem. 
Fit, a. qualified, proper, convenient, meet. 
Fit, v. to suit, to accommodate, to adapt. 
Fitoh, s. a small kind of wild pea ; a vetch. 
Fitch' et, Fitch'ew, s. a polecat, a foumart. 
Fit'ful, a. varied by paroxysms. 
Fit'ly, ad. aptly, properly, suitably. 
Fit'ness, s. propriety, convenience, mectness. 
Fit'ter, s. he who makes fit, or adapts. 
Fit'tiugly, ad. suitably, fitly, properly. 
Fitz, s. a son (only used in the composition 
of surnames for illegitimate children), as 
Fitzroy, son of the king. 
Five, a. four and one ; the half of ten. 
Five 'barred, a. having five bars. 
Fi'vefold, a. five times as much. 
Fives, s. a kind of game with a hall. 
Fix, v. to make fast, to settle, to rest. 
Fix'able, a. that may be fixed. 
Fixa'tion, *. the act of fixing; stability. 
Fix'edly, ad. certainly, firmly, steadfastly. 
Fix'edness, s. the state of being fixed. 
Fix'ity, s. coherence of parts ; stability. 
Fix'ture, s. any piece of furniture fixed to & 

house, as grates, shelves, &c. 
Fix'ure, s. position, firmness, pressure. 
Fiz'gig, s. a kind of harpoon to strike fish. 
Fiz, Fiz'zle, v. to make a hissing sound. 
Flab'biness, s. limbcrness, softness. 
Flar/by, a. soft, not firm, limber, not stiff. 
Flac'cid, a. weak, limber, not stiff, not tense. 
Fiaccid'ity, s. laxity, limberness. 
Flag, v. to grow dejected, to droop. 
Flag, s. a military or naval ensign ; a water 

plant ; a fiat stone for paving. 
Fla"gellant, s. one who whips. 
Fla'gellate, v. to whip or scourge. 
Flagella'tion, s. the act of scourging ; a 

severe whipping. 
Fla"geolot, s. a small flute, a musical pipe. 
Flaggy, a. weak, limber, not tense; insipid. 
Flagi''tious, a. wicked, atrocious, vile. 
Flagi"tiously, ad. wickedly, atrociously. 
Flagi"tiousness, s. wickedness, villany. 
Fl&g' officer, s. the commander of a squadron 

or part of a fleet of ships. 
Flag'on, s. a drinking vessel of two quarts. 
Fla'grancy, Fla'grance, s. burning heat ; a 

glaring offence ; enormity. 
Fla'grant, a. burning ; glaring, notorious. 
Fla'grantly, ad. ardently ; notoriously. 
Flagra'tion, s. a burning, a conflagration. 
Flag'ship, s. the admiral's ship. 
Flag'staff, s. the staff on which a flag is fixed. 
Flag'stone, s. a flat stone for pavement. 
Flail, s. an instrument to thresh corn with. 
Flake, s. any thing that appears loosely put 

together ; a stratum, a layer, a lamina. 
Flake, v. to form in flakes or bodies loosely 
connected ; to break into laminae. 
F 2 



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Fla'ky, a. 'lying in layers or strata. 

Flam, s. a falsehood, a lie ; a pretext. 

Flam'beau, J. a lighted torch. 

Flame, s. light emitted from fire ; fire ; the 
passion of love ; brightness of fancy. 

Flame, v. to shine as fire, to blaze. 

Fla'meless, a. void of flame ; without incense. 

Fla'rnen, s. a priest of ancient Rome. 

Fla'ming, p. and a. blazing, burning ; bril- 
liant, gaudy. 

Fla'mingly, ad. radiantly, most brightly. 

Flamin'go, s. a bird so named from its flame- 
like color. 

Flammabil'ity, *. an aptness to take fire. 

Flam'mable, a. easily kindled into a flame. 

Flamma'tion, s. the act of setting on flame. 

Flam'meous, a. consisting of or like flame. 

Fla'my, a. inflamed, burning, flaming. 

Flank, s. the side ; part of a bastion ; that 
part of the side of a quadruped which lies 
between the ribs and the thigh. 

Flank, v. to attack the side of an army or 
fleet ; to border, to touch. 

Flank'er, s. a fortification commanding the 
side of an assailing body. 

Flank'er, v. to defend by flankers. 

Flan'nel, s. a soft nappy stuff made of wool. 

Flap, s. any thing that hangs broad and loose ; 
a blow with the hand ; a disease in horses. 

Flap, v. to beat with a flap ; to ply the wings 
with a flapping noise. 

Flap'dragon, s. a game in which raisins are 
snatched out of burning brandy and extin- 
guished by a flap of the mouth in swallow- 
ing them. 

Flap'eared, a. having broad and loose ears. 

Flap'per, s. a fan or flap for wind. 

Flare, v . to give a glaring unsteady light. 

Fla'ring, a. fluttering, glittering, showy. 

Flash, s. a sudden blaze ; a sudden burst. 

Flash, v. to glitter with a sudden flame. 

Fla?h'ily, ad. with empty show. 

Flash'iness, s. glittering, but empty show. 

Flash'y, a. showy, gay, empty, insipid. 

Flask, s. a kind of bottle ; a powder-horn. 

Flask'ot, s. a large basket ; a kind of tray. 

Flat, s. a level ; a plain ; a shallow ; a mark 
of depression in music. 

Flat, a., smooth, level ; depressed ; down- 
right, peremptory. 

Flat-bot'tomed, a. having a flat bottom. 

Flat'ly, ad. in a flat manner ; peremptorily. 

Flat'ness, s. evenness ; insipidity, dulness. 

Flat'ten, v. to make flat or level ; to depress. 

Flat'tcr, v. to praise falsely ; to raise false 
hopes ; to sooth, to delight. 

Flat'terer, s. a wheedler, a fawner. 

Flat'teringly, ad. in a flattering manner. 

Flat'tery, s. false praise, adulation. 

Flat'tish, a. somewhat flat, dull. 

Flat'ulence, Flat'ulency, J. windincss, vanity. 

Flat'uicnt, Flat'uous, a. windy, empty, vain. 

Flatuos'ity, s. windiness ; fulness of air. 

Fla'tus, s. a puff of wind, a breath. 

Flat'wise, ad. with the flat part downwards. 

Flaunt, v. to make a fluttering show in ap- 
parel ; to give one's self airs. 

Flaunt, *. any thing loose and airy. 

Fla'vor, s. taste, relish, odor : v. to give 
taste cr odor. 

Fla'vored, a. affecting the taste or smell. 



Fia'vorless, a. of no smell or taste. 

Fla'vorous, a. fragrant, odorous, palatable. 

Flaw, s. a crack, a defect : v. to damage. 

Flaw'less, a. not having any defects. 

Flaw'y, a. full of flaws ; broken, defective. 

Flax, s. the fibrous plant of which the finest 
thread is made. 

Flax'dresscr, s. he who prepares flax. 

Flax'en, a. of the color of or like flax ; fair, 

Flax'y, a. composed of or containing flax. 

Flay, v. to strip off the skin. 

Flay'er, s. he that strips off the skin. 

Flea, j. a small insect remarkable for leaping. 

Flea'bite, s. a red mark caused by fleas. 

Flea'bitten, a. stung by fleas ; mean. 

Fleam, s. an instrument used to bleed cattle. 

Flec'tion. See Flex'ion. 

Fledge, v. to supply with feathers or wings. 

Flee, v . to run from danger or for shelter. 

Fleece, s. the wool from one sheep. 

Fleece, v. to strip or plunder a person. 

Flce'cer, s. one who strips or plunders. 

Flee'cy, a. woolly, covered with wool. 

Fleer, ». to mock, to jest with contempt. 

Fleer, s. a derisive look, mockery. 

Fleer'cr, s. a mocker, a derider. 

Fleet, a. swift of pace, nimble, active. 

Fleet, s. a company of ships, a navy. 

Fleet, v. to fly swiftly ; to vanish ; to skim. 

Fleet'ing, /j.anda. passing away continually. 

Fleet'ly, ad. with swift pace, nimbly. 

Fleet'ness, *. swiftness, celerity, velocity. 

Flesh, s. the muscular part of the body ; hu- 
man nature ; carnal appetite. 

Flesh'brush, *. a brush to rub the flesh with. 

Flesh'color, s. the color of flesh. 

Flesh'ed, Flesh'y, a. full of flesh, plump. 

Flesh'fly, s. a fly that feeds upon flesh. 

Flesh'in'ess, s. fulness of flesh, plumpness. 

Flesh'less, a. meagre, without flesh. 

Flesh'liness, s . carnal passions or appetites. 

Flesh'ly, a. carnal, not spiritual. 

Flesh'meat, s. animal food, flesh of animals. 

Flesh'monger, s. one who deals in flesh. 

Flesh'pot, s. a vessel in which flesh is cooked. 

Fletch, v. to feather an arrow. 

Fletch'er, s. a maker of bows and arrows. 

Fletz, Floetz, s. a term used by geologists to 
denote certain formations of rocks. 

Fleur-de-lis, [Fr.] s. a bulbous iris. 

Flew, s. the large chaps of a hound. 

Flexed, a. chapped, deep-mouthed. 

Flexibility, *. pliancy, ductility, facility. 

Flex'ible, Flex'ile, a. pliant, manageabJe. 

Flcx'ibleness, s. pliancy ; ductility. 

Flex'ion, s. the act of bending; ajoint,aturn. 

Flcx'or, [Lat.] s. the general name given to 
the contracting muscles. 

Flex'uous, a. winding, variable, not straight. 

Flex'ure, s. the part bent, the joint. 

Flick'er, v. to move, as the wings without 
flTing, to flutter. 

Flick'ering, s. fluttering ; unsteady motion. 

Flick'ermouse, s. a bat. 

Fli'er, s. part of a jack ; a regulating wheel. 

Flight, s. the act of flying or running away; 
a flock of birds ; an excursion of fancy ; the 
stairs from one landing-place to another. 

Fli^ht'iness, J. irregularity of conduct. 

Flight'y, a. fleeting, wild, imaginary. 

Fliin'flam, 5. a freak, a whim, a trick. 



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Flini'siness, s. easy texture, looseness. 

Flim'sy, a. weak, slight, spiritless ; mean. 

Flinch, v. to shrink or withdraw from. 

Flinch'er, s. he who shrinks or fails. 

Fling, v. to throw, dart, scatter, flounce. 

Fling, s. a throw ; a contemptuous remark. 

Fiing'er, *. he who throws, he who jeers. 

Flint, s. a hard kind of stone. 

Flintheart'cd, a. hard-hearted, cruel. 

Flint'y, a. made of flint ; inexorable, cruel. 

Flip, s. a drink made of beer, spirits, and 
sugar. 

Flip'pancy, s. pertness, talkativeness. 

Flip'pant, a. pert, talkative, loquacious. 

Flip'pantly, ad. in a flippant manner. 

Flip'pantness, «. fluency of speech; flippancy. 

Flirt, v. to throw with a jerk ; to move sud- 
denly, as a fan ; to be unsteady or flutter- 
ing ; to jeer or mock ; to coquet : s. a 
sudden jerk ; a jeer, a coquette. 

Flirta'tion, s. sprightly motion, coquetry. 

Flit, v. to fly away, to flutter, to remove. 

Flitch, s. the side of a hog salted and cured. 

Flit'tiness, s. unsteadiness, lightness. 

Flit'ting, s. a removal; changing one's abode. 

Float, v. to swim on the surface of water ; to 
move lightly as on the surface of a fluid. 

Float, *. the cork or quill of an angler's line ; 
large pieces of timber fastened together to 
convey goods with the stream. 

Float'age, s. that which floats on the water. 

Float'er, s. he that floats or sails. 

Float'stone, s. a gray porous mineral. 

Float'y, a. buoyant, swimming on the surface. 

Floc'culent, a. adhering in locks or flocks. 

Flock, s. company of birds, sheep, &c. ; 
wool prepared for stuffing beds, <&c. 

Flock, v. to assemble in crowds. 

Flock'bcd, s. a bed filled with locks of wool. 

Floe, s. a large sheet of floating ice. 

Flog, v. to lash or scourge, to chastise. 

Flog'ging, s. a whipping for punishment. 

Flood, s. an inundation, a deluge ; influx of 
the tide ; a body of water; the sea. 

Fiood, v. to deluge, to inundate. 

Flood'gate, s. a gate to stop or let out water. 

Flook. See Fluke. 

Floor, s. that part of a room on whicli we 
walk ; a story or level suite of rooms. 

Floor, v. to cover with a floor. 

Flooring, s. that which is laid at the bottom. 

Flo'ra, s. the goddess of flowers ; a catalogue 
or account of flowers or plants. 

Flo'ra], a. relating to Flora or to flowers. 

Flores'cence, s. the season when plants flower. 

Flo'rct, s. a small imperfect flower. 

Flor'iagc, s. bloom, blossom. 

Flor'id, a. covered with flowers ; flushed 
with red ; highly embellished. 

Flor'idly, ad. in a showy and imposing way. 

Florldness, Florid'ity, s. freshness of color. 

Floriferous, a. productive of flowers. 

Florifica'tion, s. the act or time of flowering. 

Flor'in, *. a coin first made at Florence. 
Flor'ist, s. one who cultivates flowers. 
Florlilent, a. flowery, blossoming. 
FWcule, s. (in botany) a partial or less floret 

of an aggregate flower. 
Fios'culons, a. composed of flowers. 
Fioas, s. a downy substance on some plants. 
Flo&s'y, a. downy ; covered with a silky nap. 



Flo'ta, s. a fleet of Spanish merchant ships. 

Flotil'la, 5. a fleet of small vessels. 

Flot'son, (in law) s. goods found floating. 

Flounce, v. to plunge in the water; to move 
away from suddenly and with anger. 

Flounce, s. a loose full trimming sewed to a 
woman's apparel : v. to deck with flounces. 

Fiou'nder, v. to struggle with violent and ir- 
regular motion ; to plunge in water. 

Fiou'nder, s. a small flat river fish. 

Flour, s. the fine part of ground wheat. 

Flour, v. to sprinkle with flour. 

Flour'ish, v. to thrive a,s a healthy plant ; to 
be prosperous ; to brandish ; to brag or 
boast ; to embellish. 

Flour'ish, s. display ; ostentatious embellish- 
ment ; a short musical overture. 

Flour'isher, s. one who flourishes. 

Flour'ishingly, ad. ostentatiously, vigorously. 

Flout, v. to mock ; to insult ; to sneer at. 

Flout'er, s. a mocker, he that flouts. 

Flout'ingly, ad. with flouting ; insultingly. 

Flow, v. to run as water, to overflow : s. the 
rise of water opposed to the ebb ; a sudden 
abundance. 

Flow'er, s. the blossom of a plant ; the best, 
finest, or most valuable part of any thing, 
the prime of life : v. to be in flower, U 
blossom. 

Flower-de-luce. See Fleur-de-lis. 

Flow'eret, s. a small flower. 

Flow'ering, s. the state of blossoming. 

Flow'erless, a. having no flower. 

FJow'ery, a. full of or adorned with flowers. 

Fio'wing, s. the rise of the water ; the flow. 

Flo'wingly, ad. copiously ; volubly. 

Flo'wingness, s. smoothness of diction. 

Flue'tuant, a. wavering, uncertain. 

Fluc'tuate, v. to waver ; to be irresolute. 

Fluctua'tion, s. alternate motion of the 
water ; unsteadiness. 

Flue, *. soft down or fur; pipe of a chimney. 

Flu'ency, s. volubility, copiousness of speech. 

Flu'ent, a. eloquent, flowing ; liquid. 

Flu'ently, ad. flowingly, volubly ; copiously. 

Flu'id, s* any thing that flows ; a liquid : a. 
running water, not solid. 

Fluid'ity, s. the quality of flowing easily. 

Fluke, s. a flounder or flat fish ; the broad 
part or arm of an anchor. 

Flum'mery, s. a kind of food made of wheat- 
flour or oatmeal ; flattery. 

Flu'or, s. a fluid state ; fluate of lime. 

Fluoric, a. pertaining to fluor. 

Flu'orine, *. the basis of fluoric acid. 

Flur'ry, s. flutter of spirits ; a hasty blast 
of wind : v. to keep in agitation, to alarm. 

Flush, v. to flow suddenly ; to redden, to 
glow ; to elate or elevate : s. a sudden 
flow ; abundance ; a run of cards of the 
same suit. 

Flush, a. fresh, full of vigor, abounding. 

Flushing, s. the color which rises on the face, 
neck, &c, by a sudden afflux of blood. 

Flus'ter, s. hurry, agitation : v. to hurry ; to 
be in a bustle. 

Flute, s. a musical pipe ; a channel or furrow 
cut in columns or pillars. 

Flute, v. to cut channels in columns. 

Flu'ted,rt. having channels cut on the surface-. 

Flu'ting, s. fluted work on a pillar, &c- 



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Flu'tist, s. a performer on a flute. 

Flut'ter, t/.to fly with agitation of the wings : 

s. hurry, tumult ; disorder of mind. 
Fluttering, s. tumult of mind ; agitation. 
Flu'vial, a. belonging or relating to rivers. 
Flux, s. the tide or flowing of the sea; a 

dysentery ; confluence ; concourse. 
Fluxa'tion, s. the act of passing away. 
Fluxibillty, s. aptness to flow or spread. 
Flux'ible, a. not durable, changing. 
Fluxillty, s. capability of liquefaction. 
Fluxion, s. the act of flowing ; the matter 

that flows : Fluxions, pi. the analysis of 

infinitely small variable quantities. 
Fkix'ionary, a. pertaining to mathematical 

fluxions. 
Fluxlve, a. flowing, wanting solidity. 
Fly, v. to move with wings ; to run away, to 

shun; to spring suddenly ; break, shiver: 

s. a winged insect ; balance of a jack; a 

sort of carriage for hire. 
Fly'blow, v. to fill with maggots: tf.afly'segg. 
Fly'boat, s. a light vessel for sailing. 
Fly'iish, v. to angle with a fly upon a hook. 
Fly'flap, s. a fan or flapper to keep flies off. 
Fly'ing-bridge, s. a bridge of boats. 
Flying-fish, s. a fish of the gurnard kind. 
Foal, v. to bring forth a foal : s. the young of 

a mare or ass. 
Foam, v. to froth, to be violently agitated : s. 

froth, spume. 
Foam'y, a. covered with foam, frothy. 
Fob, s. a small pocket for a watch, &c. : v. 

to trick, to cheat, to defraud. 
Fo'cal, a. belonging to a focus. 
Fo'cil, s. the bone between the knee and 

ankle, or the elbow and wrist. 
Fo'cus, s. a point where rays of light meet ; 

a point of convergence. 
Fod'der, s. dry food for cattle : v. to feed. 
Fod'derer, s. he who fodders cattle. 
Foe, s. an enemy, a persecutor, an opponent. 
Fo'elike, a. like an enemy. 
Foe'man, s. an enemy in war ; antagonist. 
Fce'tal, a. pertaining to a foetus. 
Fce'tus, Fe'tus, s. a child in embryo. 
Fog, s. thick mist ; moist vapor. 
Fog'gy, a. misty, cloudy, dark, dull. 
Foh ! int. a term expressive of abhorrence. 
Foi'ble, s. a weakness, a failing : a. weak. 
Foil, v. to defeat ; to put to the worst : *'. a 

defeat ; a blunt sword used in fencing ; a 

thin leaf of metal, (as gold-leaf, tin-foil) ; 

something of another color placed near a 

jewel to increase its lustre ; any thing 

which serves to set off something else. 
Foil'er, s. one who foils. 
Foil'ing, s. among hunters, the mark, barely 

visible, where deer have passed over grass. 
Foin, v. to thrust, to push : s. a thrust. 
Foi'son, s. plenty, abundance. 
Foist, v. to insert by forgery, to cram in. 
Foist'er, s. he who inserts without authority. 
Fold, s. a pen for sheep ; a double or plait : 

v. to double up ; to enclose, to shut. 
Fo'lder, s. one who, or that which folds. 
Fo'lding, s. a fold ; a doubling. 
Folia'ceous, a. consisting of leaves. 
Foliage, s. the leaves or tufts of trees. 
Fo'liaged, a. furnished with foliage. 
Foliate, a. leaved, or having leaves. 



Foliate, v. to beat into leaves. 

Folia'tion, s. the act of beating into thin 

leaves ; the leafing of plants 
Fo'liature, s. the state of being beaten into 

foil, or thin leaves. 
Fo'lier, s. goldsmith's foil. 
Fo'lio, s. a large book, of which the pages are 

formed by sheets of paper once doubled. 
Fo'lious, a. leafy, thin, unsubstantial. 
Folk, s. people, nations, mankind. 
Fo'lk-land, s. copyhold land. 
Fo'lk-raote, s. a meeting of people. 
Follicle, s. a cavity in any body with strong 

coats ; the seed vessel. 
Follow, v. to go after, to attend, to obey. 
Follower, s. an attendant, a dependent. 
Following, a. succeeding ; next after. 
Folly, s. foolishness, simplicity, weakness. 
Foment', v. to cherish with heat ; to bathe 

with lotions ; to encourage, to abet. 
Fomentation, s. the act of fomenting ; a 

lotion ; excitation, encouragement. 
Foment'er, s. an encourager, a supporter. 
Fond, a. tender ; indiscreet, foolish, silly. 
Fon'dle, v. to caress, to be fond of. 
Fondler, s. one who fondles. 
Fond'ling, 5. one much caressed or doted on. 
Fond'ly, ad. with extreme tenderness. 
Fond'ness, s. foolishness, tender passion. 
Font, s. a baptismal basin ; a complete set 

of printing types of one size. 
Font'al, a. pertaining to a fount or source. 
Fon'tanel, s. a little font or issue, a place of 

discharge. 
Fontan'ge, s. a knot or ornament of ribands 

on the top of the head-dress. 
Food, s. victuals ; any thing that nourishes. 
Foodless, a. not affording food ; barren. 
Fool, s. a natural, an idiot ; a buffoon : v. to 

trifle, toy, deceive, disappoint. 
Fool'born, a. foolish from the birth. 
Fool'ery, s. habitual folly; an act of folly. 
Fool'happy, a. lucky without contrivance. 
Foolhar'diness, s. courage without sense. 
Fool'hardy, a. madly adventurous, daring. 
Foolish, a. weak of intellect, imprudent. 
Foolishly, ad. weakly, without sense. 
Foolishness, s. silliness, want of reason. 
Fools'cap, s. a certain size of paper. 
Fool'trap, s. a trap to catch fools. 
Foot, s. that on which any animal or thing 

stands ; the base ; a measure of twelve 

inches ; a measure in poetry : v. to dance, 

to walk, to tread ; to spurn. 
Foot'band, *. a band of infantry. 
Foot'boy, s. a menial, an attendant in livery. 
Foot'bridge, s. a narrow bridge for foot 

passengers. 
Foot'ed, a. shaped to the foot. 
Foot'fall, s. a stumble, a trip of the foot. 
Foot'guards, s. pi. guards of infantry. 
Foot'ing, s. ground for the foot ; support ; 

foundation, basis; tread, dance; entrance, 

condition. 
Foot'man, 5. a servant who attends on foot. 
Foot'pace, s. a slow pace, as in walking. 
Foot'pad, ,?. a highwayman that robs on foot. 
Foot'path, s. a narrow way for passengers. 
Footsol'dier, s. a soldier that serves on foot. 
Foot'stalk, (in botany) s. the stem of a leaf. 
Foot'stall, s. a woman's stirrup. 



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Foot'step, s. a trace, track, mark of a foot. 
Foot'stool, s. a stool to put the feet on. 
Fop, s. a vain fellow, a simpleton. 
Fop'ling, s. a young or petty fop. 
Fop'pery, s. folly, affectation of show. 
Fop'pish, a. affected, foolish, idle, vain. 
Fop'pishly, ad. in a trifling or affected manner. 
Fop'pishness, s. over nicety, vain affectation. 
For, prep, because of, with regard to. 
For'age, s. provisions in general. 
For'age, v. to wander in search of provisions ; 

to ravage, to plunder. 
For'aging, a. collecting provisions. 
For'ager, s one who goes in search of spoil. 
Foram'inous, a. full of holes ; porous. 
Forasmuch', con. whereas, because, since. 
Forbear 7 , v. to pause, to abstain, to intermit. 
Forbear'ance, s. lenity ; command of temper. 
Forbid', v. to prohibit, to interdict, to oppose. 
Forbid'dance, s. a prohibition, denial. 
Forbid'denly, ad. in an unlawful manner. 
Forbid'denness, s. state of being forbidden. 
Forbid'der, s. he who forbids. 
Forbid'ding, p. and a. repulsive ; causing 

aversion ; of disagreeable aspect. 
Force, s. strength, violence ; an armament. 
Force, v. to compel, to urge ; to violate ; to 

farce or stuff, whence " forced-meat," a 

kind of stuffing in cookery, 
Fo'rced, a. affected, unnatural. 
Fo'rcedne3S, s. state of being forced. 
Fo'rceful, a. violent, strong, impetuous. 
Fo'rcefully, ad. violently, impetuously. 
Fo'rceless, a. having little force; feeble. 
For'ceps, s. a surgical instrument. 
Fo'rcer, s. that which forces or constrains. 
Fo'rcible, a. strong, impetuous, powerful. 
Fo'rcibleness, s. force, violence. 
Fo'rcibly, ad. powerfully, impetuously. 
Fo'rcing, s. the raising plants by artifi cial heat. 
For'cipated, a. formed like a pair of pincers. 
Ford, s. a shallow part of a river : v. to pass 

a river without swimming. 
Ford'able, a. passable without swimming. 
Fore, a. anterior : ad. before. 
Foreadmon'ish, v. to counsel beforehand. 
Foreadvi'se, v. to counsel early. 
Forearm', v. to provide for attack beforehand. 
Forebo'de, v. to foretel, to prognosticate. 
Forebo'dement, Forebo'ding, s. presage. 
Forebo'der, s. a prognosticator ; a soothsayer. 
Forebo'ding, s. a prognostication. 
Fo'rebrace, s. a rope at the yard-arm. 
Forecast', v. to scheme, contrive, foresee. 
Fo'recast, s. contrivance, antecedent policy. 
Fo'rccastle, s. the foredeck of a ship. 
Forecho'sen, a. pre-elected ; chosen before. 
Foreclo'se, v. to shut up, to preclude. 
Foreclosure, s. a deprivation of the power of 

redeeming a mortgage. 
Foreda'te, v. to date before the true time. 
Fo'redeck, s. the anterior part of a ship. 
Foredeter'minc, v. to decree beforehand. 
Foredoom', v. to doom beforehand ; to pre- 
destinate. 
Foredoor', s. a door in front of a house. 
Fore-end', s. the end that precedes. 
Fo'rofather, s. an ancestor. 
Forehn'ger, s. the fingeT next to the thumb. 
Forefoot', s. the anterior foot of a quadruped. 
Fo'rofront, s . the foremost part. 



Fo'regame, s. the first game, first plan. 
Forego', v. to resign ; to give up. 
Foregon'e, a. past, by-gone, settled. 
Fo'reground, s. that part of a picture 

seems to ] ie before the figures. 
Fo'rehand, s. the part of a horse which is 

before the rider : a. done too soon. 
Fo'rehanded, a. early, timely ; formed in the 

fore parts. 
For'ehead, s. the upper part of the face. 
Forehe'ar, v. to be informed before. 
Fo'reholding, s. a foreboding, a prediction. 
For'eign, a. not domestic ; alien ; extraneous 

not to the purpose. 
Foreigner, s. one of another country. 
For'eignness, s. the want of relation to. 
Fore-ima"gine, v. to conceive before proof. 
Forejudge, v. to judge beforehand. 
Forejudg'ment, s. judgment formed before- 
hand. 
Foreknow', v. to know previously. 
Foreknow'able, a. that may be foreknown. 
Foreknowledge, s. prescience ; knowledge 

of that which has not yet happened. 
Fo'reland, s. a promontory, headland, cape. 
Forelay', v. to lay wait for, to entrap. 
Fo'relook, *. the hair on the forehead. 
Forelook', v. to see beforehand. 
Fo'reman, s. the first or chief person. 
Fo'remast, s. the first or head mast of a ship 
Foremen'tioned, a. mentioned before. 
Foremeant', a. intended beforehand. 
Fo'remost, a. first in place, first in dignity. 
Fo'renamed, a. nominated before. 
Fo'renoon, s. the time before mid-day. 
Foren'sic, a. belonging to courts of justice. 
Foreordain', v. to ordain beforehand. 
Fo'repart, s. the anterior part. 
Fo'rerank, s. the first rank, the front. 
Forerun'ner, s. a harbinger, one sent before ; 

a prognostic, a prelude. 
Fo'resail, s. the sail of the foremast. 
Foresay', v to predict, to prophesy. 
Foresay'ing, s. a prediction. 
Foresee', v. to see beforehand, to foreknow. 
Foreshad'ow, v. to typify beforehand. 
Foreshor'ten, v. to shorten figures in drawing. 
Foreshortening, s. act of shortening in front. 
Foreshow', v. to show beforehand. 
Fore'shrouds, s. shrouds of the foremast. 
Fo'reside, s. the front side; a specious outside. 
Fo'resight, s. foreknowledge ; penetration. 
Forespe'ak, v. to foresay ; to forbid. 
Forespent', a. wasted, tired, spent. 
For'est, s. a wild uncultivated tract ot 

ground, covered with wood. 
Forestal', v. to buy up goods or cattle before 

they come to market, in order to sell them 

at an advanced price ; to anticipate. 
Forestall'er, s. one who forestals the market. 
For'ester, s. a keeper of a forest. 
Foretack'le, s. the tackle on the foremast. 
Foreta'ste, v . to anticipate ; to taste before. 
Fo'retaste, s. a taste before ; anticipation. 
Foreteach', v. to teach beforehand. 
Foretel', v. to utter, to prophesy, to predict. 
Foretel'ler, s. one who foretels. 
Foretelling, s. declaration of a future event, 
Forethink', v. to anticipate in the mind. 
Fo'rethought, s. prescience ; anticipation , 

provident care, caution. 



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FOB 



Foreto'ken, v. to foreshow : *. an omen. 
Foretooth', s. one of the front teeth. 
Fo'retop, s. the top of the foremast ; the form 

of a wig or head-dress. 
ForeVer, ad. at all times ; to eternity. 
Forewarn', v. to admonish heforehand, to 

caution against. 
Forewarning, s. previous admonition. 
Forfeit, s. a penalty for an offence ; a fine : 

v. to lose by some offence : a. liable to 

penal seizure. 
Forfeitable, a. subject to forfeiture. 
Forfeiture, s. the act of forfeiting ; a fine. 
Forfend', v. to prevent, to forbid. 
For'fex, s. a pair of scissors. 
Forge, s. a fire or place in which metals aro 

made malleable ; a furnace. 
Forge, v. to form or beat into shape by the 

hammer ; to counterfeit, to falsify. 
Fo'rger, s. one who counterfeits any thing. 
Fo'rgery, s. the crime of falsification. 
Forget', v, to lose memory of, to neglect. 
Forget'ful, a. inattentive, apt to forget. 
Forget'fulness, s. loss of memory ; neglect. 
Forget'ter, s. one that forgets. 
Forgive, v. to pardon, to remit, to excuse. 
Forgiveness, s. the act of forgiving ; pardon. 
ForgiVer, s. one who pardons another. 
Forgiving, a. disposed to forgive ; merciful. 
Forin'secal, a. foreign ; alien. 
Fork, s. an instrument with two or more 

prongs for domestic uses, &c. 
Fork, v. to shoot into blades or branches. 
Fork'ed, Fork'y, a. opening into two or more 

parts, like the prongs of a fork. 
Forlorn', a. deserted, helpless, lost, desperate. 
Forlorn'-hope, s. those soldiers who arc sent 

first to any hazardous attack. 
Forlorn'ness, s. a forlorn state ; destitution. 
Form, s. shape, figure ; beauty, order, stated 

method ; empty show, ceremony : v. to 

fashion, to model, to arrange. 
Form, s. a long seat in a school ; a class ; 

the bed or seat of a hare. 
Formal, a. ceremonious, affected, methodi- 
cal, observant of form. 
For'malist, s. a lover of formality. 
Formality, s. ceremony, preciseness. 
For'malize, v. to affect formality. 
Formally, ad. according to rule, precisely. 
Forma'tion, s. the act of forming ; the man- 
ner in which a thing is formed. 
For'mative, a. having the power of forming. 
For'mer, a. before another in time ; past. 
Form'er, s. one who forms, a maker. 
For'roerly, ad. in time past. 
Form'ful, a. creative, imaginative. 
Formidable, a. terrible, dreadful, terrific. 
For'midableness, s. quality of exciting terror 

or dread ; the thing causing dread. 
For'midably, ad. in a formidable manner. 
Form'less, a. having no form, shapeless. 
For'mula, s. a prescribed rule or pattern. 
For'mulary, s. a book of stated forms. 
For'nicatc, v. to commit lewdness. 
Fornica'tion, s. lewdness, incontinence. 
Fornicator, s. one that commits fornication. 
Fornicatress, s. an unchaste woman. 
Forray', v. to ravage, to spoil a country : 5. 

the act of ravaging a country. 
Forsa'ke, v. to leave, to desert, to neglect. 



Forsaken, p. and a. neglected, deserted, 
Forsa'ker, s. deserter ; one that forsakes. 
Forsa'king, *. the act of deserting. 
Forsooth', ad. in truth, certainly, very well. 
Forswear', v. to renounce upon oath ; to swear 

falsely ; to commit perjury. 
Forswearer, s. one who is perjured. 
Fort, s. a fortified building ; a castle. 
Forte, s. a peculiar faculty or talent. 
Fo'rte, [Ital.] ad. a direction in music to 

sing or play with force of tone. 
Fo'rted, a. guarded by or having forts. 
Forth, ad. forward, abroad, out of doors. 
Forthcoming, a. ready to appear. 
Forth-is'suing, a. issuing, coming out of. 
Forthwith', ad. immediately, without delay. 
For'tieth, a. the tenth taken four times. 
For'tifiable, a. that may be fortified. 
Fortifica'tion, S. the science of military 

architecture ; a place built for strength. 
Fortifier, s. one who erects works for defence. 
For'tify, v. to strengthen, to encourage. 
Fortis'simo, [Ital.]adf. very loudly. 
For'titude, s. courage ; strength to endure. 
Fort'night, s. the space of two weeks. 
Fo'rtress, s. a stronghold, a fortified place. 
Fo'rtressed, a. defended by a fortress. 
Fortuitous, a. accidental, casual. 
Fortuitously, ad. accidentally, 
Fortuitousness, s. accident, chance. 
Fortuity, s. chance, accident. 
For'tunate, a. lucky, successful, happy. 
For'tunately, ad. happily, prosperously. 
For'tune, s. the good or ill that befalls man- 
kind ; chance ; event ; success ; estate, 

riches, a marriage portion. 
For'tune, v. to befall ; to happen by chance. 
Fortuned, a. sujoplied by fortune. 
For'tune-hunter, s. a man who soeks to 

marry a woman only for her fortune. 
For'tuneless, a. luckless ; without fortune. 
For'tuneteller, s. one who pretends to foretel 

future events. 
Fortune-telling, s. the act of prediction. 
For'ty, a. four times ten. 
Fo'rum, s. a public place in Rome where 

causes were tried ; a tribunal or court. 
For'ward, a. the part in front ; eager, bold, 

presumptuous ; early ripe : ad. frontward, 

onward : v. to hasten ; to advance ; to send 

forward. 
For'wardly, ad. eagerly, hastily, readily. 
For'wardness, s. eagerness, boldness. 
For'wards, ad. straight before ; progressively. 
Fosse, s. a ditch, moat, or entrenchment. 
Fos'sil, s. a mineral : a. what is dug up. 
Fos'silist, s. one who collects fossils. 
Fos'silize, v. to become a fossil. 
Fos'ter, v. to nurse, cherish, bring up. 
Fos'tcrage, s. the charge of nursing. 
Fos'ter-brother, s. one bred at the same 

breast. 
Fos'ter-child, s. a child nursed or bW by a 

man or woman who is not the parent. 
Fos'ter-mother, s. she who fosters a child. 
Fos'ter-earth, s. earth by which a plant is 

nourished, though not its native soil. 
Fos'tercr, 5. a nurse ; an encourager. 
Fos'ter-father, s. he that rears the child of 

another. 
Fos'tering, a. that cherishes and encourages. 



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Fosterling, s. a child brought up by those 

that are not its natural parents. 
Foth'er, s. a load ; a weight of lead : v. to 

stop leaks in ships. 
Foul, a. filthy, unclean ; impure ; unfair ; 

ugly ; -wicked : v. to daub, to dirty, to 

make foul. 
Foul'faced, a. having an ugly hateful face. 
Foul'ly, ad. filthily, nastily, odiously. 
Foul'mouthed, a. using scurrilous language. 
Foul'ness, *. the quality or state of being foul. 
Foul'spoken, a. contumelious, slanderous. 
Fou'mart, s. a ferret, a polecat ; a weasel. 
Found, v. to lay the basis of any building or 

institution ; to build ; to establish. 
Found, v. to form by melting and casting 

into moulds. 
Foundation, s. the basis of an edifice ; the 

first principles ot grounds ; establishment ; 

endowment. 
Founda'tionless, a. without a foundation. 
Found'er, s. a builder ; an establisher ; a 

caster : v. to grow lame ; to sink to the 

bottom ; to fail. 
Found'ery, Found'ry, s. a place for casting 

metals. 
Found'ling, s. a deserted infant. 
Found'ress, a - , a woman that founds, builds, 

or establishes anything. 
Fount, Fount'ain, s. a spring, a spout of 

•water ; an origin, a first cause. 
Fount. See Font. 

Fount'ain -bead, s. primary source ; original. 
Four, a. twice two. 
Fo-ur'fold, a. four times as many. 
Four' footed, a. going on four feet. 
Four'scove, a. four times twenty ; eighty. 
Four'tcen, a. four and ten. 
Fourtee'nth, a. the ordinal of fourteen. 
Fourth', a. the ordinal of four. 
Fourth'! y, ad. in the fourth place. 
Four'wheeled, a. running upon four wheels. 
Fowl, s. a winged animal, a bird : v. to kill 

birds for food or game. 
Fowl'er, s. a sportsman ; a bird-catcher. 
Fow'ling, s. the act of shooting birds. 
Fow'ling-piece, s. a gun for shooting birds. 
Fox, s. an animal of the dog kind, remarkable 

for cunning ; a cunning person ; a knave. 
Fox'chnse, s pursuit of a fox with hounds. 
Fox'glove, s. a plant, the digitalis. 
Fox'hound, j. a hound for chasing foxes. 
Fox'hunter, j. one who hunts foxes. 
Fox'ish, a. cunning, artful ; like a fox. 
Fox'like, a. resembling the cunning of a fox. 
Fox'tail, s. a species of grass. 
Fox'trap, s. a gin or snare to catch foxes. 
Fox'y, a. belonging to a fox ; wily as a fox. 
Fraca's, [Fr.] *. an uproar ; a disturbance. 
Frac'tion, s. tbe act of breaking ; the state 

of being broken ; a broken part of an 

integral. 
Frac'tional, a. belonging to a fraction. 
Frac'tionary, a. pertaining to fractions. 
Fvac'tious, «. cross, peevish, quarrelsome. 
Frac'tiousness, s. peevishness. 
Frac'ture, ». to break, particularly a bone : s. 

a breach or break. 
Fra"gile, a. brittle ; easily broken ; -weak. 
Fragil'ity, s. brittlcncss, weakness, frailty. 
Frag'ment, s. a part broken off; a pieoe. 



Frag'mentary, a. composed of fragments. 
Fra'gor, s. a noise, a crack, a crash. 
Fra'grance, Fra'grancy, s. sweetness of smell; 

grateful odour ; pleasant scent. 
Fra'grant, a. odorous, sweet of smell. 
Fra'grantly, ad. with sweet scent. 
Frail, a. weak, feeble, liable to error : *. a 

basket made of rushes. 
Frail'ness, s. weakness, instability. 
Frail'ty, s. weakness ; a fault proceeding 

from weakness ; a foible. 
Frame, v. to form, to fabricate, to compose ; 

to regulate ; to contrive, to invent : s. 

a structure composed of parts united ; a 

fabric ; order ; scheme ; construction [ 

shape. 
Fra'mer, s. a maker, former, contriver. 
Fra'mework, s. work done in a frame. 
Fra'ming, s. the timber-work of a house. 
Franc, s. a French silver coin. 
Fran'chise, v. to make free; to enfranchise. 
Fran'chise,*. freedom; immunity; privilege; 

a right to vote at elections. 
Fran'ckisernent. See Enfranchisement. 
Francis'can, s. a monk of the order of St. 

Francis : a. relating to the Franciscans. 
Frangibil'ity, J. state of being frangible. 
Fran'gible, a. easily broken, fragile, brittle. 
Frank, a. liberal, ingenuous, unreserved. 
Frank, s. a free letter ; tbe name given to 

Europeans by some Eastern nations. 
Frank, v. to exempt from payment. 
Frank'chase, s. a liberty of free chase. 
Frank'fee, s. a holding of lands in fee simple. 
Frank'incense, s, an odoriferous drug. 
Frank'lin, s. the old word for a freeholder. 
Frank'ly,arf. freely, plainly, without reserve. 
Frank'ness, s. open-heartcdness, liberality. 
Frankpledge, s. a pledge for the good con- 
duct of freemen. 
Fran'tic, a. mad, distracted, transported. 
Fran'ticly, arf.madly, furiously, outrageously. 
Fran'ticness, s. madness, distraction. 
Frater'nal, a. brotherly, becoming brothers. 
Frater'nally, ad. in a brotherly manner. 
Frater'nity, $. a brotherhood ; a society. 
Frateruiza'tion, s.act of forming a fraternity. 
Frat'ertiize, v. to associate as brothei-3. 
Frat'ricide, s. the murder of a brother ; ono 

who murders his brother. 
Fraud, s. deceit, trick, artifice, cheat. 
Fraud'fully, ad. deceitfully; treacherously. 
Fraud'ulence, Fraud'ulency, j.deceitfulness; 

roguery ; proneness to artifice. 
Fraud'ulent, Fraud'ful, a. full of artifice, 

deceitful, trickish, subtle. 
Fraudulently, ad. by fraud, treacherously. 
Fraught, s. a freight, a cargo : p. laden. 
Fray, s. a broil, a battle : v. to frighten. 
Fray, v. to rub, to wear. 
Freak, J. a sudden fancy, a whim, a humour : 

v. to variegate, to chequer. 
Frcak'ish, a. capricious, bumorsome. 
Fieak'ishly, ad. capriciously, whimsically. 
Freak'ishness, *. capriciousness, whimsioal- 

ness. 
Freck'le, s. a spot in the skin : v. to spot. 
Frcck'led, a. full of spots or freckles. 
Freck'le-faoed, a. having a face full of freckles. 
Free, a. at liberty ; licentious ; liberal ; frank. 
Free, v. to set at liberty ; to clear from. 
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Free'bench. s. a widow's dower in a copyhold. 
Free'booter, s. a robber, a plunderer. 
Free'booting, s. robbery; plunder. 
Free'born, a. inheriting liberty. 
Free'cost, s. freedom from charge or expense. 
Freed'man, s. a slave manumitted. 
Free'dorn, s. liberty, privilege, familiarity. 
Frecheart'ed, a. liberal, generous, kind. 
Freeheart'edness, s. frankness ; liberality. 
Freehold, s. land held in perpetual right. 
Free'holder, s. one who has a freehold. 
Free'ly, ad. spontaneously ; without restraint. 
Free'man, s. one not a slave ; one entitled to 

particular rights and privileges. 
Free'mason, s. one of the fraternity of masons. 
Free'minded, a. unconstrained, without care. 
Free'ness, s. the being free ; ingenuousness, 

liberality. 
Free'school, s. a school in which learning is 

gratuitous ; an. endowed school. 
Frcespo'ken, a. speaking without reserve. 
Free'stone, s. a kind of stone easily wrought. 
Free'thinker, s. a contemner of religion. 
Freethink'ing, s. the practice of a freethinker. 
Frce'tongued, a. speaking without reserve. 
Freewill', s. power of acting without restraint. 
Free'woman, s. a woman not a slave. 
Freeze, v. to be congealed with cold ; to 

harden into ice ; to chill. 
Freight, s. the lading of a ship ; the money 

due for transportation of goods. 
Freight, v. to load or charter a ship or vessel. 
Freight'er, s. one who freights a ship. 
French, a. of or belonging to France. 
French, s. the people or language of France. 
French-horn', s. a musical wind instrument. 
Frenchified, a. resembling the French in 

manners. 
Frenchify, v. to make French, to infect with 

the manners of France. 
French'like, a. resembling the French. 
Freneh'man, s. a native of France. 
Frenet'ic, a. mad, distracted, frantic. 
Fren'zied, a. affected with madness. 
Fren'zy, s. madness, distraction of mind. 
Fre'quency, Frequentness, *. the condition 

of occurring often ; usualness. 
Fre'quent, a. often done, seen, or occurring. 
Frequent', v. to visit often, to resort to. 
Frequent'able, a. accessible. 
Frequcnta'tion, s. the habit of frequenting. 
Frequent'ative, a. frequently repeating. 
Frequent'er, s. one who often visits a place. 
Frequently, ad. repeatedly, often. 
Fres'co, s. "coolness, shade; a method of 

painting on the walls. 
Fresh, a. cool ; not salt ; not stale ; recent, 

new ; florid, vigorous, brisk ; not vapid. 
Fresh'en, v. to make or grow fresh. 
Fresh'es, s. a flood, an overflowing. 
Fresh'et, s. a pool of fresh water. 
Fresh'ly, ad. coolly; newly ; ruddily. 
Fresh man, s. a novice ; a new comer. 
Flesh'ness, s. newness ; spirit; bloom. 
Freshwater, a. raw, unskilled, applied by 

sailors to a novice at sea. 
Fret, v. to rub, wear away ; vex ; corrode. 
Fret, .?. agitation or commotion of the mind ; 

agitation of liquors by fermentation. 
Fret, j. work raised in protuberances: v. to 

form into raised work ; to variegate. 



Fret'ter, s. one who frets. 

Fret'ful, a. angry, peevish, dissatisfied. 

Fret' fully, ad. peevishly; angrily. 

Fret'tulness, s. peevishness, passion. 

Fret'ting, s. agitation ; commotion. 

Fret'work, s. raised work in masonry. 

Friability, j. capacity of being easily re- 
duced to powder. 

Fri'able, a. easily reduced to powder. 

Fri'ar, s. a religious brother of some order. 

Fri'ar's-cowl, s. a species of plant. 

Friar's-lan'tern, s. the ignis fatuus. 

Fri'ary, s. a monastery or convent of friars. 

Frib'ble, s. a fop, a trifler, a coxcomb. 

Frib'ble, v. to trifle : a. frivolous. 

Frib'bler, s. a trifler, a fop. 

Fricasse'e, s. a dish of chickens, &c. cat 
small and dressed with strong sauce. 

Fricassee', v. to dress in fricassee. 

Frica'tion, s. the act of rubbing ; friction. 

Fric'tion, s. the act of rubbing two bodies 
together ; the resistance arising from the 
rubbing of one thing against another. 

Fri'day, s. the sixth day of the week. 

Friend, s. an intimate, a confidant, a favorer, 
one who is kind to another. 

Friend'less, a. destitute of friends, forlorn. 

Friend'like, a. friendly, like a friend. 

Friendliness, s. a disposition to friendship 
or benevolence ; kind behaviour. 

Friendly, a. kind, favorable, salutary: ad. 
in a friendly manner ; amicably. 

Friend'ship. s. highest degree of intimacy ; 
favor ; personal kindness ; assistance. 

Frieze, Frize, s. a warm coarse kind of cloth ; 
a term in ornamental architecture. 

Friez'ed, a. napped, shaggy with nap. 

Friez'elike, a. resembling frieze. 

Frig'ate, s. a ship of war. 

Frigatoon', s. a small Venetian ship. 

Fright, s. a sudden terror, a panic. 

Fright, Fright'en, v. to terrify, to daunt. 

Fright'ful, a. causing fright, dreadful. 

Fright'fully, ad. horribly, dreadfully. 

Fright'fulness, s. power of impressing terror. 

Fri"gid, a. cold, impotent, dull, unmoved. 

Frigidity, Fri"gidness, s. coldness, dulness. 

Fri"gidly, ad. coldly, dully, unfeelingly. 

Frill, v. to shiver : s. a kind of ruffle. 

Fringe, s. ornamental trimming : v. to trim. 

Frin'gy, a. adorned with fringes. 

Frip'pcr, Frip'perer, s. a dealer in old clothes. 

Frip'pery, s. old clothes, tattered rags ; paltry 
ridiculous finery ; dresses vamped up. 

Friseur', [Fr.] s. a hair-dresser. 

Frisk, v. to leap, to skip : s. a frolic. 

Frisk, Frisk'ful, a. brisk, lively. 

Frisk'er, s. a wanton ; one who is frisky. 

Frisk'et, s. a part of a printing-press. 

Frisk'iness, s. gaiety, liveliness. 

Frisk'y, a. gay, airy, frolicsome, wanton. 

Frit, s. the matter of which glass is made. 

Frith, s. a strait of the sea ; a kind of nat. 

Frit'illary, s. the plant crown imperial. 

Frit'ter, v. to crumble away in small parti- 
cles : s. a small pancake. 

Frit'ter, s. a fragment ; a shred. 

Frivolity, Frivldousness, *. unimportance. 

Friv'olous, a. slight, trifling, of no moment. 

Friv'olously, ad. vainly, insignificantly. 

Friz, Friz'zle, v. to curl in short curls. 



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Frizzing, 5. the forming of the nap on cloth. 
Friz'zler, s. one who frizzles, a friseur. 
Fro, ad. contraction of from ; to and fro. 
Frock, 5. a kind of coat: a gown for children. 
Frog, s. a small amphibious animal. 
Frog'fish, s. the loptinus or fishing-fly. 
Frol'ic, s. a wild prank, a whim : v. to play 

pranks, to be merry. 
Frol'icsome, a. gay, jocund, wild. 
Frol'icly, ad. with mirth and gaiety. 
Frol'icsomeness, s. gaiety ; wild pranks. 
From, prep, denoting privation, absence, 

distance, or departure ; away, out of. 
Frond, s. a green leafy branch. 
Front, s. the forehead, the face ; the fore part 

of any thing ; the van of an army. 
Front, v . to stand foremost ; to be opposite 

to ; to oppose face to face. 
Front'al. s. relatingto the forehead ; a frontlet. 
Front'ed, a. formed with a front. 
Frontier', s. the limit or utmost verge of a 

territory: a. bordering, conterminous. 
Frontiniac', s. a luscious French wine. 
Frontispiece, s. an engraving or ornament 

fronting the title-page of a book. 
Front'less, a. void of shame, impudent. 
Front'let, s. a bandage worn on the forehead. 
Frore, a. frozen, frosty. 
Frost, s. the power or act of congelation ; 

the effect of cold producing ice. 
Frost'bitten, a. nipped by the frost. 
Frost'ed, a. made in imitation of frost. 
Frost'ily, ad. coldly, without affection. 
Frost'incss, *. coldness, gelidness, freezing. 
Frost'l ess, a. free from frost. 
Frost'nail, s. a nail with a sharp head driven 

into horses' shoes in frosty weather. 
Frost'work, s. work in which the substance 

is laid on with inequalities, like hoar frost. 
Frost'y, a. excessively cold, hoary. 
Froth, 5. foam, spume ; empty show of words. 
Froth, v. to foam ; to throw out spume. 
Froth'ily, ad. in an empty trifling manner. 
Froth'in^ss, .?. the being frothy ; emptiness. 
Froth'y, a. full of foam ; empty, trifling. 
Frounce, s. a wrinkle ; a curl ; a plait. 
Frounce, v. to gather into plaits, to curl or 

frizzle. 
Frou'zy, a. fetid, strong, musty. 
Frow, s. a Dutch or German woman. 
Fro'wanl, a. perverse, peevish, ungovernable. 
Fro'wardly, ad. peevishly, perversely. 
Fro'waruiK-ss, s. peevishness, perversencss. 
Frown, v. to knit the brows ; to look stern. 
Frown'ingly, ad. sternly ; rebukingly. 
Fro'zon. p. and a. congealed ; very cold. 
Fructcs'cence , s. the fruiting season. 
Fructiferous, a. bearing fruit. 
Fructification, s. the act of fructifying. 
Fructify, v. to make fruitful, to fertilize. 
Fruetua'tion, s. product ; fruit. 
Fru'gal , a. thrifty, sparing, parsimonious. 
Frugality, s. thrift ; good husbandry. 
Fru'gal ly, ad. sparingly, parsimoniously. 
Frugif'erent, Frugiferous, a. bearing fruit. 
Frugiv'orous, a. feeding on fruits. 
Fruit, s. the produce of trees or plants ; pro- 
duction ; effect ; the offspring of the womb. 
Fruit'age, s. fruit collectively ; various fruits. 
Fruit'bearer, s. that which produces fruit. 
Fruit'bearing, a. producing fruit. 



Fruit'erer, s. one who trades in fruit. 

Fruit'ery, s. a fruit-loft ; fruit collectively. 

Fruit'fui, a. fertile, prolific, plenteous. 

Fruit' fully, ad. abundantly, plenteously. 

Fruit'fulness, s. fertility, productiveness. 

Fruit'grove, s. a plantation of fruit-trees. 

Fruit'-time, s. the time for gathering fruit. 

Frui"tion, s. enjoyment, possession. 

Fru'itive, a. enjoying, possessing. 

Fruitless, a. barren, unprofitable, idle. 

Fruitlessly, ad. vainly, idly, unprofitably. 

Fruit'lessness, s. unprofitableness. 

Fruit'-tree, s. a tree that produces fruit. 

Frumenta'ceous, a. made of grain. 

Frumcntar'ious, a. pertaining to corn. 

Fru mentation, s. a gift of corn to the people. 

Fru'menty, 5. food made of wheat boiled in 
milk, and sweetened. 

Frump, s. a joke, a jeer : v. to mock. 

Frush, v. to break, bruise, or crush. 

Frush, s. the tender part of the sole of a 
horse's foot. See Thrush. 

Frustra'neous, a. vain, unprofitable. 

Frustrate, a. vain, ineffectual, void. 

Frustrate, v. tu disappoint, to make null. 

Frustration, s. disappointment, defeat. 

Frustrative, a. fallacious, disappointing. 

Frustratory, a. that makes void or null. 

Frustrum, s. a part of a solid body separated 
from the rest, as a truncated cone. 

Frutes'ccnt, a. growing into a shrub. 

Fru'tex, s. [in botany] a shrub. 

Fruticant, a. full of shoots. 

Fruticous, a. of the nature of a shrub. 

Fry, s. a swarm of little fishes. 

Fry, v. to dress food in a frying-pan. 

Fry'ing-pan, s. a pan for frying food. 

Fub, v. to put off, to cheat. 

Fu'cated, a. painted ; disguised with paint. 

Fu'chsia, s. a genus of plants. 

Fu'cus, s. a paint for the face. 

Fud'dler, s. a tippler, a drunkard. 

Fud'dle, v. to tipple, to make drunk. 

Fudge ! int. an expression of contempt. 

Fu'el, s. the matter or aliment of fire. 

Fu'eler, s. he that supplies fuel. 

Fuga'cious, a. flying away, fleeting. 

Fuga'ciousness, Fuga"eity, s. volatility. 

Fugh ! int. expressing abhorrence. 

Fu'gitive, a. flying, volatile, unsteady. 

Fu'gitive, s. a runaway, a deserter. 

Fu'gitiveness, s. instability, volatility. 

Fu'gleman, s. the soldier who gives the mo- 
tions to a regiment when exercising. 

Fugue, s. flying music, when the parts follovr 
and seem to chase each other. 

Fulcrum, s. the prop or support of a lever. 

Fulfil', v. to accomplish, to perform. 

Fulfil'ler, s. one who fulfils or accomplishes. 

Fuliil'ment, s. full performance. 

Ful'gency, s. splendor, glitter. 

Ful'gent, Ful'gid, a. shining, glittering. 

Ful'gor, s. splendor, dazzling brightness. 

Ful'gurate, v. to flash as lightning. 

Fulguration, a. flashes of lightning. 

Ful'gurarit, a. flashing, lightening. 

Fuli"ginous, a. sooty, smoky. 

Fu'limart, s. See Foumart. 

Full, a. replete, stored, saturated, perfect. 

Full, s. complete measure ; the whole. 

Full, ad. without abatement ; exactly. 



FUL 



108 



FUR 



Full, v. to cleanse and thicken cloth in a 
fulling-mill. 

Full'-bloomed, a. having perfect bloom. 

Full'-blown, a. fully expanded. 

Full'-bottomed, a. having a large bottom. 

Full'-charged, a. charged to fulness. 

Full'dressed, a. dressed in full fashion. 

Full'-eared, a. having the ears full of grain. 

Fuller, s. one who fulls cloth. 

Ful'ler's-earth, s. soft unctuous marl, used by 
fullers for cleansing cloth. 

Ful'ler's-thistle, s. the herb teasel. 

Full'-eyed, a. having large prominent eyes. 

Full'-faced, a. having a broad face. 

Full'-fed, a. fed to fulness ; fat, plump. 

Full'-fraught, «. fully or completely stored. 

Full'-grown, a. grown to full size. 

Full'ing, s. the art of cleansing and thicken- 
ing cloth in a mill. 

Ful'ling-mill, s. a mill for fulling cloth. 

Full'-orbed, a. having the orb complete. 

Full'-winged, a. ready for flight ; eager. 

Fully, ad. completely, entirely. 

Ful'minant, a. thundering, very loud. 

Ful'minate, Ful'mine, v. to thunder, to make 
a loud noise ; to denounce. 

Fulmina tion, s. the act of thundering, &c. 

Ful'mmatory, a. thundering; striking terror. 

Fulmin'oous, a. belonging to thunder. 

Fuli'-mouthed, a. having a full voice. 

Ful'ness, s. completeness, satiety, plenty. 

Ful'somc, a. nauseous, rank, offensive. 

Ful'sornely, ad. rankly, nauseously. 

Ful'someness, s. nauseousness, foulness. 

Ful'vid, a. of a deep yellow color, tawny. 

Ful'vous, a. yellow ; tawny. 

Fuma'do, s. a smoked or dried fish. 

Fu'niatory, a. pertaining to smoking. 

Fum'ble, v. to feel or grope about, to attempt 
awkwardly. 

Fum'bler, 5. an awkward person. 

Fum'blingly, ad. in an awkward manner. 

Fume, s. smoke, vapor; passion, conceit. 

Fume, v. to smoke ; to be in a rage. 

Fu'met, s. the dung of deer. 

Fumet'te, s. the scent of meat too long kept. 

Fu'inid, a. smoky, vaporous. 

Fumid'ity, s. smokiness ; tendency to smoke. 

Fumif'erous, Fumif ic, a. producing smoke. 

Fu'migant, a. smoking, fuming. 

Fu'migate, v. to smoke, to perfume. 

Fumiga'tion, s. a scent raised by fire. 

Fu'mingly, ad. angrily, in a rage. 

Fu'mish, a. smoky ; hot ; choleric. 

Fu'mous, Fu'rny, a. producing fumes. 

Fun, s. sport, high merriment. 

Funam'bulate, v. to dance on a rope. 

Funambula'tion, s. rope-dancing. 

Funam'bulatory, a. like a rope-dancer. 

Funam'bulist, s. a rope-dancer. 

Func'tion, s. power ; faculty ; office, occupa- 
tion, employment. 

Functional, a. pertaining to some office. 

Func'tionally, ad. by means of the functions. 

Functionary, s. one who is charged with an 
office, trust, or employment. 

Fund, s. stock, capital ; abundance : v. to 
place out money at interest in the funds. 

Fun'damfint. s. the hinder part or scat. 

Fundamental, ... serving for the founda- 
tion i essentia! ; not merely accidental. \ 



Fundamental, s. the leading principle ; the 
essential part. 

Fundamentally, ad. essentially; originally. 

Fune'brial, Fu'nebrious, a. belonging to a 
funeral ; doleful. 

Fu'neral, s. the solemnization of a burial. 

Fu'neral, a. used on interring the dead. 

Funera'tion, s. the solemnization of a funeral. 

Fune'real, a. suiting a funeral ; dismal, dark. 

Fun'gic, a. pertaining to mushrooms. 

Fun'gite, j. a kind of fossil coral. 

Fungos'ity, s. soft excrescence. 

Fungous, a. spongy, excrescent. 

Fun'gus, s. a mushroom ; an excrescence. 

Fu'nicle, s. a small ligature ; a f